This document describes radon-222 integrated measurement techniques with passive sampling. It gives indications for determining the average activity concentration of the radon-222 in the air from measurements based on easy-to-use and low-cost passive sampling, and the conditions of use for the sensors. This document covers samples taken without interruption over periods varying from a few days to one year. This measurement method is applicable to air samples with radon activity concentrations greater than 5 Bq/m3.

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These international guidelines are based on the assumption that monitoring of environmental components (atmosphere, water, soil and biota) as well as food quality ensure the protection of human health[2][4][5][6][7][8]. The guidelines constitute a basis for the setting of national regulations and standards, inter alia, for monitoring air, water and food in support of public health, specifically to protect the public from ionizing radiation. This document provides — guidance to collect data needed for the assessment of human exposure to radionuclides naturally present or discharged by anthropogenic activities in the different environmental compartments (atmosphere, waters, soils, biological components) and food; — guidance on the environmental characterization needed for the prospective and/or retrospective dose assessment methods of public exposure; — guidance for staff in nuclear installations responsible for the preparation of radiological assessments in support of permit or authorization applications and national authorities' officers in charge of the assessment of doses to the public for the purposes of determining gaseous or liquid effluent radioactive discharge authorizations; — information for the public on the parameters used to conduct a dose assessment for any exposure situations to a representative person/population. It is important that the dose assessment process be transparent, and that assumptions are clearly understood by stakeholders who can participate in, for example, the selection of habits of the representative person to be considered. Generic mathematical models used for the assessment of radiological human exposure are presented to identify the parameters to monitor, in order to select, from the set of measurement results, the "best estimates" of these parameter values. More complex models are often used that require the knowledge of supplementary parameters. The reference and limit values are not included in this document.

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This document specifies a procedure, in the field of ionizing radiation metrology, for the calculation of the "decision threshold", the "detection limit" and the "limits of the coverage interval" for a non‑negative ionizing radiation measurand when counting measurements with preselection of time or counts are carried out. The measurand results from a gross count rate and a background count rate as well as from further quantities on the basis of a model of the evaluation. In particular, the measurand can be the net count rate as the difference of the gross count rate and the background count rate, or the net activity of a sample. It can also be influenced by calibration of the measuring system, by sample treatment and by other factors. ISO 11929 has been divided into four parts covering elementary applications in ISO 11929-1, advanced applications on the basis of the ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008/Suppl.1 in ISO 11929-2, applications to unfolding methods in ISO 11929-3, and guidance to the application in ISO 11929-4. ISO 11929-1 covers basic applications of counting measurements frequently used in the field of ionizing radiation metrology. It is restricted to applications for which the uncertainties can be evaluated on the basis of the ISO/IEC Guide 98-3 (JCGM 2008). In ISO 11929-1:2019, Annex A the special case of repeated counting measurements with random influences and in ISO 11929-1:2019, Annex B, measurements with linear analogous ratemeters are covered. ISO 11929-2 extends ISO 11929-1 to the evaluation of measurement uncertainties according to the ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008/Suppl.1. ISO 11929-2 also presents some explanatory notes regarding general aspects of counting measurements and Bayesian statistics in measurements. ISO 11929-3 deals with the evaluation of measurements using unfolding methods and counting spectrometric multi-channel measurements if evaluated by unfolding methods, in particular, alpha- and gamma-spectrometric measurements. Further, it provides some advice how to deal with correlations and covariances. ISO 11929-4 gives guidance to the application of ISO 11929 (all parts), summarizing shortly the general procedure and then presenting a wide range of numerical examples. The examples cover elementary applications according to ISO 11929-1 and ISO 11929-2. The ISO 11929 (all parts) also applies analogously to other measurements of any kind if a similar model of the evaluation is involved. Further practical examples can be found in other International Standards, for example, see References [1 to 20].

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This document specifies the characteristics of reference measurement standards of radioactive surface contamination, traceable to national measurement standards, for the calibration of surface contamination monitors. This document relates to alpha-emitters, beta-emitters, and photon emitters of maximum photon energy not greater than 1,5 MeV. It does not describe the procedures involved in the use of these reference measurement standards for the calibration of surface contamination monitors. Such procedures are specified in IEC 60325[6], IEC 62363[7], and other documents. NOTE Since some of the proposed photon standards include filters, the photon standards are to be regarded as reference measurement standards of photons of a particular energy range and not as reference measurement standards of a particular radionuclide. For example, a 241Am source with the recommended filtration does not emit from the surface the alpha particles or characteristic low-energy L X-ray photons associated with the decay of the nuclide. It is designed to be a reference measurement standard that emits photons with an average energy of approximately 60 keV. This document also specifies preferred reference radiations for the calibration of surface contamination monitors. These reference radiations are realized in the form of adequately characterized large area sources specified, without exception, in terms of surface emission rate and activity which are traceable to national standards.

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This document describes spot measurement methods for determining the activity concentration of short-lived radon-222 decay products in the air and for calculating the potential alpha energy concentration. This document gives indications for performing a spot measurement of the potential alpha energy concentration, after sampling at a given place for several minutes, and the conditions of use for the measuring devices. The measurement method described is applicable for a rapid assessment of the potential alpha energy concentration. The result obtained cannot be extrapolated to an annual estimate potential alpha energy concentration of short-lived radon-222 decay products. Thus, this type of measurement is not applicable for the assessment of annual exposure or for determining whether or not to mitigate citizen exposures to radon or radon decay products. This measurement method is applicable to air samples with potential alpha energy concentration greater than 5 nJ/m3. NOTE This document does not address the potential contribution of radon-220 decay products.

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This document describes continuous measurement methods for radon-222. It gives indications for continuous measuring of the temporal variations of radon activity concentration in open or confined atmospheres. This document is intended for assessing temporal changes in radon activity concentration in the environment, in public buildings, in homes and in work places, as a function of influence quantities such as ventilation and/or meteorological conditions. The measurement method described is applicable to air samples with radon activity concentration greater than 5 Bq/m3.

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This document describes radon-222 spot measurement methods. It gives indications for carrying out spot measurements, at the scale of a few minutes at a given place, of the radon activity concentration in open and confined atmospheres. This measurement method is intended for rapid assessment of the radon activity concentration in the air. The result cannot be extrapolated to an annual estimate of the radon activity concentration. This type of measurement is therefore not applicable for assessment of the annual exposure or for determining whether or not to mitigate citizen exposures to radon or radon decay products. The measurement method described is applicable to air samples with radon activity concentration greater than 50 Bq·m−3. NOTE For example, using an appropriate device, the radon activity concentration can be spot measured in the soil and at the interface of a material with the atmosphere (see also ISO 11665-7[8]).

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This document describes a method for measuring 238Pu and 239 + 240 isotopes in soil by alpha spectrometry samples using chemical separation techniques. The method can be used for any type of environmental study or monitoring. These techniques can also be used for measurements of very low levels of activity, one or two orders of magnitude less than the level of natural alpha-emitting radionuclides. The test methods described in this document can also be used to measure the radionuclides in sludge, sediment, construction material and products following proper sampling procedure[2][3][4][5][7][8]. The mass of the test portion required depends on the assumed activity of the sample and the desired detection limit. In practice, it can range from 0,1 g to 100 g of the test sample.

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This document provides a method that allows an estimation of gross radioactivity of alpha- and beta-emitters present in soil samples. It applies, essentially, to systematic inspections based on comparative measurements or to preliminary site studies to guide the testing staff both in the choice of soil samples for measurement as a priority and in the specific analysis methods for implementation. The gross α or β radioactivity is generally different from the sum of the effective radioactivities of the radionuclides present since, by convention, the same alpha counting efficiency is assigned for all the alpha emissions and the same beta counting efficiency is assigned for all the beta emissions. Soil includes rock from bedrock and ore as well as construction materials and products, potery, etc. using naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) or those from technological processes involving Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM), e.g. the mining and processing of mineral sands or phosphate fertilizer production and use. The test methods described in this document can also be used to assess gross radioactivity of alpha- and beta-emitters in sludge, sediment, construction material and products following proper sampling procedure[2][3][4][5][7][8]. For simplification, the term "soil" used in this document covers the set of elements mentioned above.

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This document describes the principles for the measurement of the activity of 90Sr in equilibrium with 90Y and 89Sr, pure beta emitting radionuclides, in soil samples. Different chemical separation methods are presented to produce strontium and yttrium sources, the activity of which is determined using proportional counters (PC) or liquid scintillation counters (LSC). 90Sr can be obtained from the test samples when the equilibrium between 90Sr and 90Y is reached or through direct 90Y measurement. The selection of the measuring method depends on the origin of the contamination, the characteristics of the soil to be analysed, the required accuracy of measurement and the resources of the available laboratories. These methods are used for soil monitoring following discharges, whether past or present, accidental or routine, liquid or gaseous. It also covers the monitoring of contamination caused by global nuclear fallout. In case of recent fallout immediately following a nuclear accident, the contribution of 89Sr to the total amount of strontium activity will not be negligible. This standard provides the measurement method to determine the activity of 90Sr in presence of 89Sr. The test methods described in this document can also be used to measure the radionuclides in sludge, sediment, construction material and products by following proper sampling procedure. Using samples sizes of 20 g and counting times of 1 000 min, detection limits of (0,1 to 0,5) Bq·kg-1 can be achievable for 90Sr using conventional and commercially available proportional counter or liquid scintillation counter when the presence of 89Sr can be neglected. If 89Sr is present in the test sample, detection limits of (1 to 2) Bq·kg-1 can be obtained for both 90Sr and 89Sr using the same sample size, counting time and proportional counter or liquid scintillation counter as in the previous situation.

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This document specifies requirements for the determination of the activity concentration of radon in all types of buildings. The buildings can be single family houses, public buildings, industrial buildings, underground buildings, etc. This document describes the measurement methods used to assess, during the initial investigation phase, the average annual activity concentration of radon in buildings. It also deals with investigations needed to identify the source, entry routes and transfer pathways of the radon in the building (additional investigations). Finally, this document outlines the applicable requirements for the immediate post‑mitigation testing of the implemented mitigation techniques, monitoring of their effectiveness and testing of the sustainability of the building's behaviour towards radon. This document does not address the technical building diagnostic or the prescription of mitigation work.

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This document specifies the general requirements to carry out radionuclides tests, including sampling of soil including rock from bedrock and ore as well as of construction materials and products, pottery, etc. using NORM or those from technological processes involving Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) e.g. the mining and processing of mineral sands or phosphate fertilizer production and use. For simplification, the term "soil" used in this document covers the set of elements mentioned above. This document is addressed to people responsible for determining the radioactivity present in soils for the purpose of radiation protection. This concerns soils from gardens and farmland, urban or industrial sites, as well as soil not affected by human activities. This document is applicable to all laboratories regardless of the number of personnel or the extent of the scope of testing activities. When a laboratory does not undertake one or more of the activities covered by this document, such as planning, sampling or testing, the requirements of those clauses do not apply. This document is to be used in conjunction with other parts of ISO 18589 that outline the setting up of programmes and sampling techniques, methods of general processing of samples in the laboratory and also methods for measuring the radioactivity in soil. Its purpose is the following: — define the main terms relating to soils, sampling, radioactivity and its measurement; — describe the origins of the radioactivity in soils; — define the main objectives of the study of radioactivity in soil samples; — present the principles of studies of soil radioactivity; — identify the analytical and procedural requirements when measuring radioactivity in soil. This document is applicable if radionuclide measurements for the purpose of radiation protection are to be made in the following cases: — initial characterization of radioactivity in the environment; — routine surveillance of the impact of nuclear installations or of the evolution of the general territory; — investigations of accident and incident situations; — planning and surveillance of remedial action; — decommissioning of installations or clearance of materials.

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This document outlines guidance for measuring radon-222 activity concentration and the potential alpha energy concentration of its short-lived decay products in the air. The measurement methods fall into three categories: a) spot measurement methods; b) continuous measurement methods; c) integrated measurement methods. This document provides several methods commonly used for measuring radon-222 and its short-lived decay products in air. This document also provides guidance on the determination of the inherent uncertainty linked to the measurement methods described in its different parts.

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This document describes integrated measurement methods for short-lived radon‑222 decay products[4]. It gives indications for measuring the average potential alpha energy concentration of short‑lived radon-222 decay products in the air and the conditions of use for the measuring devices. This document covers samples taken over periods varying from a few weeks to one year. This document is not applicable to systems with a maximum sampling duration of less than one week. The measurement method described is applicable to air samples with potential alpha energy concentration of short-lived radon-222 decay products greater than 10 nJ/m3 and lower than 1 000 nJ/m3. NOTE For informative purposes only, this document also addresses the case of radon-220 decay products, given the similarity in behaviour of the radon isotopes 222 and 220.

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This document describes the methods for determining the activity in becquerel (Bq) of gamma‑ray emitting radionuclides in test samples by gamma-ray spectrometry. The measurements are carried out in a testing laboratory following proper sample preparation. The test samples can be solid, liquid or gaseous. Applications include: — routine surveillance of radioactivity released from nuclear installations or from sites discharging enhanced levels of naturally occurring radioactive materials; — contributing to determining the evolution of radioactivity in the environment; — investigating accident and incident situations, in order to plan remedial actions and monitor their effectiveness; — assessment of potentially contaminated waste materials from nuclear decommissioning activities; — surveillance of radioactive contamination in media such as soils, foodstuffs, potable water, groundwaters, seawater or sewage sludge; — measurements for estimating the intake (inhalation, ingestion or injection) of activity of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides in the body. It is assumed that the user of this document has been given information on the composition of the test sample or the site. In some cases, the radionuclides for analysis have also been specified if characteristic limits are needed. It is also assumed that the test sample has been homogenised and is representative of the material under test. General guidance is included for preparing the samples for measurement. However, some types of sample are to be prepared following the requirements of specific standards referred to in this document. The generic recommendations can also be useful for the measurement of gamma-ray emitters in situ. This document includes generic advice on equipment selection (see Annex A), detectors (more detailed information is included in Annex D), and commissioning of instrumentation and method validation. Annex F summarises the influence of different measurement parameters on results for a typical gamma-ray spectrometry system. Quality control and routine maintenance are also covered, but electrical testing of the detector and pulse processing electronics is excluded. It is assumed that any data collection and analysis software used has been written and tested in accordance with relevant software standards such as ISO/IEC/IEEE 12207. Calibration using reference sources and/or numerical methods is covered, including verification of the results. It also covers the procedure to estimate the activity content of the sample (Bq) from the spectrum. The principles set out in this document are applicable to measurements by gamma-ray spectrometry in testing laboratories and in situ. However, the detailed requirements for in situ measurement are given in ISO 18589-7 and are outside the scope of this document. This document covers, but is not restricted to, gamma-ray emitters which emit photons in the energy range of 5 keV to 3 000 keV. However, most of the measurements fall into the range 40 keV to 2 000 keV. The activity (Bq) ranges from the low levels (sub-Bq) found in environmental samples to activities found in accident conditions and high level radioactive wastes.

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The ISO 11929 series specifies a procedure, in the field of ionizing radiation metrology, for the calculation of the "decision threshold", the "detection limit" and the "limits of the coverage interval" for a non-negative ionizing radiation measurand when counting measurements with preselection of time or counts are carried out. The measurand results from a gross count rate and a background count rate as well as from further quantities on the basis of a model of the evaluation. In particular, the measurand can be the net count rate as the difference of the gross count rate and the background count rate, or the net activity of a sample. It can also be influenced by calibration of the measuring system, by sample treatment and by other factors. ISO 11929 has been divided into four parts covering elementary applications in this document, advanced applications on the basis of the ISO/IEC Guide 3-1 in ISO 11929-2, applications to unfolding methods in ISO 11929-3, and guidance to the application in ISO 11929-4. This document covers basic applications of counting measurements frequently used in the field of ionizing radiation metrology. It is restricted to applications for which the uncertainties can be evaluated on the basis of the ISO/IEC Guide 98-3 (JCGM 2008). In Annex A, the special case of repeated counting measurements with random influences is covered, while measurements with linear analogous ratemeters are covered in Annex B. ISO 11929-2 extends the former ISO 11929:2010 to the evaluation of measurement uncertainties according to the ISO/IEC Guide 98-3-1. ISO 11929-2 also presents some explanatory notes regarding general aspects of counting measurements and on Bayesian statistics in measurements. ISO 11929-3 deals with the evaluation of measurements using unfolding methods and counting spectrometric multi-channel measurements if evaluated by unfolding methods, in particular, for alpha- and gamma‑spectrometric measurements. Further, it provides some advice on how to deal with correlations and covariances. ISO 11929-4 gives guidance to the application of the ISO 11929 series, summarizes shortly the general procedure and then presents a wide range of numerical examples. Information on the statistical roots of ISO 11929 and on its current development may be found elsewhere[33][34]. The ISO 11929 series also applies analogously to other measurements of any kind especially if a similar model of the evaluation is involved. Further practical examples can be found, for example, in ISO 18589[1], ISO 9696[2], ISO 9697[3], ISO 9698[4], ISO 10703[5], ISO 7503[6], ISO 28218[7], and ISO 11665[8]. NOTE A code system, named UncertRadio, is available for calculations according to ISO 11929-1 to ISO 11929-3. UncertRadio[31][32] can be downloaded for free from https://www.thuenen.de/de/fi/arbeitsbereiche/meeresumwelt/leitstelle-umweltradioaktivitaet-in-fisch/uncertradio/. The download contains a setup installation file which copies all files and folders into a folder specified by the user. After installation one has to add information to the PATH of Windows as indicated by a pop‑up window during installation. English language can be chosen and extensive "help" information is available.

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The ISO 11929 series specifies a procedure, in the field of ionizing radiation metrology, for the calculation of the "decision threshold", the "detection limit" and the "limits of the coverage interval" for a non-negative ionizing radiation measurand when counting measurements with preselection of time or counts are carried out. The measurand results from a gross count rate and a background count rate as well as from further quantities on the basis of a model of the evaluation. In particular, the measurand can be the net count rate as the difference of the gross count rate and the background count rate, or the net activity of a sample. It can also be influenced by calibration of the measuring system, by sample treatment and by other factors. ISO 11929 has been divided into four parts covering elementary applications in ISO 11929-1, advanced applications on the basis of the ISO/IEC Guide 98-3-1 in ISO 11929-2, applications to unfolding methods in this document, and guidance to the application in ISO 11929-4. ISO 11929-1 covers basic applications of counting measurements frequently used in the field of ionizing radiation metrology. It is restricted to applications for which the uncertainties can be evaluated on the basis of the ISO/IEC Guide 98-3 (JCGM 2008). In Annex A of ISO 11929-1:2019, the special case of repeated counting measurements with random influences is covered, while measurements with linear analogous ratemeters, are covered in Annex B of ISO 11929-1:2019. ISO 11929-2 extends the former ISO 11929:2010 to the evaluation of measurement uncertainties according to the ISO/IEC Guide 98-3-1. ISO 11929-2 also presents some explanatory notes regarding general aspects of counting measurements and on Bayesian statistics in measurements. This document deals with the evaluation of measurements using unfolding methods and counting spectrometric multi-channel measurements if evaluated by unfolding methods, in particular, for alpha- and gamma‑spectrometric measurements. Further, it provides some advice on how to deal with correlations and covariances. ISO 11929-4 gives guidance to the application of the ISO 11929 series, summarizes shortly the general procedure and then presents a wide range of numerical examples. ISO 11929 Standard also applies analogously to other measurements of any kind especially if a similar model of the evaluation is involved. Further practical examples can be found, for example, in ISO 18589[7], ISO 9696[2], ISO 9697[3], ISO 9698[4], ISO 10703[5], ISO 7503[1], ISO 28218[8], and ISO 11665[6]. NOTE A code system, named UncertRadio, is available for calculations according to ISO 11929- 1 to ISO 11929-3. UncertRadio[35][36] can be downloaded for free from https://www.thuenen.de/en/fi/fields-of-activity/marine-environment/coordination-centre-of-radioactivity/uncertradio/. The download contains a setup installation file which copies all files and folders into a folder specified by the user. After installation one has to add information to the PATH of Windows as indicated by a pop‑up window during installation. English language can be chosen and extensive "help" information is available.

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The ISO 11929 series specifies a procedure, in the field of ionizing radiation metrology, for the calculation of the "decision threshold", the "detection limit" and the "limits of the coverage interval" for a non-negative ionizing radiation measurand when counting measurements with preselection of time or counts are carried out. The measurand results from a gross count rate and a background count rate as well as from further quantities on the basis of a model of the evaluation. In particular, the measurand can be the net count rate as the difference of the gross count rate and the background count rate, or the net activity of a sample. It can also be influenced by calibration of the measuring system, by sample treatment and by other factors. ISO 11929 has been divided into four parts covering elementary applications in ISO 11929-1, advanced applications on the basis of the GUM Supplement 1 in this document, applications to unfolding methods in ISO 11929-3, and guidance to the application in ISO 11929-4. ISO 11929-1 covers basic applications of counting measurements frequently used in the field of ionizing radiation metrology. It is restricted to applications for which the uncertainties can be evaluated on the basis of the ISO/IEC Guide 98-3 (JCGM 2008). In Annex A of ISO 11929-1:2019 the special case of repeated counting measurements with random influences is covered, while measurements with linear analogous ratemeters are covered in Annex B of ISO 11929-1:2019. This document extends the former ISO 11929:2010 to the evaluation of measurement uncertainties according to the ISO/IEC Guide 98-3-1. It also presents some explanatory notes regarding general aspects of counting measurements and on Bayesian statistics in measurements. ISO 11929-3 deals with the evaluation of measurements using unfolding methods and counting spectrometric multi-channel measurements if evaluated by unfolding methods, in particular, for alpha- and gamma‑spectrometric measurements. Further, it provides some advice on how to deal with correlations and covariances. ISO 11929-4 gives guidance to the application of ISO 11929, summarizes shortly the general procedure and then presents a wide range of numerical examples. Information on the statistical roots of ISO 11929 and on its current development may be found elsewhere[30,31]. ISO 11929 also applies analogously to other measurements of any kind especially if a similar model of the evaluation is involved. Further practical examples can be found, for example, in ISO 18589[1], ISO 9696[2], ISO 9697[3], ISO 9698[4], ISO 10703[5], ISO 7503[6], ISO 28218[7], and ISO 11885[8]. NOTE A code system, named UncertRadio, is available for calculations according to ISO 119291 to ISO 11929-3. UncertRadio[27][28] can be downloaded for free from https://www.thuenen.de/en/fi/fields-of-activity/marine-environment/coordination-centre-of-radioactivity/uncertradio/. The download contains a setup installation file which copies all files and folders into a folder specified by the user. After installation one has to add information to the PATH of Windows as indicated by a pop‑up window during installation. English language can be chosen and extensive "help" information is available. . Another tool is the package ?metRology'[32] which is available for programming in R. It contains the two R functions ?uncert' and ?uncertMC' which perform the GUM conform uncertainty propagation, either analytically or by the Monte Carlo method, respectively. Covariances/correlations of input quantities are included. Applying these two functions within iterations for decision threshold and the detection limit calculations simplifies the programming effort significantly. It is also possible to implement this part of ISO 11929 in a spreadsheet containing a Monte Carlo add-in or into other commercial mathematics software.

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ISO 19581 specifies a screening test method to quantify rapidly the activity concentration of gamma-emitting radionuclides, such as 131I, 132Te, 134Cs and 137Cs, in solid or liquid test samples using gamma-ray spectrometry with lower resolution scintillation detectors as compared with the HPGe detectors (see IEC 61563). This test method can be used for the measurement of any potentially contaminated environmental matrices (including soil), food and feed samples as well as industrial materials or products that have been properly conditioned. Sample preparation techniques used in the screening method are not specified in ISO 19581, since special sample preparation techniques other than simple machining (cutting, grinding, etc.) should not be required. Although the sampling procedure is of utmost importance in the case of the measurement of radioactivity in samples, it is out of scope of ISO 19581; other international standards for sampling procedures that can be used in combination with ISO 19581 are available (see References [1],[2],[3],[4],[5],[6]). The test method applies to the measurement of gamma-emitting radionuclides such as 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs. Using sample sizes of 0,5 l to 1,0 l in a Marinelli beaker and a counting time of 5 min to 20 min, decision threshold of 10 Bq·kg−1 can be achievable using a commercially available scintillation spectrometer [e.g. thallium activated sodium iodine (NaI(Tl)) spectrometer 2" ϕ × 2" detector size, 7 % resolution (FWHM) at 662 keV, 30 mm lead shield thickness]. This test method also can be performed in a "makeshift" laboratory or even outside a testing laboratory on samples directly measured in the field where they were collected. During a nuclear or radiological emergency, this test method enables a rapid measurement of the sample activity concentration of potentially contaminated samples to check against operational intervention levels (OILs) set up by decision makers that would trigger a predetermined emergency response to reduce existing radiation risks[12]. Due to the uncertainty associated with the results obtained with this test method, test samples requiring more accurate test results can be measured using high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors gamma-ray spectrometry in a testing laboratory, following appropriate preparation of the test samples[7][8]. ISO 19581 does not contain criteria to establish the activity concentration of OILs.

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ISO 19361:2017 applies to liquid scintillation counters and requires the preparation of a scintillation source obtained by mixing the test sample and a scintillation cocktail. The test sample can be liquid (aqueous or organic), or solid (particles or filter or planchet). ISO 19361:2017describes the conditions for measuring the activity of beta emitter radionuclides by liquid scintillation counting[14][15]. The choice of the test method using liquid scintillation counting involves the consideration of the potential presence of other beta emitter radionuclides in the test sample. In this case, a specific sample treatment by separation or extraction is implemented to isolate the radionuclide of interest in order to avoid any interference with other beta-, alpha- and gamma-emitting radionuclides during the counting phase. ISO 19361:2017 is applicable to all types of liquid samples having an activity concentration ranging from a few Bq·l−1 to 106 Bq·l−1. For a liquid test sample, it is possible to dilute liquid test samples in order to obtain a solution having an activity compatible with the measuring instrument. For solid samples, the activity of the prepared scintillation source shall be compatible with the measuring instrument. The measurement range is related to the test method used: nature of test portion, preparation of the scintillator - test portion mixture, measuring assembly as well as to the presence of the co-existing activities due to interfering radionuclides. Test portion preparations (such as distillation for 3H measurement, or benzene synthesis for 14C measurement, etc.) are outside the scope of this document and are described in specific test methods using liquid scintillation[2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9].

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ISO 11665-11:2016 describes radon-222 test methods for soil gas using passive and active in-situ sampling at depth comprised between surface and 2 m. ISO 11665-11:2016 gives general requirements for the sampling techniques, either passive or active and grab or continuous, for in-situ radon-222 activity concentrations measurement in soil gas. The radon-222 activity concentration in the soil can be measured by spot or continuous measurement methods (see ISO 11665‑1). In case of spot measurement methods (ISO 11665‑6), the soil gas sampling is active only. On the other hand, the continuous methods (ISO 11665‑5) are typically associated with passive soil gas sampling. The measurement methods are applicable to all types of soil and are determined according to the end use of the measurement results (phenomenological observation, definition or verification of mitigation techniques, etc.) taking into account the expected level of the radon-222 activity concentration. These measurement methods are applicable to soil gas samples with radon activity concentrations greater than 100 Bq/m3. NOTE This part of ISO 11665 is complementary with ISO 11665‑7 for characterization of the radon soil potential.

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ISO 7503 and ISO 8769 are addressed to the people responsible for determining the radioactivity present on solid surfaces. ISO 7503-3:2016 applies to the evaluation of contamination on surfaces in terms of activity per unit area by direct and indirect methods of measurement and deals with the complex aspects of instrument calibration. ISO 7503-3:2016 is applicable to well-defined surfaces, such as those of equipment and facilities, containers of radioactive materials, sealed sources, and buildings or land. ISO 7503-3:2016 can be used for laboratory and equipment/installation control and for remediation and monitoring activities to comply with release criteria. This part of ISO 7503 also refers to the following: - calibration laboratories or institutions dealing with radionuclides with complex emission characteristics or radionuclides for which no reference calibration sources are available; - institutions confronted with the task to evaluate surface contaminations consisting of a radionuclide mixture; - institutions/authorities controlling nuclear material transports or material/equipment clearance according to national legislation guideline values or international convention limits. ISO 7503-3:2016 does not apply to contamination of the skin, clothing, or loose material, such as gravel. NOTE Direct evaluation of surface contamination from alpha-emitters, beta-emitters and photon emitters is dealt with in ISO 7503‑1. The test method using wipe-test samples for the evaluation of radioactive surface contaminations is dealt with in ISO 7503‑2.

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ISO 18589-3:2015 specifies the identification and the measurement of the activity in soils of a large number of gamma-emitting radionuclides using gamma spectrometry. This non-destructive method, applicable to large-volume samples (up to about 3 000 cm3), covers the determination in a single measurement of all the γ-emitters present for which the photon energy is between 5 keV and 3 MeV. ISO 18589-3:2015 can be applied by test laboratories performing routine radioactivity measurements as a majority of gamma-emitting radionuclides is characterized by gamma-ray emission between 40 keV and 2 MeV. The method can be implemented using a germanium or other type of detector with a resolution better than 5 keV. ISO 18589-3:2015 is addressed to people responsible for determining gamma-emitting radionuclides activity present in soils for the purpose of radiation protection.

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ISO 18589-2:2015 specifies the general requirements, based on ISO 11074 and ISO/IEC 17025, for all steps in the planning (desk study and area reconnaissance) of the sampling and the preparation of samples for testing. It includes the selection of the sampling strategy, the outline of the sampling plan, the presentation of general sampling methods and equipment, as well as the methodology of the pre-treatment of samples adapted to the measurements of the activity of radionuclides in soil. ISO 18589-2:2015 is addressed to the people responsible for determining the radioactivity present in soil for the purpose of radiation protection. It is applicable to soil from gardens, farmland, urban, or industrial sites, as well as soil not affected by human activities. ISO 18589-2:2015 is applicable to all laboratories regardless of the number of personnel or the range of the testing performed. When a laboratory does not undertake one or more of the activities covered by this part of ISO 18589, such as planning, sampling, or testing, the corresponding requirements do not apply.

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ISO 18589-7:2013 specifies the identification of radionuclides and the measurement of their activity in soil using in situ gamma spectrometry with portable systems equipped with germanium or scintillation detectors. ISO 18589-7:2013 is suitable to rapidly assess the activity of artificial and natural radionuclides deposited on or present in soil layers of large areas of a site under investigation. ISO 18589-7:2013 can be used in connection with radionuclide measurements of soil samples in the laboratory (ISO 18589‑3) in the following cases: · routine surveillance of the impact of radioactivity released from nuclear installations or of the evolution of radioactivity in the region; · investigations of accident and incident situations; · planning and surveillance of remedial action; · decommissioning of installations or the clearance of materials. It can also be used for the identification of airborne artificial radionuclides, when assessing the exposure levels inside buildings or during waste disposal operations. Following a nuclear accident, in situ gamma spectrometry is a powerful method for rapid evaluation of the gamma activity deposited onto the soil surface as well as the surficial contamination of flat objects.

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ISO 11665-7:2012 gives guidelines for estimating the radon-222 surface exhalation rate over a short period (a few hours), at a given place, at the interface of the medium (soil, rock, laid building material, walls, etc.) and the atmosphere. This estimation is based on measuring the radon activity concentration emanating from the surface under investigation and accumulated in a container of a known volume for a known duration. This method is estimative only, as it is difficult to quantify the influence of many parameters in environmental conditions. ISO 11665-7:2012 is particularly applicable, however, in case of an investigation, a search for sources or a comparative study of exhalation rates at the same site. ISO 11665-7:2012 does not cover calibration conditions for the rate estimation devices.

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This document describes radon-222 integrated measurement techniques with passive sampling. It gives indications for determining the average activity concentration of the radon-222 in the air from measurements based on easy-to-use and low-cost passive sampling, and the conditions of use for the sensors. This document covers samples taken without interruption over periods varying from a few days to one year. This measurement method is applicable to air samples with radon activity concentrations greater than 5 Bq/m3.

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ISO 8769:2016 specifies the characteristics of reference sources of radioactive surface contamination, traceable to national measurement standards, for the calibration of surface contamination monitors. This International Standard relates to alpha-emitters, beta-emitters, and photon emitters of maximum photon energy not greater than 1,5 MeV. It does not describe the procedures involved in the use of these reference sources for the calibration of surface contamination monitors. Such procedures are specified in IEC 60325[8], IEC 62363[9], and other documents. NOTE Since some of the proposed photon sources include filters, the photon sources are to be regarded as sources of photons of a particular energy range and not as sources of a particular radionuclide. For example, a 241Am source with the recommended filtration does not emit from the surface the alpha particles or characteristic low-energy L X-ray photons associated with the decay of the nuclide. It is designed to be a source that emits photons with an average energy of approximately 60 keV. ISO 8769:2016 also specifies preferred reference radiations for the calibration of surface contamination monitors. These reference radiations are realized in the form of adequately characterized large area sources specified, without exception, in terms of surface emission rates which are traceable to national standards.

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ISO 11665-8:2012 specifies requirements for the determination of the activity concentration of radon in all types of buildings. The buildings can be single family houses, public buildings, industrial buildings, underground buildings, etc. ISO 11665-8:2012 describes the measurement methods used to assess, during the initial investigation phase, the average annual activity concentration of radon in buildings. It also deals with investigations needed to identify the source, entry routes and transfer pathways of the radon in the building (additional investigations). Finally, ISO 11665-8:2012 outlines the applicable requirements for the immediate post-mitigation testing of the implemented mitigation techniques, monitoring of their effectiveness and testing of the sustainability of the building's behaviour towards radon. ISO 11665-8:2012 does not address the technical building diagnostic or the prescription of mitigation work.

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ISO 11665-2:2012 describes integrated measurement methods for short-lived radon-222 decay products. It gives indications for measuring the average potential alpha energy concentration of short-lived radon-222 decay products in the air and the conditions of use for the measuring devices. ISO 11665-2:2012 covers samples taken over periods varying from a few weeks to one year. ISO 11665-2:2012 is not applicable to systems with a maximum sampling duration of less than one week.

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ISO 11665-3:2012 describes spot measurement methods for determining the activity concentration of short-lived radon-222 decay products in the air and for calculating the potential alpha energy concentration. ISO 11665-3:2012 gives indications for performing a spot measurement of the potential alpha energy concentration, after sampling at a given place for several minutes, and the conditions of use for the measuring devices.

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ISO 11665-6:2012 describes radon-222 spot measurement methods. It gives indications for carrying out spot measurements, at the scale of a few minutes at a given place, of the radon activity concentration in open and confined atmospheres.

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ISO 11665-4:2012 describes radon-222 integrated measurement techniques with passive sampling. It gives indications for determining the average activity concentration of the radon-222 in the air from measurements based on easy-to-use and low-cost passive sampling, and the conditions of use for the sensors. ISO 11665-4:2012 covers samples taken without interruption over periods varying from a few days to one year.

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ISO 11665-5:2012 describes continuous measurement methods for radon-222. It gives indications for continuous measuring of the temporal variations of radon activity concentration in open or confined atmospheres. ISO 11665-5:2012 is intended for assessing temporal changes in radon activity concentration in the environment, in public buildings, in homes and in work places, as a function of influence quantities such as ventilation and/or meteorological conditions.

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ISO 11665-1:2012 outlines guidance for measuring radon-222 activity concentration and the potential alpha energy concentration of its short-lived decay products in the air. The measurement methods fall into three categories: spot measurement methods; continuous measurement methods; integrated measurement methods. ISO 11665-1:2012 provides several methods commonly used for measuring radon-222 and its short-lived decay products in air. ISO 11665-1:2012 also provides guidance on the determination of the inherent uncertainty linked to the measurement methods described in its different parts.

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ISO 11929:2010 specifies a procedure, in the field of ionizing radiation metrology, for the calculation of the "decision threshold", the "detection limit" and the "limits of the confidence interval" for a non-negative ionizing radiation measurand, when counting measurements with preselection of time or counts are carried out, and the measurand results from a gross count rate and a background count rate as well as from further quantities on the basis of a model of the evaluation. In particular, the measurand can be the net count rate as the difference of the gross count rate and the background count rate, or the net activity of a sample. It can also be influenced by calibration of the measuring system, by sample treatment and by other factors.

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ISO 18589-6:2009 provides a method that allows an estimation of gross radioactivity of alpha- and beta-emitters present in soil samples. ISO 18589-6:2009 applies, essentially, to systematic inspections based on comparative measurements or to preliminary site studies to guide the testing staff both in the choice of soil samples for measurement as a priority and in the specific analysis methods for implementation. The gross a or β radioactivity is generally different from the sum of the effective radioactivities of the radionuclides present since, by convention, the same alpha counting efficiency is assigned for all the alpha emissions and the same beta counting efficiency is assigned for all the beta emissions

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ISO 18589-4:2009 describes a method for measuring plutonium 238 and 239 + 240 isotopes in soil by alpha spectrometry samples using chemical separation techniques. The method can be used for any type of environmental study or monitoring. These techniques can also be used for measurements of very low levels of activity, one or two orders of magnitude less than the level of natural alpha-emitting radionuclides. The mass of the test portion required depends on the assumed activity of the sample and the desired detection limit. In practice, it can range from 0,1 g to 100 g of the test sample.

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ISO 18589-5:2009 describes the principles for the measurement of the activity of 90Sr in equilibrium with 90Y and 89Sr, pure beta-emitting radionuclides, in soil samples. Different chemical separation methods are presented to produce strontium and yttrium sources, the activity of which is determined using proportional counter (PC) or liquid scintillation counter (LSC). The selection of the measuring method depends on the origin of the contamination, the characteristics of the soil being analysed, the required accuracy of measurement and the resources of the available laboratories. These methods are used for soil monitoring following past or present, accidental or routine, liquid or gaseous discharges. It also covers the monitoring of contamination caused by global fallout. In the case of recent fallout immediately following a nuclear accident, the contribution of 89Sr to the total amount of strontium activity is not negligible. ISO 18589-5:2009 provides the measurement method to determine the activity of 90Sr in the presence of 89Sr.

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ISO 18589-2:2007 specifies the general requirements, based on ISO 11074 and ISO/IEC 17025, for all steps in the planning (desk study and area reconnaissance) of the sampling and the preparation of samples for testing. It includes the selection of the sampling strategy, the outline of the sampling plan, the presentation of general sampling methods and equipment, as well as the methodology of the pre-treatment of samples adapted to the measurements of the activity of radionuclides in soil. ISO 18589-2:2007 is addressed to the people responsible for determining the radioactivity present in soil for the purpose of radiation protection. It is applicable to soil from gardens, farmland, urban or industrial sites, as well as soil not affected by human activities. ISO 18589-2:2007 is applicable to all laboratories regardless of the number of personnel or the range of the testing performed. When a laboratory does not undertake one or more of the activities covered by ISO 18589-2:2007, such as planning, sampling or testing, the corresponding requirements do not apply.

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ISO 18589-3:2007 specifies the identification and the measurement of the activity in soils of a large number of gamma-emitting radionuclides using gamma spectrometry. This non-destructive method, applicable to large-volume samples (up to about 3 000 cm3), covers the determination in a single measurement of all the g-emitters present for which the photon energy is between 5 keV and 3 MeV. ISO 18589-3:2007 can be applied by test laboratories performing routine radioactivity measurements as a majority of radionuclides is characterized by gamma-ray emission between 40 keV and 2 MeV. ISO 18589-3:2007 is suitable for the surveillance of the environment and the inspection of a site and allows, in case of accidents, a quick evaluation of gamma activity.

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ISO 18589-1:2005 specifies the general requirements to carry out radionuclides tests on soil sample, including sampling. ISO 18589-1:2005 is addressed to people responsible for determining the radioactivity present in soils for the purpose of radiation protection. This may concern soils from gardens and farmland, urban or industrial sites, as well as soil not affected by human activities. ISO 18589-1:2005 is applicable to all laboratories regardless of the number of personnel or the extent of the scope of testing activities. When a laboratory does not undertake one or more of the activities covered by this part of ISO 18589, such as planning, sampling or testing, the requirements of those clauses do not apply. ISO 18589-1:2005 is to be used in conjunction with other parts of ISO 18589 that outline the setting up of programmes and sampling techniques, methods of general processing of samples in the laboratory and also methods for measuring the radioactivity in soil. ISO 18589-1:2005 is applicable if radionuclide measurements for the purpose of radiation protection are to be made in following cases: initial characterization of radioactivity in the environment; routine surveillance of the impact of nuclear installations or of the evolution of the general territory; investigations of accident and incident situations; planning and surveillance of remedial action; decommissioning of installations or clearance of materials.

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ISO 11929-8:2005 specifies a method for determination of suitable statistical values which allow an assessment of the detection capabilities in spectrometric nuclear radiation measurements, and of the physical effect quantified by a measurand (for example, a net area of a spectrometric line in an alpha- or gamma-spectrum) which is determined by evaluation of a multi-channel spectrum by unfolding methods, without the influence of sample treatment. For this purpose, Bayesian statistical methods are used to specify characteristic limits.

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ISO 11929-7:2005 specifies suitable statistical values which allow an assessment of the detection capabilities in ionizing radiation measurements and of the physical effect quantified by the measurand. For this purpose, Bayesian statistical methods are used to specify characteristic limits. ISO 11929-7:2005 deals with fundamentals and general applications.

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ISO 11929-5:2004 specifies suitable statistical values which allow an assessment of the detection capabilities in ionizing radiation measurements and of the physical effect quantified by the measurand. For this purpose, Bayesian statistical methods are used to specify characteristic limits. ISO 11929-5:2004 deals with fundamentals and applications to counting measurements on filters during accumulation of radioactive material.

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ISO 11929-6:2005 specifies suitable statistical values which allow an assessment of the detection capabilities in ionizing radiation measurements by use of a transient mode. For this purpose, statistical methods are used to specify two statistical values characterizing given probabilities of error. ISO 11929-6:2005 deals with fundamentals and applications to measurements by use of transient mode.

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