Faecal sludge treatment units -- Energy independent, prefabricated, community-scale resource-recovery units -- Safety and performance

IWA 28:2018 specifies requirements and test methods to ensure safety, performance and sustainability of community-scale resource-oriented faecal sludge treatment units that serve approximately 1 000 to 100 000 people. IWA 28:2018 applies to treatment units that: · primarily treat faecal sludge; · are able to operate in non-sewered and off-grid environments; · are prefabricated. IWA 28:2018 does not apply to sanitation treatment units requiring sewer infrastructure, or to those requiring electric grid access during steady state operation. Treatment units to which IWA 28:2018 applies exhibit resource recovery capability (e.g. recovering energy, reusable water, soil amendment) and are capable of being energy neutral or energy net positive.

Unités de traitement de matières de vidange -- Unités de récupération préfabriquées et autonomes en énergie pour des ressources à l'échelle locale -- Sécurité et performances

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
12-Apr-2018
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
31-Jan-2018
Completion Date
13-Apr-2018
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IWA 28:2018 - Faecal sludge treatment units -- Energy independent, prefabricated, community-scale resource-recovery units -- Safety and performance
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INTERNATIONAL IWA
WORKSHOP 28
AGREEMENT
First edition
2018-04
Faecal sludge treatment units —
Energy independent, prefabricated,
community-scale resource-recovery
units — Safety and performance
Unités de traitement de matières de vidange — Unités de
récupération préfabriquées et autonomes en énergie pour des
ressources à l'échelle locale — Sécurité et performances
Reference number
IWA 28:2018(E)
ISO 2018
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IWA 28:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
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CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
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Email: copyright@iso.org
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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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IWA 28:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vii

Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................viii

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ................................................................................................................................ 2

4 General requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.1 Industrial design and manufacture ....................................................................................................................................... 8

4.2 Hazard and operability study and risk assessment ................................................................................................ 8

4.3 Ambient operation conditions ................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.4 Expected technical lifetime .......................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.5 Treatment unit input ......................................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.5.1 Input types ............................................................................................................................................................................ 9

4.5.2 Specification of input parameters and ranges ........................................................................................ 9

4.5.3 Input specification templates ............................................................................................................................... 9

4.5.4 Additional input specifications for thermal and biological processes .............................. 9

4.6 Requirements for handling of faecal sludge as a fuel .........................................................................................10

4.6.1 Delivery and reception of faecal sludge ....................................................................................................10

4.6.2 Storage of faecal sludge ...........................................................................................................................................10

4.6.3 Feeding system ...............................................................................................................................................................10

4.6.4 Additional requirements for thermal treatment units .................................................................10

5 Energy balance and resource recovery ......................................................................................................................................10

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

5.2 Energy balance .....................................................................................................................................................................................10

5.2.1 Energy independence ...............................................................................................................................................10

5.2.2 Energy positive ...............................................................................................................................................................11

5.3 Resource recovery .............................................................................................................................................................................11

6 Performance requirements ....................................................................................................................................................................11

6.1 Technical process availability ..................................................................................................................................................11

6.1.1 Mean time between failure (MTBF) .............................................................................................................11

6.1.2 Mean time to repair (MTTR) ..............................................................................................................................12

6.1.3 Preventive maintenance time (T ) ............................................................................................................12

6.2 Process reliability ..............................................................................................................................................................................12

6.2.1 Process stability .............................................................................................................................................................12

6.2.2 Start reliability and start time ...........................................................................................................................12

6.2.3 Shut-off reliability and shut-off time ...........................................................................................................12

7 Safety and functional requirements ..............................................................................................................................................12

7.1 Applicability ...........................................................................................................................................................................................12

7.2 Process control.....................................................................................................................................................................................13

7.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................13

7.2.2 Degree of automation ...............................................................................................................................................13

7.2.3 Intentional starting of operation ....................................................................................................................13

7.2.4 Intentional stopping of operation ..................................................................................................................13

7.2.5 Emergency stop .............................................................................................................................................................13

7.2.6 Continuous monitoring ...........................................................................................................................................13

7.2.7 Feedback of process failures ...............................................................................................................................13

7.2.8 Safety-related functions of the control system ...................................................................................14

7.2.9 Input overload protection monitoring .......................................................................................................14

7.2.10 Overpressure protection ........................................................................................................................................14

7.2.11 Fire and overheating prevention ....................................................................................................................14

7.2.12 Explosion prevention ................................................................................................................................................15

7.3 Process redundancy ........................................................................................................................................................................15

7.4 Material fire resistance .................................................................................................................................................................15

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved iii
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IWA 28:2018(E)

7.5 Security and safety of electrical energy supply .......................................................................................................15

7.5.1 Security of electrical energy supply .............................................................................................................15

7.5.2 Safety requirements for electrical energy supply ............................................................................16

7.6 Structures and supporting elements ................................................................................................................................16

7.6.1 Structural integrity .....................................................................................................................................................16

7.6.2 Integrity against external impacts .................................................................................................................17

7.7 Sanitary requirements ...................................................................................................................................................................17

7.7.1 Hygienic design ..............................................................................................................................................................17

7.7.2 Materials ..............................................................................................................................................................................17

7.7.3 System tightness ...........................................................................................................................................................17

7.7.4 Leakage protection......................................................................................................................................................17

7.8 Mechanical requirements ...........................................................................................................................................................17

7.8.1 Pressurized equipment ...........................................................................................................................................17

7.8.2 Pipes, hoses and fittings .........................................................................................................................................18

7.8.3 Tanks and vessels .........................................................................................................................................................18

7.8.4 Moving and rotating parts ....................................................................................................................................18

7.8.5 Vibration ..............................................................................................................................................................................19

7.9 Radiation ...................................................................................................................................................................................................19

7.9.1 High temperatures of parts and surfaces ................................................................................................19

7.9.2 Low temperatures of parts and surfaces .................................................................................................19

7.9.3 Electromagnetic compatibility..........................................................................................................................19

7.9.4 Other sources of radiation ....................................................................................................................................19

7.10 Electric and electrical components ....................................................................................................................................19

8 Operability ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................20

8.1 Safe loading .............................................................................................................................................................................................20

8.2 Anthropometric design .................................................................................................................................................................20

8.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................20

8.2.2 Forces to be applied ...................................................................................................................................................20

8.2.3 Accesses and stairs .....................................................................................................................................................20

8.2.4 Aisles and platforms ..................................................................................................................................................20

8.2.5 Enclosed spaces .............................................................................................................................................................20

8.3 Lighting .......................................................................................................................................................................................................20

8.4 System ergonomic design ...........................................................................................................................................................20

9 Maintainability ....................................................................................................................................................................................................21

9.1 Adjustability and maintainability ........................................................................................................................................21

9.1.1 Identification of adjustment and maintenance needs ..................................................................21

9.1.2 Ease of maintenance of devices, components and subassemblies ....................................21

9.2 Access to adjustment and maintenance points ........................................................................................................21

9.3 Requirements for adjustment and maintenance activities ............................................................................21

9.3.1 Discharge and cleaning, testability, adjustment and maintenance on the

running system ...............................................................................................................................................................21

9.3.2 Safe handling of electrical equipment ........................................................................................................21

9.4 Spare parts ...............................................................................................................................................................................................21

9.5 Tools and devices ...............................................................................................................................................................................22

10 Outputs ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................22

10.1 Solid ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................22

10.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................22

10.1.2 Pathogens ............................................................................................................................................................................22

10.1.3 Heavy metals ....................................................................................................................................................................22

10.1.4 Additional requirements of solids for disposal ..................................................................................23

10.2 Effluent .......................................................................................................................................................................................................23

10.2.1 Pathogens ............................................................................................................................................................................23

10.2.2 Environmental parameters ..................................................................................................................................23

10.2.3 Requirements for effluent ...................................................................................................................................24

10.3 Air emissions from thermal treatment units .............................................................................................................24

10.4 Odour ............................................................................................................................................................................................................25

10.5 Noise .............................................................................................................................................................................................................25

iv © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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IWA 28:2018(E)

11 Testing ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................25

11.1 Certification bodies ..........................................................................................................................................................................25

11.2 Input characterization ...................................................................................................................................................................26

11.3 Solid and effluent ...............................................................................................................................................................................26

11.3.1 Pathogens in solid outputs and effluent ...................................................................................................26

11.3.2 Heavy metals in solid outputs ...........................................................................................................................26

11.3.3 Environmental parameters for effluent ....................................................................................................27

11.4 Air emissions .........................................................................................................................................................................................27

11.4.1 Loss on ignition and total organic carbon ...............................................................................................27

11.4.2 Temperature and residence time ....................................................................................................................28

11.4.3 Air pollution emissions ...........................................................................................................................................28

11.5 Odour ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................31

11.5.1 Test methods for odour output ........................................................................................................................31

11.5.2 Measurement planning ...........................................................................................................................................32

11.5.3 Measurement principles ........................................................................................................................................32

11.5.4 Sampling location requirements .....................................................................................................................32

11.5.5 Measurement process ..............................................................................................................................................32

11.5.6 Sampling train .................................................................................................................................................................32

11.5.7 Materials selection ......................................................................................................................................................32

11.5.8 Additional equipment considerations ........................................................................................................33

11.5.9 Sample collection on a solid or liquid surface .....................................................................................33

11.5.10 Selection of panellists ...............................................................................................................................................33

11.6 Noise .............................................................................................................................................................................................................33

11.6.1 Test methods for noise output ..........................................................................................................................33

11.6.2 Measurement planning ...........................................................................................................................................34

11.6.3 Measurement objective/scope .........................................................................................................................34

11.6.4 Requirements for the sampling location ..................................................................................................34

11.6.5 Measurement equipment ......................................................................................................................................34

11.6.6 Calibration ..........................................................................................................................................................................35

11.6.7 Operation of treatment unit during test ...................................................................................................35

11.6.8 Sound level meter setting ......................................................................................................................................35

11.6.9 Microphone orientation ..........................................................................................................................................35

11.6.10 Correction for background noise and reflecting surfaces in test environment ......35

11.6.11 N , Number of uncertain measurements due to background noise ..............................35

11.6.12 Representative A-weighted sound pressure level ............................................................................35

12 Product literature .............................................................................................................................................................................................36

12.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................36

12.2 Input ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................36

12.3 Performance claims .........................................................................................................................................................................37

12.4 Unit boundaries ...................................................................................................................................................................................37

12.5 Energy independence assessment ......................................................................................................................................37

12.6 Environmental sustainability ..................................................................................................................................................38

12.6.1 Consumable consumption ....................................................................................................................................39

12.6.2 Greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) ..................................................................................................................39

12.6.3 Characteristics of resource recovered products ................................................................................39

12.7 Maintenance and operator documentation .................................................................................................................39

12.7.1 Language requirements ..........................................................................................................................................39

12.7.2 Provision of manual ...................................................................................................................................................39

12.7.3 Number of documents..............................................................................................................................................39

12.7.4 Recurring operation and maintenance ......................................................................................................41

12.7.5 Complexity of configuration, adjustment and maintenance activities ...........................41

Annex A (informative) Input specification templates ......................................................................................................................42

Annex B (informative) Additional input specifications .................................................................................................................44

Annex C (informative) Sustainability ...................................
...

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