Railway applications - Wheelsets and bogies - Axles - Product requirements

This European Standard specifies the characteristics of axles for use on European networks.
It defines characteristics of forged or rolled solid and hollow axles, made from vacuum-degassed steel grade
EA1N1 that is the most commonly used grade on European networks. For hollow axles, this standard applies
only to those that are manufactured by machining of a hole in a forged or rolled solid axle
In addition, the particular characteristics for axles in grade EA1T1 and EA4T1 are given in Annex A.
Two categories of axle are defined, category 1 and category 2. Generally, category 1 is chosen when the
operational speed is higher than 200 km/h.
This standard is applicable to axles that are designed in accordance with the requirements of EN 13103 and
EN 13104.
NOTE Different values for some characteristics may be agreed if a particular process of fabrication (e.g. cold rolling,
shot peening, shot peening, steel cleanliness, reduction ratio, improved material properties from melting and heat
treatment processes, etc.) has an influence on them.

Bahnanwendungen - Radsätze und Drehgestelle - Radsatzwellen - Produktanforderungen

Das vorliegende Dokument legt die Eigenschaften von Radsatzwellen für alle Spurweiten fest.
Das vorliegende Dokument kann auch auf Stadtbahnanwendungen und Straßenbahnen angewendet werden.
Sie legt die Eigenschaften von geschmiedeten oder gewalzten Radsatzwellen aus vakuumentgastem Stahl der Güten EA1N, EA1T und EA4T fest. Für hohlgebohrte Radsatzwellen gilt diese Norm nur, wenn diese durch mechanische Bearbeitung der Bohrung in einer geschmiedeten oder gewalzten ganzen Radsatzwelle hergestellt werden.
Es werden zwei Kategorien von Radsatzwellen definiert, Kategorie 1 und Kategorie 2. Die Kategorie 1 wird generell dann verwendet, wenn die Fahrgeschwindigkeit über 200 km/h liegt.
Dieses Dokument gilt für Radsatzwellen, deren Konstruktion den in EN 13103 und EN 13104 festgelegten Anforderungen entspricht.
Dieses Dokument erlaubt auch Abweichungen bei den Eigenschaften des Werkstoffs in Bezug auf alternative Fertigungsverfahren (z. B. Festwalzen, Kugelstrahlen unter Vorspannung, thermisches Spritzen, Stahlreinheit, Schmiedeverformungsgrad, Verbesserung der Werkstoffeigenschaften durch das Schmelzverfahren und den Wärmebehandlungsprozess usw.).

Applications ferroviaires - Essieux montés et bogies - Essieux-axes - Prescription pour le produit

Le présent document spécifie les caractéristiques des essieux-axes pour tous les écartements de voie.
Le présent document peut aussi s’appliquer aux applications de rail léger et aux tramways.
Il définit les caractéristiques des essieux-axes fabriqués par forgeage ou par laminage, en acier dégazé sous vide, de nuance EA1N, EA1T1 et EA4T1. Pour les essieux-axes creux le présent document s'applique seulement à ceux qui sont obtenus par usinage du trou dans un essieu-axe plein forgé ou laminé.
Deux catégories d'essieux axes sont distinguées, la catégorie 1 et la catégorie 2. Généralement, la catégorie 1 est utilisée pour des vitesses de circulation supérieures à 200 km/h.
Le présent document s'applique aux essieux-axes dont la conception est conforme aux règles définies dans l’EN 13103 et l’EN 13104.
Le présent document permet également des variations des caractéristiques du matériau en relation avec des procédés de fabrication alternatifs (par exemple, forgeage à froid, grenaillage de précontrainte, projection thermique, propreté de l’acier, rapport de réduction, amélioration des propriétés du matériel par des procédés de fusion ou de traitement thermique, etc.).

Železniške naprave - Kolesne dvojice in podstavni vozički - Osi - Zahtevane lastnosti proizvoda

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
31-Aug-2018
Publication Date
20-Sep-2020
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
09-Sep-2020
Due Date
14-Nov-2020
Completion Date
21-Sep-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 13261:2020
01-november-2020
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 13261:2009+A1:2010
Železniške naprave - Kolesne dvojice in podstavni vozički - Osi - Zahtevane
lastnosti proizvoda
Railway applications - Wheelsets and bogies - Axles - Product requirements
Bahnanwendungen - Radsätze und Drehgestelle - Radsatzwellen -
Produktanforderungen

Applications ferroviaires - Essieux montés et bogies - Essieux-axes - Prescription pour le

produit
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 13261:2020
ICS:
45.040 Materiali in deli za železniško Materials and components
tehniko for railway engineering
SIST EN 13261:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 13261:2020
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SIST EN 13261:2020
EN 13261
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
September 2020
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 45.040 Supersedes EN 13261:2009+A1:2010
English Version
Railway applications - Wheelsets and bogies - Axles -
Product requirements

Applications ferroviaires - Essieux montés et bogies - Bahnanwendungen - Radsätze und Drehgestelle -

Essieux-axes - Prescription pour le produit Radsatzwellen - Produktanforderungen
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 5 July 2020.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 13261:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN 13261:2020
EN 13261:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ................................................................................................................................................................ 6

Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................................. 7

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................................................................. 8

2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................................. 8

3 Terms and definitions ............................................................................................................................................ 9

4 Product definition ................................................................................................................................................. 11

4.1 Chemical composition ......................................................................................................................................... 11

4.1.1 Values to be obtained .......................................................................................................................................... 11

4.1.2 Sampling methods ................................................................................................................................................ 11

4.1.3 Analysis method .................................................................................................................................................... 11

4.2 Mechanical characteristics ................................................................................................................................ 11

4.2.1 Characteristics from the tensile testing ........................................................................................................ 11

4.2.2 Impact resistance characteristics ................................................................................................................... 14

4.2.3 Fatigue characteristics ........................................................................................................................................ 16

4.3 Microstructural characteristics ....................................................................................................................... 18

4.3.1 Values to be obtained .......................................................................................................................................... 18

4.3.2 Position of the test piece ..................................................................................................................................... 18

4.3.3 Test method ............................................................................................................................................................ 18

4.4 Material cleanliness ............................................................................................................................................. 18

4.4.1 Micrographic cleanliness ................................................................................................................................... 18

4.4.2 Internal integrity ................................................................................................................................................... 20

4.5 Ultrasonic permeability ...................................................................................................................................... 20

4.5.1 General ...................................................................................................................................................................... 20

4.5.2 Level to be obtained ............................................................................................................................................. 20

4.5.3 Test piece ................................................................................................................................................................. 20

4.5.4 Test method ............................................................................................................................................................ 21

4.6 Residual stresses ................................................................................................................................................... 21

4.6.1 General ...................................................................................................................................................................... 21

4.6.2 Values to be obtained .......................................................................................................................................... 21

4.6.3 Test piece and measurement point location ............................................................................................... 21

4.6.4 Measurement method ......................................................................................................................................... 22

4.7 Surface characteristics ........................................................................................................................................ 22

4.7.1 Surface finish .......................................................................................................................................................... 22

4.7.2 Surface integrity .................................................................................................................................................... 25

4.8 Geometrical and dimensional tolerances ..................................................................................................... 26

4.9 Protection against corrosion and mechanical damage ........................................................................... 31

4.9.1 Final protection ..................................................................................................................................................... 31

4.9.2 Temporary protection ......................................................................................................................................... 36

4.10 Marking ..................................................................................................................................................................... 37

5 Alternative manufacturing process ................................................................................................................ 37

6 Product qualification ........................................................................................................................................... 37

7 Conditions of supply of the product ............................................................................................................... 37

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SIST EN 13261:2020
EN 13261:2020 (E)

Annexe A (informative) Sampling of the material from an axle journal overlength .................................. 38

A.1 Values to be reached ............................................................................................................................................. 38

A.2 Sampling method ................................................................................................................................................... 38

A.2.1 Overlength with a diameter identical to the journal diameter ............................................................. 38

A.2.2 Overlength with a diameter greater than the journal diameter .......................................................... 38

Annexe B (informative) Test piece drawings ........................................................................................................... 39

Annexe C (normative) Gauge block for measuring ultrasound permeability ............................................... 43

C.1 Gauge block .............................................................................................................................................................. 43

C.2 Gauge block tolerances ........................................................................................................................................ 45

C.3 Steel grade of the gauge block ........................................................................................................................... 45

Annexe D (informative) Position of measurement zones for ultrasound permeability ........................... 46

Annexe E (informative) Residual stress measurement with strain gauges and saw cutting .................. 47

Annexe F (informative) Post-machining shot peening method ......................................................................... 48

F.1 Shot peening principle ......................................................................................................................................... 48

F.2 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................................... 48

F.2.1 Shot peening product ........................................................................................................................................... 48

F.2.2 Hardness ................................................................................................................................................................... 48

F.2.3 Roughness ................................................................................................................................................................ 48

F.2.4 Coverage rate .......................................................................................................................................................... 48

F.2.5 Fatigue limit ............................................................................................................................................................. 48

F.3 Parameters ............................................................................................................................................................... 49

F.4 Qualification of the shot-peening process .................................................................................................... 49

Annexe G (normative) Method to determine the impact resistance of the protective coating .............. 50

G.1 YES ............................................................................................................................................................................... 50

G.2 Test piece .................................................................................................................................................................. 50

G.3 Equipment ................................................................................................................................................................ 50

G.4 Operating procedure ............................................................................................................................................ 50

G.5 Expression of results ............................................................................................................................................ 50

Annexe H (normative) Method to determine the chipping resistance of the protective coating .......... 51

H.1 YES ............................................................................................................................................................................... 51

H.2 Test piece .................................................................................................................................................................. 51

H.3 Equipment ................................................................................................................................................................ 51

H.4 Operating procedure ............................................................................................................................................ 51

H.5 Expression of results ............................................................................................................................................ 51

Annexe I (normative) Method to determine the resistance of the coating to specific corrosive

products .................................................................................................................................................................... 53

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SIST EN 13261:2020
EN 13261:2020 (E)

I.1 YES .............................................................................................................................................................................. 53

I.2 Test piece ................................................................................................................................................................. 53

I.3 Equipment ............................................................................................................................................................... 53

I.4 Corrosive products ............................................................................................................................................... 53

I.5 Operating procedure ........................................................................................................................................... 54

I.6 Expression of results ............................................................................................................................................ 54

Annexe J (normative) Method to determine the resistance of the protective coating under cyclic

mechanical stress .................................................................................................................................................. 55

J.1 Purpose ..................................................................................................................................................................... 55

J.2 YES .............................................................................................................................................................................. 55

J.3 Test piece ................................................................................................................................................................. 55

J.4 Equipment ............................................................................................................................................................... 55

J.5 Operating procedure ........................................................................................................................................... 55

J.6 Expression of results ............................................................................................................................................ 56

Annexe K (normative) Product qualification ............................................................................................................ 57

K.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................ 57

K.2 General ...................................................................................................................................................................... 57

K.3 Requirements ......................................................................................................................................................... 58

K.3.1 Requirements to be met by the manufacturer ........................................................................................... 58

K.3.1.1 General ...................................................................................................................................................................... 58

K.3.1.2 Quality organisation............................................................................................................................................. 58

K.3.1.3 Staff qualification .................................................................................................................................................. 58

K.3.1.4 Equipment ............................................................................................................................................................... 58

K.3.2 Requirements to be met by the product ....................................................................................................... 58

K.4 Qualification procedures .................................................................................................................................... 59

K.4.1 General ...................................................................................................................................................................... 59

K.4.2 Documentation required .................................................................................................................................... 59

K.4.3 Evaluation of production facilities and production process ................................................................. 59

K.4.4 Laboratory tests ..................................................................................................................................................... 60

K.5 Validity of the qualification ............................................................................................................................... 60

K.5.1 Condition of validity ............................................................................................................................................. 60

K.5.2 Modification and extension ............................................................................................................................... 60

K.5.3 Transfer .................................................................................................................................................................... 60

K.5.4 Expiry ........................................................................................................................................................................ 61

K.5.5 Withdrawal .............................................................................................................................................................. 61

K.6 Qualification record ............................................................................................................................................. 61

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SIST EN 13261:2020
EN 13261:2020 (E)

Annexe L (normative) Conditions of supply of the product ................................................................................ 62

L.1 Introduction............................................................................................................................................................. 62

L.2 General ...................................................................................................................................................................... 62

L.3 Delivery state .......................................................................................................................................................... 63

L.4 Unit checks ............................................................................................................................................................... 63

L.5 Batch sampling check ........................................................................................................................................... 63

L.5.1 Checks to be carried out ...................................................................................................................................... 63

L.5.2 Ultrasonic permeability ...................................................................................................................................... 64

L.5.3 Surface finish ........................................................................................................................................................... 64

L.5.4 Visual inspection .................................................................................................................................................... 65

L.6 Quality plan .............................................................................................................................................................. 65

L.6.1 General ...................................................................................................................................................................... 65

L.6.2 Objectives ................................................................................................................................................................. 65

L.6.3 Quality Plan terms of application .................................................................................................................... 65

L.7 Permissible repairs ............................................................................................................................................... 66

L.7.1 General ...................................................................................................................................................................... 66

L.7.2 Heat treatment ....................................................................................................................................................... 66

L.7.3 Retesting ................................................................................................................................................................... 66

L.7.4 Axle straightening ................................................................................................................................................. 66

L.7.5 Re-machining .......................................................................................................................................................... 66

Annexe M (normative) Measurement of the hydrogen content of steel for axles at the

development stage ................................................................................................................................................ 67

M.1 General ...................................................................................................................................................................... 67

M.2 Sampling ................................................................................................................................................................... 67

M.3 Analysis methods ................................................................................................................................................... 67

M.4 Precautions .............................................................................................................................................................. 67

Annexe ZA (informative) Relationship between this European Standard and the essential

requirements of Directive 2016/797/EC to be fulfilled .......................................................................... 68

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................................................................... 70

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SIST EN 13261:2020
EN 13261:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 13261:2020) was prepared by the CEN/TC 256 “Railway Applications” Technical

Committee, the secretariat of which is held by the DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical

text or by endorsement, by March 2021 at the latest, and all conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn no later than March 2021.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights or similar rights. CEN and/or CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying all or some of

these patent rights.
This document supersedes EN 13261:2009+A1:2010.

This document has been prepared within the framework of a mandate given to CEN by the European

Commission and the European Free Trade Association and supports the essential requirements of Directive

2016/797/EC.

For the relationship with Directive 2016/797/EC, see informative Annex ZA, which forms an integral part of

this document.

For a description of the technical changes made in this new edition, see the Introduction.

The informative annexes to this document provide additional guidance that is not mandatory but that helps

to understand or use the document.

NOTE The informative annexes may contain optional requirements. For example, a test method that is optional, or

presented as an example, may contain requirements, but it is not necessary to meet these requirements to be in

compliance with the document.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the following

countries are required to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus,

Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, the Republic of North Macedonia,

the Republic of Serbia, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United

Kingdom.
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SIST EN 13261:2020
EN 13261:2020 (E)
Introduction

After several years of using the first two editions of this document (EN 13261: 2003 and EN 13261:2009),

this new edition incorporates further improvements and data, such as the results of European projects.

The product requirements have been harmonised across all three standards for wheelsets, wheels and axles.

In addition, the annexes concerning the qualification of the product and the conditions of supply of the

product, which were previously informative, have been modified taking the feedback into account and have

become normative.
Also, the “freight wagon” and “locomotive and passenger vehicle” TSIs
...

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