Space engineering - Electrical and electronic

Scope remains unchanged.
This Standard establishes the basic rules and general principles applicable to the electrical, electronic, electromagnetic, microwave and engineering processes. It specifies the tasks of these engineering processes and the basic performance and design requirements in each discipline.
It defines the terminology for the activities within these areas.
It defines the specific requirements for electrical subsystems and payloads, deriving from the system engineering requirements laid out in EN 16603-10 (equivalent of ECSS-E-ST-10 "Space engineering - System engineering general requirements".)

Raumfahrttechnik - Elektrik und Elektronik

Ingénierie spatiale - Électrique et électronique

Vesoljska tehnika - Električna in elektronska

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oSIST prEN 16603-20:2021
SIST EN 16603-20:2020
Vesoljska tehnika - Električna in elektronska
Space engineering - Electrical and electronic
Raumfahrttechnik - Elektrik und Elektronik
Ingénierie spatiale - Électrique et électronique
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN 16603-20
49.060 Letalska in vesoljska Aerospace electric
električna oprema in sistemi equipment and systems
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
oSIST prEN 16603-20:2021 en
2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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oSIST prEN 16603-20:2021

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oSIST prEN 16603-20:2021

prEN 16603-20


October 2021
ICS 49.140
Will supersede EN 16603-20:2020
English version

Space engineering - Electrical and electronic
Ingénierie spatiale - Électrique et électronique Raumfahrttechnik - Elektrik und Elektronik
This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for enquiry. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN and CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal
Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any

This draft European Standard was established by CEN and CENELEC in three official versions (English, French, German). A
version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN and CENELEC member into its own
language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,
Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,
Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,
Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are
aware and to provide supporting documentation.Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification
of any relevant patent rights of which they are aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without
notice and shall not be referred to as a European Standard.

CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels
© 2021 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. prEN 16603-20:2021 E
reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.

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oSIST prEN 16603-20:2021
prEN 16603-20:2021 (E)
Table of contents
European Foreword . 6
1 Scope . 7
2 Normative references . 8
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms . 9
3.1 Terms from other standards . 9
3.2 Terms specific to the present standard . 9
3.3 Abbreviated terms . 16
3.4 Nomenclature . 18
4 General requirements . 19
4.1 Interface requirements. 19
4.1.1 Overview . 19
4.1.2 Signals interfaces . 19
4.1.3 Commands . 19
4.1.4 Telemetry . 21
4.2 Design . 21
4.2.1 Failure containment and redundancy . 21
4.2.2 Data processing . 30
4.2.3 Electrical connectors . 31
4.2.4 Testing . 32
4.2.5 Mechanical: Wired electrical connections . 33
4.2.6 Miscellaneous . 33
4.3 Verification . 34
4.3.1 Provisions . 34
4.3.2 Documentation . 34
5 Electrical power . 35
5.1 Functional description . 35
5.2 Power subsystem and budgets . 35
5.2.1 General . 35
5.2.2 Provisions . 35

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5.3 Failure containment and redundancy . 36
5.4 Electrical power interfaces . 37
5.5 Power generation . 38
5.5.1 Solar cell, coverglass, SCA and PVA qualification . 38
5.5.2 Solar array specification and design . 38
5.5.3 Solar array power computation . 40
5.5.4 Solar array drive mechanisms . 43
5.6 Electrochemical Energy Storage . 43
5.6.1 Applicability . 43
5.6.2 Batteries . 43
5.6.3 Battery cell . 45
5.6.4 Battery use and storage . 46
5.6.5 Battery safety . 46
5.7 Power conditioning and control . 47
5.7.1 Applicability . 47
5.7.2 Spacecraft bus . 47
5.7.3 Battery Charge and Discharge Management . 51
5.7.4 Bus under-voltage or over-voltage . 52
5.7.5 Power converters and regulators . 53
5.7.6 Payload interaction . 54
5.8 Power distribution and protection . 55
5.8.1 General . 55
5.8.2 Harness . 58
5.9 Safety . 59
5.10 High voltage engineering . 59
5.11 Verification . 60
5.11.1 Provisions . 60
5.11.2 <> . 60
6 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) . 61
6.1 Overview . 61
6.2 Policy . 61
6.2.1 Overall EMC programme . 61
6.2.2 EMC control plan . 61
6.2.3 Electromagnetic compatibility advisory board (EMCAB). 62
6.3 System level . 62
6.3.1 Electromagnetic interference safety margin (EMISM) . 62
6.3.2 Inter-element EMC and EMC with environment . 63

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6.3.3 Hazards of electromagnetic radiation . 63
6.3.4 Spacecraft charging protection program . 64
6.3.5 Intrasystem EMC . 65
6.3.6 Radio frequency compatibility . 65
6.3.7 Spacecraft DC magnetic field emission . 65
6.3.8 Design provisions for EMC control . 66
6.3.9 Detailed design requirements . 66
6.4 Verification . 66
6.4.1 Verification plan and report . 66
6.4.2 Safety margin demonstration for critical or EED circuit . 67
6.4.3 Detailed verification requirements . 67
7 Radio frequency systems . 68
7.1 Functional description . 68
7.2 Antennas . 69
7.2.1 General . 69
7.2.2 Antenna structure . 70
7.2.3 Antenna interfaces . 75
7.2.4 Antennas Verification . 76
7.3 RF Power . 76
7.3.1 Overview . 76
7.3.2 RF Power handling (thermal) . 77
7.3.3 Corona or Gas Discharge . 77
7.3.4 Qualification for power handling and gas discharge . 78
7.4 Passive intermodulation . 78
7.4.1 Overview . 78
7.4.2 General requirements . 78
7.4.3 Identification of potentially critical intermodulation products . 78
7.4.4 Verification . 79
7.4.5 Qualification for passive intermodulation . 79
7.5 Verification . 79
8 Pre-tailoring matrix per space product and feature types . 80
8.1 Introduction . 80
8.2 Use of the inclusive and exclusive requirement categories . 81
Annex A (normative) EMC control plan - DRD . 128
Annex B (normative) Electromagnetic effects verification plan (EMEVP) -
DRD . 131

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Annex C (normative) Electromagnetic effects verification report (EMEVR) -
DRD . 133
Annex D (normative) Battery user manual - DRD . 135
Bibliography . 136

Figure 5-1: Output impedance mask (Ohm) . 50
Figure 5-2: Source and load impedance characterisation . 56
Figure 5-3: Thevenin equivalent model . 56
Figure 5-4: Norton equivalent model . 57

Table 4-1: List of ridid and non-rigid materials . 28
Table 5-1: Parameters for BOL worst and best case power calculations . 42
Table 5-2: Additional power parameters for EOL worst and best case calculations. . 42
Table 5-3: <> . 60
Table 7-1: <> . 76
Table 7-2: <> . 79
Table 8-1: Definition of pre-tailoring matrix applicability statuses . 83
Table 8-2: Definition of features for exclusive requirements . 83
Table 8-3: Pre-tailoring matrix per “Space product and feature types" . 84


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prEN 16603-20:2021 (E)
European Foreword
This document (prEN 16603-20:2021) has been prepared by Technical Committee
CEN/CLC/TC 5 “Space”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN (Germany).
This document (prEN 16603-20:2021) originates from ECSS-E-ST-20C Rev.2
This document is currently submitted to the Enquiry.
This document will supersede EN 16603-20:2020.
The main changes with respect to EN 16603-20:2020 are listed below:
• Clause added due to addition of new clause
• Addition of requirements in new clause “Reliable
• The additon of the new clause made it necessary to add the
new header “General requirements” to separaet the
requirement from the former clause 4.2.1 “Failure containment and
redundancy” from the new requirements for “Reliable insulation”.
• Update to cover the aspects of “reliable insulation” also known as
“double insulation”
• Addition of several terms in clause 3.2 related to the added subject
of “Reliable insulation”
This document has been developed to cover specifically space systems and will
therefore have precedence over any EN covering the same scope but with a
wider do-main of applicability (e.g. : aerospace).


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oSIST prEN 16603-20:2021
prEN 16603-20:2021 (E)
This Standard establishes the basic rules and general principles applicable to the
electrical, electronic, electromagnetic, microwave and engineering processes. It
specifies the tasks of these engineering processes and the basic performance and
design requirements in each discipline.
It defines the terminology for the activities within these areas.
It defines the specific requirements for electrical subsystems and payloads,
deriving from the system engineering requirements laid out in ECSS-E-ST-10
“Space engineering – System engineering general requirements”.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constrains of a
space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.


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prEN 16603-20:2021 (E)
Normative references
The following normative documents contain provisions which, through
reference in this text, constitute provisions of this ECSS Standard. For dated
references, subsequent amendments to, or revision of any of these publications
do not apply, However, parties to agreements based on this ECSS Standard are
encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the more recent editions of
the normative documents indicated below. For undated references, the latest
edition of the publication referred to applies.

EN reference Reference in text Title
EN 16601-00-01 ECSS-S-ST-00-01 ECSS system – Glossary of terms
EN 16603-10 ECSS-E-ST-10 Space engineering – System engineering general
EN 16603-20-06 ECSS-E-ST-20-06 Space engineering – Spacecraft charging
EN 16603-20-07 ECSS-E-ST-20-07 Space engineering – Electromagnetic compatibility
EN 16603-20-08 ECSS-E-ST-20-08 Space engineering - Photovoltaic assemblies and
EN 16603-20-20 ECSS-E-ST-20-20 Space engineering - Electrical design and interface
requirements for power supply
EN 16603-33-11 ECSS-E-ST-33-11 Space engineering – Explosive systems and devices
EN 16603-50-05 ECSS-E-ST-50-05 Space engineering – Radio frequency and modulation
EN 16603-50-14 ECSS-E-ST-50-14 Space engineering – Spacecraft discrete interfaces
EN 16602-30-11 ECSS-Q-ST-30-11 Space product assurance – Derating – EEE components
EN 16602-40 ECSS-Q-ST-40 Space product assurance – Safety
EN 16602-70-12 ECSS-Q-ST-70-12 Space product assurance – Design rules for printed
circuit boards
IEEE 145-1993 Antenna terms
Impedance Impedance Specifications for Stable DC Distributed
Specifications for Power Systems, X. Feng, J. Liu, F.C. Lee, IEEE
Stable DC Distributed Transactions on power electronics, Vol. 17, no. 2,
Power Systems, EEE March 2002
transactions on power
electronics, Vol. 17,
no. 2, March 2002

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Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms from other standards
a. For the purpose of this Standard, the terms and definitions from
ECSS-S-ST-00-01 apply.
b. For the purpose of this Standard, the following terms and definitions from
ECSS-E-ST-20-20 apply:
1. latching current limiter (LCL)
2. retriggerable latching current limiter (RLCL)
3.2 Terms specific to the present standard
3.2.1 antenna farm
ensemble of all antennas accommodated on the spacecraft and provides for all
the transmission and reception of RF signals
3.2.2 antenna port
abstraction of the physical connection among the antenna and its feeding lines,
realised by means of connectors or waveguide flanges
3.2.3 antenna RF chain
sequence of microwave components inserted between an antenna input port or
a BFN output port and a corresponding individual radiating element
NOTE Examples of microwave components are: ortho-
mode transducers, polarisers, transformers as
well as filters.
3.2.4 antenna support structure
part of an antenna having no electrical function, which can however impact its
electrical performances, either directly due to scattering or indirectly
NOTE Example of indirect effect is induced thermo-
elastic deformations.
3.2.5 array antenna
antenna composed by a number of, possibly different, elements that radiate RF
signals directly into free space operating in combination, such that all or a part
of them radiate the same signals

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3.2.6 array-fed reflector antenna
antenna composed by a feed array, which can include or not a beam forming
network, and one or more optical elements like reflectors and lenses
3.2.7 battery bus
primary power bus directly connected to the battery
NOTE Battery bus is sometimes called unregulated bus
(although the battery charge is regulated).
3.2.8 beam forming network (BFN)
wave-guiding structure composed a chain of microwave components and
devices aimed at distributing the RF power injected at the input ports to a
number of output ports; in a transmitting antenna the RF power injected from
the transmitter is routed to the radiating elements, in a receiving antenna the RF
power coming from the radiating elements is routed to the antenna ports
connected to the receiver
NOTE Examples of microwave components and
devices are lines, phase shifters, couplers, loads.
3.2.9 conducted emission (CE)
desired or undesired electromagnetic energy that is propagated along a
3.2.10 critical line
[CONTEXT: reliable insulation] line that is part of a critical net
NOTE As an example, limited to a solar array, typically
a critical line is a line that carries the current of
a section downstream from the electrical node
collecting the current from the different strings
that constitute the section (but not at the node
itself). However, in case a short between strings
within a section can cause a catastrophic effect
then correspondingly a string is considered as a
critical line (this can be relevant, for example,
for high voltage solar arrays for which there is
limited heritage).”
3.2.11 critical net
[CONTEXT: reliable insulation] electrical net that if short circuited with another
critical net or another conductor including satellite and launcher structure can
cause critical effects
NOTE For “critical effects” see Table 4‐1 of ECSS‐Q‐ST‐
3.2.12 critical pressure
pressure at which corona or partial discharge can occur in an equipment

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3.2.13 diffusivity
ability of a body to generate incoherent diffuse scattering due to local roughness,
inhomogeneity or anysotropy when illuminated by RF waves
3.2.14 depth of discharge (DOD)
ampere–hour removed from a battery expressed as a percentage of the
nameplate capacity
3.2.15 double insulation
see “reliable insulation”
3.2.16 electrical bonding
process of connecting conductive parts to each other so that a low impedance
path is established for grounding and shielding purposes
3.2.17 electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)
ability of equipment or an element to function satisfactorily in its
electromagnetic environment without introducing intolerable electromagnetic
disturbances to anything in that environment
3.2.18 electromagnetic compatibility control
set of techniques to effectively regulate the electromagnetic interference
environment or susceptibility of individual space system components or both
NOTE They include, among others, the design,
placement of components, shielding, and
employment of rejection filters.
3.2.19 electromagnetic interference (EMI)
undesired electrical phenomenon that is created by, or adversely affects any
device whose normal functioning is predicated upon the utilization of electrical
NOTE It is characterized by the manifestation of
degradation of the performance of an
equipment, transmission channel, or element
caused by an electromagnetic disturbance.
3.2.20 electromagnetic interference safety margin
ratio between the susceptibility threshold and the interference present on a test
3.2.21 emission
electromagnetic energy propagated by radiation or conduction
3.2.22 energy balance
situation in which the spacecraft energy budget is positive when elaborated over
a considered period of time

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NOTE 1 Energy budget is generation minus
consumption and losses.
NOTE 2 The considered period of time can be one orbit,
several orbits or any relevant mission period.
3.2.23 energy reserve
energy that remains available from the energy storage assembly at the worst-
case, most depleted, point of nominal operations
NOTE It is important that the energy reserve is
sufficient to permit reaching a safe operating
mode upon occurrence of an anomaly
3.2.24 essential function
function without which the spacecraft cannot be recovered following any
conceivable on-board or ground-based failure
NOTE Examples of unrecoverable spacecraft is when
spacecraft cannot be commanded, or
permanently losses attitude and control, or the
energy balance is no longer ensured, or the
spacecraft consumables (e.g. hydrazine or
Xenon) are depleted to such an extent that more
than 10% of its lifetime is affected, or the safety
of the crew is threatened.
3.2.25 faulty signal
signal generated by a circuit, appearing at its interface to another circuit, going
out of its nominal range because of a failure
3.2.26 foldback current limiter (FCL)
non latching current-limiting function where the current limit decreases with the
output voltage
NOTE This function is used for power distribution and
protection typically for essential loads.
3.2.27 fully regulated bus
bus providing power during sunlight and eclipse periods with a regulated
3.2.28 grounding
process of establishing intentional electrical conductive paths between an
electrical circuit reference or a conductive part and equipment chassis or space
vehicle structure
NOTE grounding is typically performed for safety,
functionality, signal integrity, EMI control or
charge bleeding purpose.

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3.2.29 high Priority telecommand (HPC)
command originated from ground and issued by the telecommand decoder for
essential spacecraft functions without main on board software intervention
3.2.30 high voltage
AC or DC voltage at which partial discharges, corona, arcing or high electrical
fields can occur
3.2.31 insulation
separation of elements either by material or by a distance
NOTE Etymologically, insulation is the act of
protecting something with a material that
prevents heat, sound, electricity, etc. from
passing through. To insulate will then
correspond to the action to protect by adding a
material, an insulation (materials or device used
for this protection). But in this document, to
avoid heavy requirement formulations, the
term ‘insulation’ (and their derivatives)
includes both notions of separation of elements
either by a material or by a distance.
3.2.32 invariable gap
physical distance among electrically conductive elements respecting the
specified minimum limits independent from the stresses applied to the unit or
part of the unit
NOTE Changes of the gap can result from effects of
mechanical, thermomechanical or other nature,
applied to the unit or part of the unit.
NOTE Stresses include the impacts of AIT operations,
environmental tests, ageing and the use of
insulation materials.
3.2.33 isolation
separation of elements put far from each other, with the notion of distance
NOTE To isolate is the action to separate by adding
distance and to be isolated means protected by
a distance.
3.2.34 lens antenna
antenna composed by a number of RF lenses and reflecting surfaces illuminated
by a primary source, the feed
3.2.35 lightning indirect effects
electrical transients induced by lightning in electrical circuits due to coupling of
electromagnetic fields

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3.2.36 major reconfiguration function
function used to recover from system failures of criticality 1, 2 or 3
NOTE Criticality categories are defined in ECSS-Q-ST-
30 and ECSS-Q-ST-40.
3.2.37 nameplate c

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