Pallets for materials handling - Flat pallets - Part 1: Test methods (ISO 8611-1:2021)

This document specifies the test methods available for evaluating new flat pallets for materials
handling.
The test methods are split into groups for:
— nominal load testing;
— maximum working load testing;
— durability comparison testing.
This document does not apply to pallets with a fixed superstructure or a rigid, self-supporting container
that can be mechanically attached to the pallet and which contributes to the strength of the pallet.
NOTE Specific tests for determining load capacity do not replace the value of conducting field tests on
specific pallet designs.

Paletten für den Gütertransport - Flachpaletten - Teil 1: Prüfverfahren (ISO 8611-1:2021)

Dieses Dokument legt die zur Verfügung stehenden Prüfverfahren für die Bewertung neuer Flachpaletten für den Gütertransport fest.
Die Prüfverfahren sind in folgende Gruppen unterteilt:
—   Bestimmung der Nennlast;
—   Bestimmung der maximalen Nutzlast;
—   vergleichende Prüfungen zur Belastbarkeit.
Dieses Dokument gilt weder für Paletten mit festen Aufbauten noch für formstabile, selbsttragende Behälter, die mechanisch an den Paletten befestigt werden können und zur Festigkeit der Paletten beitragen.
ANMERKUNG   Spezifische Prüfungen zur Bestimmung der Tragfähigkeit ersetzen nicht den Wert von Feldversuchen an speziellen Palettenausführungen.

Palettes pour la manutention - Palettes plates - Partie 1: Méthodes d'essai (ISO 8611-1:2021)

Le présent document spécifie les méthodes d’essai disponibles pour l’évaluation de palettes plates neuves pour la manutention.
Les méthodes d’essai sont réparties en groupes selon:
—    les essais de la charge nominale;
—    les essais de la charge maximale en service;
—    les essais comparatifs en matière de durabilité.
Le présent document ne s’étend pas aux palettes à superstructure fixe ou à conteneur autoportant rigide pouvant être fixés mécaniquement à la palette et contribuant à sa résistance.
NOTE            Des essais spécifiques pour déterminer la charge nominale ne sauraient remplacer la valeur d’essais en conditions réelles d’utilisation pour des types de palettes spécifiques.

Palete za ravnanje z materiali - Ravne palete - 1. del: Preskusne metode (ISO 8611-1:2021)

Ta dokument določa preskusne metode, ki so na voljo za vrednotenje novih ravnih palet za ravnanje z materiali.
Preskusne metode so razdeljene v skupine za:
– preskušanje nazivne obremenitve;
– preskušanje največje delovne obremenitve;
– primerjalno preskušanje trajnosti.
Ta dokument se ne uporablja za palete s fiksno nadgradnjo ali za trdne, samonosilne posode, ki se lahko mehanično pritrdijo na paleto in pripomorejo k trdnosti palete. OPOMBA: Posebni preskusi za določanje obremenitvene zmogljivosti ne nadomestijo izvajanja terenskih preskusov za posebne zasnove palet.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
01-Jun-2021
Publication Date
10-Feb-2022
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
25-Jan-2022
Due Date
01-Apr-2022
Completion Date
11-Feb-2022

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 8611-1:2022
01-marec-2022
Nadomešča:
SIST EN ISO 8611-1:2013

Palete za ravnanje z materiali - Ravne palete - 1. del: Preskusne metode (ISO 8611-

1:2021)

Pallets for materials handling - Flat pallets - Part 1: Test methods (ISO 8611-1:2021)

Paletten für den Gütertransport - Flachpaletten - Teil 1: Prüfverfahren (ISO 8611-1:2021)

Palettes pour la manutention - Palettes plates - Partie 1: Méthodes d'essai (ISO 8611-

1:2021)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 8611-1:2022
ICS:
55.180.20 Večnamenske palete General purpose pallets
SIST EN ISO 8611-1:2022 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 8611-1:2022
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 8611-1:2022
EN ISO 8611-1
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
January 2022
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 55.180.20 Supersedes EN ISO 8611-1:2012
English Version
Pallets for materials handling - Flat pallets - Part 1: Test
methods (ISO 8611-1:2021)

Palettes pour la manutention - Palettes plates - Partie Paletten für den Gütertransport - Flachpaletten - Teil 1:

1: Méthodes d'essai (ISO 8611-1:2021) Prüfverfahren (ISO 8611-1:2021)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 5 January 2022.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2022 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 8611-1:2022 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 8611-1:2022
EN ISO 8611-1:2022 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 8611-1:2022
EN ISO 8611-1:2022 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 8611-1:2022) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 51 "Pallets

for unit load method of materials handling" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 261

“Packaging” the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by July 2022, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by July 2022.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 8611-1:2012.

Any feedback and questions on this document should be directed to the users’ national standards

body/national committee. A complete listing of these bodies can be found on the CEN website.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 8611-1:2021 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 8611-1:2022 without any

modification.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 8611-1:2022
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 8611-1:2022
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 8611-1
Third edition
2021-12
Pallets for materials handling — Flat
pallets —
Part 1:
Test methods
Palettes pour la manutention — Palettes plates —
Partie 1: Méthodes d'essai
Reference number
ISO 8611-1:2021(E)
© ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 8611-1:2022
ISO 8611-1:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 8611-1:2022
ISO 8611-1:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Measurements ........................................................................................................................................................................................................3

5 Precision and accuracy of tests and apparatus ................................................................................................................... 3

6 Test load ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

7 List of tests .................................................................................................................................................................................................................4

8 Tests .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

8.1 Test 1 — Bending tests .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

8.1.1 Purpose ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

8.1.2 Procedure ................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

8.1.3 Measurements ...................................................................................................................................................................... 6

8.2 Test 2 — Forklifting tests ............................................................................................................................................................. 7

8.2.1 Purpose ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

8.2.2 Procedure ................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

8.2.3 Measurement ......................................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.3 Test 3 — Compression tests for blocks or stringers ............................................................................................. 9

8.3.1 Purpose ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.3.2 Procedure ................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

8.3.3 Measurement ...................................................................................................................................................................... 10

8.4 Test 4 — Stacking test ................................................................................................................................................................... 11

8.4.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................... 11

8.4.2 Procedure ..............................................................................................................................................................................12

8.4.3 Measurement ......................................................................................................................................................................12

8.5 Test 5 — Bottom deck bending tests ...............................................................................................................................12

8.5.1 Purpose ....................................................................................................................................................................................12

8.5.2 Procedure ..............................................................................................................................................................................12

8.5.3 Measurement ...................................................................................................................................................................... 13

8.6 Test 6 — Wing pallet bending tests .................................................................................................................................. 14

8.6.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................... 14

8.6.2 Procedure .............................................................................................................................................................................. 14

8.6.3 Measurements ...................................................................................................................................................................15

8.7 Test 7 — Airbag bending tests ..............................................................................................................................................15

8.7.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................... 15

8.7.2 Procedure .............................................................................................................................................................................. 15

8.7.3 Measurement ...................................................................................................................................................................... 18

8.8 Test 8 — Static shear test ........................................................................................................................................................... 18

8.8.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................... 18

8.8.2 Procedure .............................................................................................................................................................................. 18

8.8.3 Measurement ...................................................................................................................................................................... 19

8.9 Test 9 — Corner drop test ......................................................................................................................................................... 19

8.9.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................... 19

8.9.2 Procedure .............................................................................................................................................................................. 19

8.9.3 Measurement ...................................................................................................................................................................... 20

8.10 Test 10 — Shear impact tests ................................................................................................................................................. 20

8.10.1 General .....................................................................................................................................................................................20

8.10.2 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................... 21

8.10.3 Procedure .............................................................................................................................................................................. 21

8.10.4 Measurement ...................................................................................................................................................................... 21

iii
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 8611-1:2022
ISO 8611-1:2021(E)

8.11 Test 11 — Top deck edge impact test .............................................................................................................................. 22

8.11.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................... 22

8.11.2 Procedure ..............................................................................................................................................................................22

8.11.3 Measurement ...................................................................................................................................................................... 23

8.12 Test 12 — Block impact test .................................................................................................................................................... 24

8.12.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................... 24

8.12.2 Procedure .............................................................................................................................................................................. 24

8.12.3 Measurement ...................................................................................................................................................................... 25

8.13 Test 13 — Static coefficient of friction test ................................................................................................................ 25

8.13.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................... 25

8.13.2 Procedure .............................................................................................................................................................................. 26

8.13.3 Measurement ......................................................................................................................................................................26

8.14 Test 14 — Slip angle test ............................................................................................................................................................. 26

8.14.1 Purpose ....................................................................................................................................................................................26

8.14.2 Procedure .............................................................................................................................................................................. 26

8.14.3 Measurement ...................................................................................................................................................................... 27

9 Test report ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................27

9.1 General information — All materials .............................................................................................................................. 27

9.2 Information for wooden and wood-based composite pallets ....................................................................28

9.3 Information for plastics pallets ............................................................................................................................................28

9.4 Information for pallets made of other materials ..................................................................................................28

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................29

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 8611-1:2022
ISO 8611-1:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 51, Pallets for unit load method of

materials handling, in collaboration with the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical

Committee CEN/TC 261, Packaging, in accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation

between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 8611-1:2011), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes are as follows:
— The use of the deflection at the datum load was clarified.

— It was clarified that the average of the maximum deflections recorded for each replicate will need

to be reported.

— It was clarified that test 5 applies for both twin track conveyors and narrow span beam racking.

— It was clarified that the minimum of the ultimate load recorded for each replicate needs to be

reported.

— For test 11, the point where the leading edge of the pallet needs to touch the blade was changed from

100 mm to 250 mm ± 25 mm to 200 mm ± 25 mm.
A list of all parts in the ISO 8611 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 8611-1:2022
ISO 8611-1:2021(E)
Introduction

The forces to which pallets are exposed during use vary significantly. The test procedures described

in this document are approximate simulations of pallet use. These tests help the pallet designer to

establish an initial acceptable balance between the cost and the performance of a pallet design. It is

intended that all results of tests performed using this protocol be confirmed and verified using field

trials before publication of performance or the commercial implementation of a new pallet design.

The nominal load, determined according to this test protocol, does not represent a payload and cannot

be verified using field trials. The nominal load is a minimum payload level for use in determining

maximum working load according to the procedures in ISO 8611-3. The maximum working load can be

verified for a specified payload and intended use, using field trials. It is intended that the publication of

the maximum working load include a description of the payload and the intended modes of use of the

pallet.

It is essential to exercise care when comparing the results of tests with historic experience using

existing pallet designs. User expectations of pallet performance vary. Some require greater and some

accept lower levels of performance. Users are accepting different levels of risk when using pallets.

Because of the varied performance expectations of pallet users, it is possible that the results of tests do

not always reflect the user's perception of pallet performance in use.

It is possible that the nominal load does not reflect users' perception of pallet performance because

the nominal load does not represent a payload. It is intended that maximum working loads be used to

compare with the historic performance of existing pallet designs.
Regarding the use of the ISO 8611 series,
— this document describes the test methods;
— ISO 8611-2 describes the performance requirements and selection of tests;

— ISO 8611-3 describes tests for determining maximum working loads for known payloads.

This document and ISO 8611-2 are required for determining nominal load. The nominal load is the

lowest safe load value for the specified support conditions, independent of the type of load (excluding

concentrated loads).

This document, ISO 8611-2 and ISO 8611-3 are required for determining maximum working loads for

known payloads.

The nominal load for the intended use is established by the selection of tests in this document; and the

performance requirement is established from criteria in ISO 8611-2.

The following three types of intended use with specified support conditions are defined:

— handling of loaded pallets with racking and stacking;
— handling of loaded pallets without racking;
— handling of loaded pallets without racking or stacking.

To determine the maximum working load through testing given in ISO 8611-3, the deflection under the

known payload cannot exceed the limiting deflection (see ISO 8611-3:2011, 4.2, 4.3 and 4.4) established

in this document and ISO 8611-2. The maximum working load is the greatest payload that a pallet can

be permitted to carry in a specific loading and support condition.

Guidance is given in ISO 8611-3:2011, Annex A as to the general effect on performance of different load

types and stabilization methods. These can only give guidance as to the likely result from tests with the

known payload.
Other tests for durability evaluation are specified in this document.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 8611-1:2022
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 8611-1:2021(E)
Pallets for materials handling — Flat pallets —
Part 1:
Test methods
1 Scope

This document specifies the test methods available for evaluating new flat pallets for materials

handling.
The test methods are split into groups for:
— nominal load testing;
— maximum working load testing;
— durability comparison testing.

This document does not apply to pallets with a fixed superstructure or a rigid, self-supporting container

that can be mechanically attached to the pallet and which contributes to the strength of the pallet.

NOTE Specific tests for determining load capacity do not replace the value of conducting field tests on

specific pallet designs.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 445, Pallets for materials handling — Vocabulary

ISO 2244, Packaging — Complete, filled transport packages and unit loads — Horizontal impact tests

ISO 8611-2:2021, Pallets for materials handling — Flat pallets — Part 2: Performance requirements and

selection of tests

ISO 12777-1, Methods of test for pallet joints — Part 1: Determination of bending resistance of pallet nails,

other dowel-type fasteners and staples

EN 13183-2, Moisture content of a piece of sawn timber — Part 2: Estimation by electrical resistance

method
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 445 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 8611-1:2022
ISO 8611-1:2021(E)
3.1
breaking of one component

fracture of a structural element which significantly affects the strength, stiffness (3.9) or functionality

of a pallet
3.2
concentrated load
load concentrated over an area of less than 50 % of the pallet top deck
3.3
maximum working load

greatest payload (3.5) that a pallet is permitted to carry in a specific loading and support condition

Note 1 to entry: This varies according to the type, distribution, arrangement and means of stabilization of the

load and th
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN ISO 8611-1:2021
01-maj-2021

Palete za ravnanje z materiali - Ravne palete - 1. del: Preskusne metode (ISO/DIS

8611-1:2021)

Pallets for materials handling - Flat pallets - Part 1: Test methods (ISO/DIS 8611-1:2021)

Paletten für den Gütertransport - Flachpaletten - Teil 1: Prüfverfahren (ISO/DIS 8611-

1:2021)

Palettes pour la manutention - Palettes plates - Partie 1: Méthodes d'essai (ISO/DIS

8611-1:2021)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN ISO 8611-1
ICS:
55.180.20 Večnamenske palete General purpose pallets
oSIST prEN ISO 8611-1:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 8611-1:2021
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 8611-1:2021
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 8611-1
ISO/TC 51 Secretariat: BSI
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2021-03-16 2021-06-08
Pallets for materials handling — Flat pallets —
Part 1:
Test methods
Palettes pour la manutention — Palettes plates —
Partie 1: Méthodes d'essai
ICS: 55.180.20
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
This document is circulated as received from the committee secretariat.
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
ISO/CEN PARALLEL PROCESSING
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/DIS 8611-1:2021(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 8611-1:2021
ISO/DIS 8611-1:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 8611-1:2021
ISO/DIS 8611-1:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Measurements ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5 Precision and accuracy of tests and apparatus ..................................................................................................................... 3

6 Test load ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

7 List of tests .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

8 Tests ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

8.1 Test 1 — Bending tests..................................................................................................................................................................... 4

8.1.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

8.1.2 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................... 6

8.1.3 Measurements .................................................................................................................................................................... 7

8.2 Test 2 — Forklifting tests ............................................................................................................................................................... 7

8.2.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

8.2.2 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................... 7

8.2.3 Measurement ...................................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.3 Test 3 — Compression tests for blocks or stringers ............................................................................................... 9

8.3.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.3.2 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.3.3 Measurement ...................................................................................................................................................................10

8.4 Test 4 — Stacking test ....................................................................................................................................................................11

8.4.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................11

8.4.2 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................11

8.4.3 Measurement ...................................................................................................................................................................12

8.5 Test 5 — Bottom deck bending tests ................................................................................................................................12

8.5.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................12

8.5.2 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................12

8.5.3 Measurement ...................................................................................................................................................................13

8.6 Test 6 — Wing pallet bending tests ...................................................................................................................................14

8.6.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................14

8.6.2 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................14

8.6.3 Measurements .................................................................................................................................................................15

8.7 Test 7 — Airbag bending tests ................................................................................................................................................15

8.7.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................15

8.7.2 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................15

8.7.3 Measurement ...................................................................................................................................................................18

8.8 Test 8 — Static shear test ............................................................................................................................................................18

8.8.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................18

8.8.2 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................18

8.8.3 Measurement ...................................................................................................................................................................19

8.9 Test 9 — Corner drop test ..........................................................................................................................................................19

8.9.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................19

8.9.2 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................19

8.9.3 Measurement ...................................................................................................................................................................20

8.10 Test 10 — Shear impact tests ..................................................................................................................................................20

8.10.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................20

8.10.2 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................21

8.10.3 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................21

8.10.4 Measurement ...................................................................................................................................................................21

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8.11 Test 11 — Top deck edge impact test ...............................................................................................................................22

8.11.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................22

8.11.2 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................22

8.11.3 Measurement ...................................................................................................................................................................23

8.12 Test 12 — Block impact test .....................................................................................................................................................24

8.12.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................24

8.12.2 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................24

8.12.3 Measurement ...................................................................................................................................................................25

8.13 Test 13 — Static coefficient of friction test ..................................................................................................................25

8.13.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................25

8.13.2 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................26

8.13.3 Measurement ...................................................................................................................................................................26

8.14 Test 14 — Slip angle test .............................................................................................................................................................26

8.14.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................26

8.14.2 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................26

8.14.3 Measurement ...................................................................................................................................................................27

9 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................27

9.1 General information — All materials................................................................................................................................27

9.2 Information for wooden and wood-based composite pallets......................................................................28

9.3 Information for plastics pallets..............................................................................................................................................28

9.4 Information for pallets made of other materials ....................................................................................................28

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................29

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oSIST prEN ISO 8611-1:2021
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Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 51, Pallets for unit load method of materials

handling.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 8611-1:2011), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— The use of the deflection at the datum load was clarified.

— It was clarified that the average of the maximum deflections recorded for each replicate will need

to be reported.

— It was clarified that test 5 applies for both twin track conveyors and narrow span beam racking.

— It was clarified that the minimum of the ultimate load recorded for each replicate needs to be

reported.

— For test 11, the point where the leading edge of the pallet needs to touch the blade was changed from

100 to 250mm ± 25mm to 200mm ± 25mm.
A list of all parts in the ISO 8611 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
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Introduction

The forces to which pallets are exposed during use vary significantly. The test procedures described

in this part of ISO 8611 are approximate simulations of pallet use. These tests help the pallet designer

to establish an initial acceptable balance between the cost and the performance of a pallet design. It is

intended that all results of tests performed using this protocol be confirmed and verified using field

trials before publication of performance or the commercial implementation of a new pallet design.

The nominal load, determined according to this test protocol, does not represent a payload and cannot be

verified using field trials. The nominal load is a minimum payload level for use in determining maximum

working load according to the procedures in ISO 8611-3. The maximum working load can be verified for a

specified payload and intended use, using field trials. It is intended that the publication of the maximum

working load include a description of the payload and the intended modes of use of the pallet.

It is essential to exercise care when comparing the results of tests with historic experience using

existing pallet designs. User expectations of pallet performance vary. Some require greater and some

accept lower levels of performance. Users are accepting different levels of risk when using pallets.

Because of the varied performance expectations of pallet users, the results of tests might not always

reflect the user's perception of pallet performance in use.

The nominal load might not reflect users' perception of pallet performance because the nominal load

does not represent a payload. It is intended that maximum working loads be used to compare with the

historic performance of existing pallet designs.
Regarding the use of the ISO 8611 series,
— this part of ISO 8611 describes the test methods,
— ISO 8611-2 describes the performance requirements and selection of tests, and

— ISO 8611-3 describes tests for determining maximum working loads for known payloads.

This part of ISO 8611 and ISO 8611-2 are required for determining nominal load. The nominal load is the

lowest safe load value for the specified support conditions, independent of the type of load (excluding

concentrated loads).

This part of ISO 8611, ISO 8611-2 and ISO 8611-3 are required for determining maximum working loads

for known payloads.

The nominal load for the intended use is established by the selection of tests in this part of ISO 8611 and

the performance requirement is established from criteria in ISO 8611-2.

The following three types of intended use with specified support conditions are defined:

— handling of loaded pallets with racking and stacking;
— handling of loaded pallets without racking;
— handling of loaded pallets without racking or stacking.

To determine the maximum working load through testing given in ISO 8611-3, the deflection under

the known payload cannot exceed the limiting deflection (see 4.2, 4.3 and 4.4 of ISO 8611-3:2011)

established in this part of ISO 8611 and ISO 8611-2. The maximum working load is the greatest payload

that a pallet can be permitted to carry in a specific loading and support condition.

Guidance is given in Annex A of ISO 8611-3:2011 as to the general effect on performance of different

load types and stabilization methods. These can only give guidance as to the likely result from tests

with the known payload.
Other tests for durability evaluation are specified in this part of ISO 8611.
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oSIST prEN ISO 8611-1:2021
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 8611-1:2021(E)
Pallets for materials handling — Flat pallets —
Part 1:
Test methods
1 Scope

This part of ISO 8611 specifies the test methods available for evaluating new flat pallets for materials

handling.
The test methods are split into groups for:
— nominal load testing;
— maximum working load testing;
— durability comparison testing.

It is not intended to apply to pallets with a fixed superstructure or a rigid, self-supporting container

that can be mechanically attached to the pallet and which contributes to the strength of the pallet.

NOTE Specific tests for determining load capacity do not replace the value of conducting field tests on

specific pallet designs.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 445, Pallets for materials handling — Vocabulary

ISO 2244, Packaging — Complete, filled transport packages and unit loads — Horizontal impact tests

ISO 8611-2, Pallets for materials handling — Flat pallets — Part 2: Performance requirements and selection

of tests

ISO 12777-1, Methods of test for pallet joints — Part 1: Determination of bending resistance of pallet nails,

other dowel-type fasteners and staples

EN 13183-2, Moisture content of a piece of sawn timber — Part 2: Estimation by electrical resistance method

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 445 and the following apply.

3.1
breaking of one component

fracture of a structural element which significantly affects the strength, stiffness or functionality of

a pallet
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3.2
concentrated load
load concentrated over an area of less than 50 % of the pallet top deck
[SOURCE: ISO 445:2008, definition 2.3]
3.3
maximum working load

greatest payload that a pallet is permitted to carry in a specific loading and support condition

Note 1 to entry: This varies according to the type, distribution, arrangement and means of stabilization of the

load and the system of support, and can be lower or higher than the nominal load (see ISO 8611-2 and ISO 8611-3).

Note 2 to entry: Adapted from ISO 445:2008, definition 2.7.
3.4
nominal load

lowest test load value for the specified support conditions, independent of the type of load (excluding

concentrated loads)

Note 1 to entry: “Specified support conditions” refers to the range of conditions of use in 7.1 of ISO 8611-2:2011.

Note 2 to entry: Nominal load does not represent an actual payload on a pallet in use. The nominal load is used for

comparing the performance of different pallets.
Note 3 to entry: Adapted from ISO 445:2008, definition 2.2.
3.5
payload
load carried by the pallet in use
[SOURCE: ISO 445:2008, definition 2.8]
Note 1 to entry: This can be above, identical to or below the nominal load.
3.6
platen

solid, rigid surface on a test machine used for applying a load to test a sample pallet

3.7
racking
storage of unit loads in drive-in or beam racks with free, unsupported spans
[SOURCE: ISO 445:2008, definition A.3.1]
3.8
safety factor
ratio of the ultimate load to the nominal load
Note 1 to entry: In ISO 8611 (all parts), this ratio is at least 2,0.
3.9
solid load

single, compact, rigid, homogeneous load, supported by all the blocks and/or stringers (bearers) of

the pallet
Note 1 to entry: Adapted from ISO 445:2008, definition 2.6.
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3.10
stacking

placing of pallets with unit loads one upon the other without recourse to intermediate shelves or racking

Note 1 to entry: Adapted from ISO 445:2008, definition A.2.1.
3.11
stiffness
relative deformation of a pallet or component under load

Note 1 to entry: High stiffness means small displacement, deflection or deformation for a given load.

3.12
test load

load applicators, the load board or load box and the applied load itself including the datum load

(1,5% ± 0,5% of Ultimate Load)
3.13
ultimate load

load at which compression, displacement or deflection is no longer contained, resulting in the

destruction of the specimen or breaking of one component, or when displacement, deformation or

deflection becomes excessive
Note 1 to entry: See Table 1 of ISO 8611-2:2011.
3.14
uniformly distributed bonded load

load spread evenly across the full surface of the pallet top deck, where the pattern of each single layer

changes, so that the packages are interlocked
3.15
uniformly distributed unbonded load

load spread evenly across the full surface of the pallet top deck where the packages are not interlocked,

bound or connected
4 Measurements

Pallets selected for testing shall be measured to ensure that materials, construction and dimensions

conform to their associated written specification.

The mass and the material of each pallet shall be determined and recorded at the time of testing.

The moisture content of wooden pallets shall be measured and recorded in accordance with EN 13183-

2 at the time of testing.

The recorded deflection at each location in the test is the deflection at the end of the full test load

period (or relaxation period) minus the deflection after positioning the datum load. The average of the

maximum deflections recorded for each replicate will need to be reported and used for further analysis.

Clause 9 gives further details on what should be recorded during testing and in the written report.

5 Precision and accuracy of tests and apparatus
Test apparatus shall satisfy the following requirements.

a) In the design of the test equipment, the tolerances on all dimensions shall be ± 2 %

...

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