Space engineering - Space environment

This European Standard applies to all product types which exist or operate in space and defines the natural environment for all space regimes. It also defines general models and rules for determining the local induced environment.
Project­specific or project­class­specific acceptance criteria, analysis methods or procedures are not defined.
The natural space environment of a given item is that set of environmental conditions defined by the external physical world for the given mission (e.g. atmosphere, meteoroids and energetic particle radiation). The induced space environment is that set of environmental conditions created or modified by the presence or operation of the item and its mission (e.g. contamination, secondary radiations and spacecraft charging). The space environment also contains elements which are induced by the execution of other space activities (e.g. debris and contamination).

Raumfahrttechnik (Engineering) - Raumfahrtumweltbedingungen

Diese Norm gilt für alle für den Betrieb im Weltraum vorliegenden und eingesetzten Produkttypen und legt die natürlichen Umgebungsbedingungen für alle Raumflugregime fest. Sie legt weiterhin allgemeine Modelle und Regeln zur Bestimmung der vor Ort künstlich erzeugten Umgebung fest.
Projektspezifische oder projektklassenspezifische Abnahmekriterien, Analysemethoden oder -verfahren werden nicht festgelegt.
Die natürliche Weltraumumgebung einer gegebenen Einheit ist der Satz Umgebungsbedingungen, die durch die externe körperliche Umwelt für eine gegebene Mission vorgegeben sind (z. B. Atmosphäre, Meteoroide und energiereiche Teilchenstrahlung). Die künstlich erzeugte Weltraumumgebung ist der Satz Umgebungsbedingungen, die durch das Vorhandensein oder den Betrieb der Einheit und ihrer Mission hervorgerufen oder modifiziert werden (z. B. Kontamination, Sekundärstrahlungen und Aufladung des Raumfahrzeugs). Weiterhin umfasst die Weltraumumgebung Elemente, die infolge der Durchführung anderer Aktivitäten im Weltraum künstlich erzeugt werden (z. B. Weltraummüll und Kontamination).

Ingénierie spatiale - Environnement spatial

Space engineering - Space environment

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
30-Apr-2004
Withdrawal Date
04-Mar-2015
Technical Committee
Current Stage
9900 - Withdrawal (Adopted Project)
Start Date
04-Mar-2015
Due Date
27-Mar-2015
Completion Date
05-Mar-2015

RELATIONS

Buy Standard

Standard
SIST EN 14092:2004
English language
174 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview

e-Library read for
1 day

Standards Content (sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 14092:2004
01-maj-2004
Space engineering - Space environment
Space engineering - Space environment
Raumfahrttechnik (Engineering) - Raumfahrtumweltbedingungen
Ingénierie spatiale - Environnement spatial
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 14092:2002
ICS:
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
SIST EN 14092:2004 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 14092:2004
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 14092:2004
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 14092
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
February 2002
ICS 49.140
English version
Space engineering - Space environment
Ingénierie spatiale - Environnement spatial Raumfahrttechnik (Engineering) -
Raumfahrtumweltbedingungen
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 26 December 2001.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Management Centre has the same status as the official

versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece,

Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels

© 2002 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 14092:2002 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 14092:2004
EN 14092:2002 (E)
Contents
page

Foreword.................................................................................................................................................. 10

Introduction .............................................................................................................................................. 11

1 Scope............................................................................................................................................. 12

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................... 12

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ..................................................................................... 12

3.1 Terms and definitions.......................................................................................................... 12

3.2 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................... 18

4 Gravitation ..................................................................................................................................... 20

4.1 Introduction.......................................................................................................................... 20

4.1.1 Newton’s law of gravitation ............................................................................................ 20

4.1.2 Departures from the point-mass model.......................................................................... 21

4.1.3 Accurate representation of the geopotential .................................................................. 21

4.2 Model presentation.............................................................................................................. 23

4.2.1 Model.............................................................................................................................. 23

4.2.2 Mandatory model parameters ........................................................................................ 23

4.2.3 Guidelines for use .......................................................................................................... 23

4.3 Reference data.................................................................................................................... 23

4.3.1 Model output .................................................................................................................. 23

4.3.2 Results for typical missions............................................................................................ 23

4.4 References.......................................................................................................................... 25

5 Geomagnetic fields........................................................................................................................ 25

5.1 Introduction – Overview of the geomagnetic field and effects ............................................ 25

5.2 Reference data on the geomagnetic field ........................................................................... 26

5.3 Geomagnetic field models and analysis methods............................................................... 26

5.3.1 Dipole model .................................................................................................................. 26

5.3.2 Internal-source field models........................................................................................... 27

5.3.3 Eccentric dipole model................................................................................................... 27

5.3.4 Geomagnetic coordinates – B and L.............................................................................. 28

5.3.5 External-source field models.......................................................................................... 30

5.3.6 Magnetospheric boundaries........................................................................................... 30

5.4 Tailoring guidelines ............................................................................................................. 31

5.5 Figures ................................................................................................................................ 32

5.6 References.......................................................................................................................... 33

6 Solar and Earth electromagnetic radiation and indices................................................................. 34

6.1 Introduction.......................................................................................................................... 34

6.2 Solar electromagnetic radiation........................................................................................... 35

6.2.1 Solar constant ................................................................................................................ 35

6.2.2 Solar spectrum ............................................................................................................... 35

6.3 Earth electromagnetic radiation .......................................................................................... 36

6.3.1 Earth albedo................................................................................................................... 36

6.3.2 Earth infrared ................................................................................................................. 36

6.4 Solar and geomagnetic indices........................................................................................... 37

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN 14092:2004
EN 14092:2002 (E)

6.4.1 General .......................................................................................................................... 37

6.4.2 Description of indices.....................................................................................................37

6.4.3 Solar cycle dependence................................................................................................. 37

6.4.4 Reference index values ................................................................................................. 41

6.4.5 Tailoring guidelines ........................................................................................................ 41

6.5 Figures ................................................................................................................................ 42

6.6 References.......................................................................................................................... 42

7 The neutral Earth atmosphere....................................................................................................... 42

7.1 Introduction.......................................................................................................................... 42

7.2 Recommended reference model......................................................................................... 43

7.3 Structure of the Earth atmosphere...................................................................................... 43

7.4 Atmospheric state parameters ............................................................................................ 43

7.5 Temperature, composition, and density model of the Earth heterosphere......................... 44

7.6 Temperature, composition, and density model of the Earth homosphere.......................... 53

7.7 Reference model output...................................................................................................... 54

7.8 Wind model of the Earth homosphere and heterosphere................................................... 54

7.9 Simple density models of planetary atmospheres .............................................................. 55

7.10 Aerodynamics in the Earth atmosphere.............................................................................. 56

7.11 Figures ................................................................................................................................ 58

7.12 References.......................................................................................................................... 65

8 Plasmas......................................................................................................................................... 65

8.1 Introduction.......................................................................................................................... 65

8.2 The ionosphere ................................................................................................................... 66

8.2.1 Description ..................................................................................................................... 66

8.2.2 Effects ............................................................................................................................ 67

8.2.3 Models............................................................................................................................ 67

8.2.4 Typical and worst case parameters ............................................................................... 68

8.3 The plasmasphere .............................................................................................................. 69

8.3.1 Description ..................................................................................................................... 69

8.3.2 Effects ............................................................................................................................ 69

8.3.3 Models............................................................................................................................ 69

8.3.4 Typical parameters ........................................................................................................ 70

8.4 The outer magnetosphere................................................................................................... 70

8.4.1 Description ..................................................................................................................... 70

8.4.2 Effects ............................................................................................................................ 71

8.4.3 Models............................................................................................................................ 72

8.4.4 Typical and worst case parameters ............................................................................... 72

8.5 The solar wind..................................................................................................................... 73

8.5.1 Description ..................................................................................................................... 73

8.5.2 Effects ............................................................................................................................ 73

8.5.3 Models............................................................................................................................ 73

8.6 Induced environments.........................................................................................................74

8.6.1 Description ..................................................................................................................... 74

8.6.2 Effects ............................................................................................................................ 74

8.6.3 Models............................................................................................................................ 74

8.6.4 Typical parameters ........................................................................................................ 75

8.7 Tailoring guidelines ............................................................................................................. 75

8.8 References.......................................................................................................................... 76

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN 14092:2004
EN 14092:2002 (E)

9 Energetic particle radiation............................................................................................................ 77

9.1 Introduction – Overview of energetic particle radiation environment and effects ............... 77

9.1.1 General........................................................................................................................... 77

9.1.2 Environments ................................................................................................................. 77

9.1.3 Effects survey................................................................................................................. 78

9.2 Quantification of effects and related environments............................................................. 78

9.3 Energetic particle radiation environment reference data, models and analysis

methods............................................................................................................................... 79

9.3.1 Trapped radiation belts .................................................................................................. 79

9.3.2 Solar particle event models............................................................................................ 82

9.3.3 Cosmic ray environment and effects models................................................................. 85

9.3.4 Geomagnetic shielding................................................................................................... 85

9.3.5 Spacecraft secondary radiation ..................................................................................... 86

9.3.6 Neutrons......................................................................................................................... 86

9.4 Analysis methods for derived quantities ............................................................................. 87

9.4.1 General........................................................................................................................... 87

9.4.2 Ionizing dose.................................................................................................................. 87

9.4.3 Reference orbital dose data........................................................................................... 88

9.4.4 Single-event upset rate .................................................................................................. 88

9.4.5 Solar cell degradation .................................................................................................... 89

9.4.6 Internal electrostatic charging ........................................................................................ 89

9.4.7 Dose-equivalent ............................................................................................................. 89

9.4.8 Non-ionizing dose ..........................................................................................................89

9.5 Tailoring guidelines: Orbital and mission regimes .............................................................. 90

9.5.1 General........................................................................................................................... 90

9.5.2 Geostationary orbit......................................................................................................... 90

9.5.3 MEO, HEO ..................................................................................................................... 90

9.5.4 LEO ................................................................................................................................ 90

9.5.5 Polar............................................................................................................................... 90

9.5.6 Interplanetary and planetary environments ................................................................... 90

9.6 Preparation of a radiation environment specification.......................................................... 91

9.7 Figures ................................................................................................................................ 92

9.8 References........................................................................................................................ 107

10 Particulates.................................................................................................................................. 108

10.1 Introduction........................................................................................................................ 108

10.2 Analysis techniques .......................................................................................................... 108

10.3 Model presentation............................................................................................................ 110

10.3.1 Meteoroids ................................................................................................................. 110

10.3.2 Space debris .............................................................................................................. 112

10.3.3 Dust............................................................................................................................ 113

10.4 Reference data.................................................................................................................. 113

10.4.1 Trackable space debris .............................................................................................. 113

10.4.2 Statistical flux models................................................................................................. 114

10.5 Figures .............................................................................................................................. 119

10.6 References........................................................................................................................ 123

11 Contamination.............................................................................................................................. 123

11.1 Introduction........................................................................................................................ 123

11.2 Molecular contamination ................................................................................................... 124

11.2.1 Sources of molecular contamination.......................................................................... 124

11.2.2 Transport mechanisms .............................................................................................. 125

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN 14092:2004
EN 14092:2002 (E)

11.3 Particulate contamination.................................................................................................. 125

11.3.1 Sources of particulate contamination......................................................................... 125

11.3.2 Transport mechanisms .............................................................................................. 126

11.4 Effect of contamination...................................................................................................... 126

11.5 Models............................................................................................................................... 127

11.5.1 Sources ...................................................................................................................... 127

11.5.2 Transport of molecular contaminants......................................................................... 129

11.6 References........................................................................................................................ 130

Annex A (informative) ............................................................................................................................ 132

Annex B (informative) Gravitation......................................................................................................... 133

B.1 Related tools ..................................................................................................................... 133

B.2 Effects ............................................................................................................................... 133

B.3 Gravitational field at the surface of a planet...................................................................... 135

B.4 Uncertainties ..................................................................................................................... 136

B.5 References........................................................................................................................ 137

Annex C (informative) Geomagnetic field............................................................................................. 138

C.1 Description of magnetosphere .......................................................................................... 138

C.2 Derivation of dipole strength from field model coefficients ............................................... 138

C.3 Incompatibilities and inconsistencies ................................................................................ 139

C.4 IGRF model details and availability................................................................................... 139

C.5 References........................................................................................................................ 140

Annex D (informative) Solar and Earth electromagnetic radiation and indices.................................... 141

D.1 Solar spectrum details....................................................................................................... 141

D.2 Albedo and infrared variability........................................................................................... 141

D.3 Activity indices information................................................................................................ 142

D.4 Radio noise ....................................................................................................................... 142

D.5 Solar radiation pressure.................................................................................................... 142

D.6 Figures .............................................................................................................................. 143

D.7 References........................................................................................................................ 147

Annex E (informative) The neutral Earth atmosphere .......................................................................... 148

E.1 Overview of atmosphere models ...................................................................................... 148

E.2 Accessibility of the MSISE-90 model ................................................................................ 148

E.3 References........................................................................................................................ 149

Annex F (informative) Plasma .............................................................................................................. 150

F.1 Surface charging ............................................................................................................... 150

F.2 Charging in LEO................................................................................................................ 151

F.3 NASCAP charging code.................................................................................................... 152

F.4 POLAR charging code ...................................................................................................... 153

F.5 Other charging codes........................................................................................................ 153

F.6 NASA worst case charging environment .......................................................................... 154

F.7 Ram and wake effects ...................................................................................................... 154

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN 14092:2004
EN 14092:2002 (E)

F.8 Current collection effects................................................................................................... 155

F.9 Sputtering.......................................................................................................................... 155

F.10 Ionospheric propagation effects........................................................................................ 155

F.11 Availability of the IRI95 model........................................................................................... 156

F.12 References........................................................................................................................ 157

Annex G (informative) Radiation........................................................................................................... 158

G.1 Links with radiation testing................................................................................................ 158

G.2 Future models ................................................................................................................... 158

G.3 Sources of models ............................................................................................................ 160

G.4 Internal electrostatic charging analysis tools .................................................................... 160

G.5 Further information............................................................................................................ 161

G.6 References........................................................................................................................ 161

Annex H (informative) Particulates ....................................................................................................... 162

H.1 Space debris flux models.................................................................................................. 162

H.1.1 General......................................................................................................................... 162

H.1.2 MASTER-97 ................................................................................................................. 162

H.1.3 ORDEM-96................................................................................................................... 162

H.1.4 Velocity distribution ...................................................................................................... 163

H.1.5 Mass density ................................................................................................................ 163

H.1.6 Regime of applicability ................................................................................................. 163

H.1.7 Tailoring guidelines ...................................................................................................... 163

H.1.8 Other debris models..................................................................................................... 163

H.2 Model uncertainties ........................................................................................................... 164

H.2.1 General.................................
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.