Information and documentation -- Transliteration of scripts in use in Thailand -- Part 1: Transliteration of Akson-Thai-Noi

This document describes the orthographic system of the Akson-Thai-Noi script using Romanized characters.
This document can be used by anyone who has a clear understanding of the system and is certain that it can be applied without ambiguity. The result obtained will not give a correct pronunciation of the original text in a person's own language, but it will serve as a means of finding automatically the original graphism and thus allow anyone who has a knowledge of the original language to pronounce it correctly.
NOTE Similarly, one can only pronounce correctly a text written in, for example, English or Polish, if one has a knowledge of English or Polish.

Information et documentation -- Translittération des scripts utilisés en Thaïlande -- Partie 1: Translittération du Akson-Thaï-Noï

Informatika in dokumentacija - Transliteracija pisav, ki so v uporabi v Tajski - 1. del: Transliteracija Akson-Thai-Noi

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
20-Oct-2019
Publication Date
14-Jan-2021
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
08-Dec-2020
Due Date
12-Feb-2021
Completion Date
15-Jan-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 20674-1:2021
01-februar-2021

Informatika in dokumentacija - Transliteracija pisav, ki so v uporabi v Tajski - 1.

del: Transliteracija Akson-Thai-Noi

Information and documentation -- Transliteration of scripts in use in Thailand -- Part 1:

Transliteration of Akson-Thai-Noi

Information et documentation -- Translittération des scripts utilisés en Thaïlande -- Partie

1: Translittération du Akson-Thaï-Noï
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 20674-1:2019
ICS:
01.140.10 Pisanje in prečrkovanje Writing and transliteration
SIST ISO 20674-1:2021 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 20674-1:2021
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 20674-1:2021
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 20674-1
First edition
2019-10
Information and documentation —
Transliteration of scripts in use in
Thailand —
Part 1:
Transliteration of Akson-Thai-Noi
Information et documentation — Translittération des scripts utilisés
en Thaïlande —
Partie 1: Translittération du Akson-Thaï-Noï
Reference number
ISO 20674-1:2019(E)
ISO 2019
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 20674-1:2021
ISO 20674-1:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 20674-1:2021
ISO 20674-1:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 General principles of conversion of writing systems ..................................................................................................... 2

5 Principles of conversion for alphabetical writing systems ...................................................................................... 3

6 Akson-Thai-Noi orthographic rules and features ............................................................................................................... 4

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2 Consonants ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

6.3 Vowels and special markers ........................................................................................................................................................ 6

6.4 Akson-Thai-Noi list of digits ........................................................................................................................................................ 7

6.5 Special symbols ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.5.2 Combining diacritical markers ............................................................................................................................ 7

6.5.3 Combining characters ........................................................................................................................................... ....... 7

7 Arrangement of character sequence ............................................................................................................................................... 7

8 Typing sequence ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

9 Romanization table ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

Annex A (informative) Akson-Thai-Noi script ..........................................................................................................................................13

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................14

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST ISO 20674-1:2021
ISO 20674-1:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 46, Information and documentation.

A list of all parts in the ISO 20674 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST ISO 20674-1:2021
ISO 20674-1:2019(E)
Introduction

The Akson-Thai-Noi characters of this document have been developed as modern representations

of scripts found in inscriptions and palm leaf religious texts which have been adapted by the Royal

Institute of Thailand .

The selection of Romanized characters follows, to the extent possible, the phonemic/phonetic

representations used in the transliteration of Standard Thai as described in ISO 11940, thus enabling

consistency of system and economy of codes.

In this system, transliteration principles are applied stringently to enable complete unambiguous

reversibility in the conversion of characters. Although accurate pronunciation may not always result

in the application of this system, because the original Akson-Thai-Noi characters can be regenerated

automatically from the Romanized representation, those with knowledge of the languages will be able

to correctly pronounce the Romanized graphemes.

This document is one of a series of International Standards, dealing with the conversion of systems

of writing. The aim of this document and others in the series is to provide a means for international

communication of written messages in a form which permits the automatic transmission and

reconstitution of these by men or machines. The system of conversion, in this case, is univocal and

entirely reversible.

This means that no consideration should be given to phonetic and aesthetic matters nor to certain

national customs: all these considerations are, indeed, ignored by the machine performing the function.

The adoption of this document for international communication leaves every country free to adopt for

its own use a national standard which may be different, on condition that it be compatible with the

document. The system proposed herein should make this possible and be acceptable to international

use if the graphisms it creates are such that they may be converted automatically into the graphisms

used in any strict national system.

The adoption of national standards compatible with this document will permit the representation, in an

international publication, of the morphemes of each language according to the customs of the country

where it is spoken. It will be possible to simplify this representation in order to take into account the

number of the character sets available on different kinds of machines.

1) The “Royal Institute of Thailand” underwent a name change to the “Royal Society of Thailand” in accordance

with the Royal Society Act, BE 2558 (14 February 2015).
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST ISO 20674-1:2021
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST ISO 20674-1:2021
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 20674-1:2019(E)
Information and documentation — Transliteration of
scripts in use in Thailand —
Part 1:
Transliteration of Akson-Thai-Noi
1 Scope

This document describes the orthographic system of the Akson-Thai-Noi script using Romanized

characters.

This document can be used by anyone who has a clear understanding of the system and is certain

that it can be applied without ambiguity. The result obtained will not give a correct pronunciation of

the original text in a person's own language, but it will serve as a means of finding automatically the

original graphism and thus allow anyone who has a knowledge of the original language to pronounce it

correctly.

NOTE Similarly, one can only pronounce correctly a text written in, for example, English or Polish, if one has

a knowledge of English or Polish.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
3.1
character

element of an alphabetical or other type of writing system that graphically represents a phoneme,

a syllable, a word or even a prosodical characteristic of a given language; it is used either alone

(for example, a letter, a syllabic sign, an ideographical character, a digit, a punctuation mark) or in

combination (such as an accent or a diacritical mark)

Note 1 to entry: A letter having an accent or a diacritical mark, for example â, è, ö, is therefore a character in the

same way as a basic letter.
3.2
Akson
letter of the alphabet
3.2.1
Akson-Thai-Noi
script used in religious and secular communities of the Isan Region of Thailand
Note 1 to entry: See Annex A.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST ISO 20674-1:2021
ISO 20674-1:2019(E)
3.2.2
Akson-Tham-Isan

script used in the north eastern region of Thailand suitable for writing Pali-Sanskrit texts

3.2.3
Akson-Thai-Noi characters

Akson-Thai-Noi (3.2.1) alphabetic letters, special markers, and Akson-Thai-Noi digits

3.3
vowel

letter that represents a sound produced by humans when the breath flows out through the mount

without being blocked by the teeth, tongue or lips
3.4
consonant
one of the speech sounds or letters of the alphabet which is not a vowel (3.3)
3.5
tone marker

sign which shows a sound that represents different meaning, depending on how high or low it is spoken

3.6
transliteration

process which consists of representing the characters (3.1) of an alphabetical or syllabic system of

writing by the characters of a conversion alphabet
3.7
retransliteration

process whereby the characters (3.1) of a conversion alphabet are transformed back into those of the

converted writing system
3.8
transcription

process whereby the sounds of a given language are noted by the system of signs of a conversion

language
3.9
romanization
conversion of non-Latin writing systems to the Latin alphabet
4 General principles of conversion of writing systems

4.1 The words in a language, which are written according to a given script (the converted system),

sometimes have to be rendered according to a different system (the conversion system) normally used

for a different language. The procedure is often used for historical or geographical texts, cartographical

documents and in particular bibliographical work where characters shall be converted from different

writing systems into a single alphabet to allow for alphabetical intercalation in bibliographies, catalogues,

indexes, toponymic lists, etc. It is indispensable in that it permits the univocal transmission of a written

message between two countries using different writing systems or exchanging a message the writing of

which is different from their own.

It thereby permits transmission by manual, mechanical as well as electronic means.

The two basic methods of conversion of a system of writing are transliteration and transcription.

2 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST ISO 20674-1:2021
ISO 20674-1:2019(E)

4.2 Transliteration is the easiest way to ensure the complete and unambiguous reversibility of the

conversion alphabet in the converted system.

In exceptional cases, such as when the number of characters used in the conversion system is smaller

than the number of characters of the converted system, it is necessary to use digraphs or diacritical

marks. In this case, one shall avoid as far as possible arbitrary choice and the use of purely conventional

marks and try to maintain a certain phonetic logic in order to give the system a wide acceptance.

However, it shall be accepted that the graphism obtained may not always be correctly pronounced

according to the phonetic habits of the language (or of all the languages) which usually use(s) the

conversion alphabet. On the other hand, this graphism shall be such that the reader who has a

knowledge of the converted language may mentally restore unequivocally the original graphism and

thus pronounce it.

4.3 Retransliteration is the exact opposite of the transliteration process in that the rules of a transliteration

system are applied in reverse in order to reconvert the transliterated word to its original form.

4.4 A transcription system is of necessity based on the orthographical conventions of the conversion

language. Transcription is not strictly reversible.

Transcription may be used for the conversion of all writing systems. It is the only method that can be

used for systems that are not entirely alphabetical or syllabic and for all ideophonographical systems of

writing like Chinese.

4.5 To carry out romanization, either transliteration or transcription or a combination of the two may

be used depending on the nature of the converted system.

4.6 A conversion system proposed for international use may call for compromise and the sacrifice of

certain national customs. It is therefore necessary for each community of users to accept concessions,

fully abstaining in every case from imposing as a matter of course solutions that are actually justified

only by national practice (for example, pronunciation, orthography, etc.).

When a country uses two systems univocally converting one into the other to write its own language,

the system of transliteration implemented shall be taken from before as a basis for the international

standardized system, as far as it is compatible with the other principles exposed hereafter.

4.7 When necessary, the conversion systems should specify an equivalent for each character, not only

the letters but also the punctuation marks, numbers, etc. They should similarly take into account the

arrangement of the sequence of characters that make up the text, for example the direction of the script,

and specify the way of distinguishing words and of using separation signs, following as closely as po

...

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 20674-1
First edition
2019-10
Information and documentation —
Transliteration of scripts in use in
Thailand —
Part 1:
Transliteration of Akson-Thai-Noi
Information et documentation — Translittération des scripts utilisés
en Thaïlande —
Partie 1: Translittération du Akson-Thaï-Noï
Reference number
ISO 20674-1:2019(E)
ISO 2019
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 20674-1:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 20674-1:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 General principles of conversion of writing systems ..................................................................................................... 2

5 Principles of conversion for alphabetical writing systems ...................................................................................... 3

6 Akson-Thai-Noi orthographic rules and features ............................................................................................................... 4

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2 Consonants ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

6.3 Vowels and special markers ........................................................................................................................................................ 6

6.4 Akson-Thai-Noi list of digits ........................................................................................................................................................ 7

6.5 Special symbols ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.5.2 Combining diacritical markers ............................................................................................................................ 7

6.5.3 Combining characters ........................................................................................................................................... ....... 7

7 Arrangement of character sequence ............................................................................................................................................... 7

8 Typing sequence ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

9 Romanization table ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

Annex A (informative) Akson-Thai-Noi script ..........................................................................................................................................13

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................14

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 20674-1:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 46, Information and documentation.

A list of all parts in the ISO 20674 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 20674-1:2019(E)
Introduction

The Akson-Thai-Noi characters of this document have been developed as modern representations

of scripts found in inscriptions and palm leaf religious texts which have been adapted by the Royal

Institute of Thailand .

The selection of Romanized characters follows, to the extent possible, the phonemic/phonetic

representations used in the transliteration of Standard Thai as described in ISO 11940, thus enabling

consistency of system and economy of codes.

In this system, transliteration principles are applied stringently to enable complete unambiguous

reversibility in the conversion of characters. Although accurate pronunciation may not always result

in the application of this system, because the original Akson-Thai-Noi characters can be regenerated

automatically from the Romanized representation, those with knowledge of the languages will be able

to correctly pronounce the Romanized graphemes.

This document is one of a series of International Standards, dealing with the conversion of systems

of writing. The aim of this document and others in the series is to provide a means for international

communication of written messages in a form which permits the automatic transmission and

reconstitution of these by men or machines. The system of conversion, in this case, is univocal and

entirely reversible.

This means that no consideration should be given to phonetic and aesthetic matters nor to certain

national customs: all these considerations are, indeed, ignored by the machine performing the function.

The adoption of this document for international communication leaves every country free to adopt for

its own use a national standard which may be different, on condition that it be compatible with the

document. The system proposed herein should make this possible and be acceptable to international

use if the graphisms it creates are such that they may be converted automatically into the graphisms

used in any strict national system.

The adoption of national standards compatible with this document will permit the representation, in an

international publication, of the morphemes of each language according to the customs of the country

where it is spoken. It will be possible to simplify this representation in order to take into account the

number of the character sets available on different kinds of machines.

1) The “Royal Institute of Thailand” underwent a name change to the “Royal Society of Thailand” in accordance

with the Royal Society Act, BE 2558 (14 February 2015).
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 20674-1:2019(E)
Information and documentation — Transliteration of
scripts in use in Thailand —
Part 1:
Transliteration of Akson-Thai-Noi
1 Scope

This document describes the orthographic system of the Akson-Thai-Noi script using Romanized

characters.

This document can be used by anyone who has a clear understanding of the system and is certain

that it can be applied without ambiguity. The result obtained will not give a correct pronunciation of

the original text in a person's own language, but it will serve as a means of finding automatically the

original graphism and thus allow anyone who has a knowledge of the original language to pronounce it

correctly.

NOTE Similarly, one can only pronounce correctly a text written in, for example, English or Polish, if one has

a knowledge of English or Polish.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
3.1
character

element of an alphabetical or other type of writing system that graphically represents a phoneme,

a syllable, a word or even a prosodical characteristic of a given language; it is used either alone

(for example, a letter, a syllabic sign, an ideographical character, a digit, a punctuation mark) or in

combination (such as an accent or a diacritical mark)

Note 1 to entry: A letter having an accent or a diacritical mark, for example â, è, ö, is therefore a character in the

same way as a basic letter.
3.2
Akson
letter of the alphabet
3.2.1
Akson-Thai-Noi
script used in religious and secular communities of the Isan Region of Thailand
Note 1 to entry: See Annex A.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 20674-1:2019(E)
3.2.2
Akson-Tham-Isan

script used in the north eastern region of Thailand suitable for writing Pali-Sanskrit texts

3.2.3
Akson-Thai-Noi characters

Akson-Thai-Noi (3.2.1) alphabetic letters, special markers, and Akson-Thai-Noi digits

3.3
vowel

letter that represents a sound produced by humans when the breath flows out through the mount

without being blocked by the teeth, tongue or lips
3.4
consonant
one of the speech sounds or letters of the alphabet which is not a vowel (3.3)
3.5
tone marker

sign which shows a sound that represents different meaning, depending on how high or low it is spoken

3.6
transliteration

process which consists of representing the characters (3.1) of an alphabetical or syllabic system of

writing by the characters of a conversion alphabet
3.7
retransliteration

process whereby the characters (3.1) of a conversion alphabet are transformed back into those of the

converted writing system
3.8
transcription

process whereby the sounds of a given language are noted by the system of signs of a conversion

language
3.9
romanization
conversion of non-Latin writing systems to the Latin alphabet
4 General principles of conversion of writing systems

4.1 The words in a language, which are written according to a given script (the converted system),

sometimes have to be rendered according to a different system (the conversion system) normally used

for a different language. The procedure is often used for historical or geographical texts, cartographical

documents and in particular bibliographical work where characters shall be converted from different

writing systems into a single alphabet to allow for alphabetical intercalation in bibliographies, catalogues,

indexes, toponymic lists, etc. It is indispensable in that it permits the univocal transmission of a written

message between two countries using different writing systems or exchanging a message the writing of

which is different from their own.

It thereby permits transmission by manual, mechanical as well as electronic means.

The two basic methods of conversion of a system of writing are transliteration and transcription.

2 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 20674-1:2019(E)

4.2 Transliteration is the easiest way to ensure the complete and unambiguous reversibility of the

conversion alphabet in the converted system.

In exceptional cases, such as when the number of characters used in the conversion system is smaller

than the number of characters of the converted system, it is necessary to use digraphs or diacritical

marks. In this case, one shall avoid as far as possible arbitrary choice and the use of purely conventional

marks and try to maintain a certain phonetic logic in order to give the system a wide acceptance.

However, it shall be accepted that the graphism obtained may not always be correctly pronounced

according to the phonetic habits of the language (or of all the languages) which usually use(s) the

conversion alphabet. On the other hand, this graphism shall be such that the reader who has a

knowledge of the converted language may mentally restore unequivocally the original graphism and

thus pronounce it.

4.3 Retransliteration is the exact opposite of the transliteration process in that the rules of a transliteration

system are applied in reverse in order to reconvert the transliterated word to its original form.

4.4 A transcription system is of necessity based on the orthographical conventions of the conversion

language. Transcription is not strictly reversible.

Transcription may be used for the conversion of all writing systems. It is the only method that can be

used for systems that are not entirely alphabetical or syllabic and for all ideophonographical systems of

writing like Chinese.

4.5 To carry out romanization, either transliteration or transcription or a combination of the two may

be used depending on the nature of the converted system.

4.6 A conversion system proposed for international use may call for compromise and the sacrifice of

certain national customs. It is therefore necessary for each community of users to accept concessions,

fully abstaining in every case from imposing as a matter of course solutions that are actually justified

only by national practice (for example, pronunciation, orthography, etc.).

When a country uses two systems univocally converting one into the other to write its own language,

the system of transliteration implemented shall be taken from before as a basis for the international

standardized system, as far as it is compatible with the other principles exposed hereafter.

4.7 When necessary, the conversion systems should specify an equivalent for each character, not only

the letters but also the punctuation marks, numbers, etc. They should similarly take into account the

arrangement of the sequence of characters that make up the text, for example the direction of the script,

and specify the way of distinguishing words and of using separation signs, following as closely as possible

the customs of the language(s) which use the converted writing system.

When romanizing a script which does not have upper-case characters, it is normal to capitalize some

words, following national usage.
5 Principles of conversion for alphabetical writing systems
5.1 The conversion may be made at various levels.

The first level is that of completely reversible stringent transliteration which is necessary to attain,

in full, the aim given in 4.2. This conversion applies all principle
...

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