Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 920: Guidance on tactile and haptic interactions (ISO 9241-920:2009)

This part of ISO 9241 gives recommendations for tactile and haptic hardware and software interactions. It provides guidance on the design and evaluation of hardware, software, and combinations of hardware and software interactions, including
-   the design/use of tactile/haptic inputs, outputs, and/or combinations of inputs and outputs, with general guidance on their design/use as well as on designing/using combinations of tactile and haptic interactions for use in combination with other modalities or as the exclusive mode of interaction,
-   the tactile/haptic encoding of information, including textual data, graphical data and controls,
-   the design of tactile/haptic objects,
-   the layout of tactile/haptic space, and
-   interaction techniques.
It does not provide recommendations specific to Braille, but can apply to interactions that make use of Braille.
The recommendations given in this part of ISO 9241 are applicable to at least the controls of a virtual workspace, but they can also be applied to an entire virtual environment — consistent, in as far as possible, with the simulation requirements.

Ergonomie der Mensch-System-Interaktion - Teil 920: Anleitung zu taktilen und haptischen Interaktionen (ISO 9241-920:2009)

Ergonomie de l'interaction homme-système - Partie 920: Lignes directrices relatives aux interactions tactiles et haptiques (ISO 9241-920:2009)

Ergonomija medsebojnega vpliva človek-sistem - 920. del: Navodilo za taktilne in haptične interakcije (ISO 9241-920:2009)

Ta del standarda ISO 9241 podaja priporočila za taktilne in haptične interakcije s strojno in programsko opremo. Zagotavlja smernice glede načrtovanja in ocenjevanja interakcij s strojno in programsko opremo ter kombinacije interakcij s strojno in programsko opremo, vključno z – načrtovanjem/uporabo taktilnih/haptičnih vhodov, izhodov in/ali kombinacij vhodov in izhodov na podlagi splošnih načel za njihovo načrtovanje/uporabo ter načrtovanjem/uporabo kombinacij taktilnih in haptičnih interakcij za uporabo v povezavi z drugimi modalitetami ali kot izključni način interakcije, – taktilnim/haptičnim šifriranjem informacij, vključno z besedilnimi in grafičnimi podatki ter krmilniki, – načrtovanjem taktilnih/haptičnih objektov, – postavitvijo taktilnega/haptičnega prostora in – tehnikami za interakcijo. Ne zagotavlja priporočil, ki so posebej zasnovana za Braillovo pisavo, vendar se lahko uporablja za interakcije, za katere se uporablja Braillova pisava. Priporočila, podana v tem delu standarda ISO 9241, se uporabljajo vsaj za krmilnike virtualnega delovnega prostora, vendar se lahko uporabljajo tudi za celotno virtualno okolje, ki je karseda dosledno z zahtevami simulacije.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
04-May-2016
Publication Date
12-Dec-2016
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
05-Dec-2016
Due Date
09-Feb-2017
Completion Date
13-Dec-2016

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 9241-920:2017
01-januar-2017
(UJRQRPLMDPHGVHERMQHJDYSOLYDþORYHNVLVWHPGHO1DYRGLOR]DWDNWLOQHLQ
KDSWLþQHLQWHUDNFLMH ,62

Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 920: Guidance on tactile and haptic

interactions (ISO 9241-920:2009)
Ergonomie der Mensch-System-Interaktion - Teil 920: Anleitung zu taktilen und
haptischen Interaktionen (ISO 9241-920:2009)

Ergonomie de l'interaction homme-système - Partie 920: Lignes directrices relatives aux

interactions tactiles et haptiques (ISO 9241-920:2009)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 9241-920:2016
ICS:
13.180 Ergonomija Ergonomics
35.180 Terminalska in druga IT Terminal and other
periferna oprema IT peripheral equipment
SIST EN ISO 9241-920:2017 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 9241-920:2017
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SIST EN ISO 9241-920:2017
EN ISO 9241-920
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
July 2016
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 13.180; 35.180
English Version
Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 920:
Guidance on tactile and haptic interactions (ISO 9241-
920:2009)

Ergonomie de l'interaction homme-système - Partie Ergonomie der Mensch-System-Interaktion - Teil 920:

920: Lignes directrices relatives aux interactions Anleitung zu taktilen und haptischen Interaktionen

tactiles et haptiques (ISO 9241-920:2009) (ISO 9241-920:2009)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 12 June 2016.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2016 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 9241-920:2016 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 9241-920:2017
EN ISO 9241-920:2016 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 9241-920:2017
EN ISO 9241-920:2016 (E)
European foreword

The text of ISO 9241-920:2009 has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 159 “Ergonomics” of

the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and has been taken over as EN

ISO 9241-920:2016 by Technical Committee CEN/TC 122 “Ergonomics” the secretariat of which is held

by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by January 2017, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by January 2017.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 9241-920:2009 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 9241-920:2016 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO 9241-920:2017
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SIST EN ISO 9241-920:2017
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 9241-920
First edition
2009-03-15
Ergonomics of human-system
interaction —
Part 920:
Guidance on tactile and haptic
interactions
Ergonomie de l'interaction homme-système —
Partie 920: Lignes directrices relatives aux interactions tactiles et
haptiques
Reference number
ISO 9241-920:2009(E)
ISO 2009
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SIST EN ISO 9241-920:2017
ISO 9241-920:2009(E)
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ii © ISO 2009 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 9241-920:2017
ISO 9241-920:2009(E)
Contents Page

Foreword .............................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction.......................................................................................................................................................vii

1 Scope......................................................................................................................................................1

2 Applying ISO 9241-920..........................................................................................................................1

2.1 Recommendations ................................................................................................................................1

2.2 Evaluation of products..........................................................................................................................1

3 Tactile/haptic inputs, outputs, and/or combinations.........................................................................2

3.1 General guidance on tactile/haptic inputs, outputs and/or combinations ......................................2

3.1.1 Optimizing performance .......................................................................................................................2

3.1.2 Providing accessible information on tactile/haptic elements...........................................................2

3.1.3 Providing contextual information ........................................................................................................2

3.1.4 Using consistent labels ........................................................................................................................2

3.1.5 Identifying system state........................................................................................................................3

3.1.6 Minimizing fatigue .................................................................................................................................3

3.1.7 Providing alternative input methods ...................................................................................................3

3.1.8 Maintaining coherence between modalities .......................................................................................3

3.1.9 Combining modalities...........................................................................................................................4

3.1.10 Presenting realistic experiences .........................................................................................................4

3.1.11 Isolation of individual interface elements...........................................................................................4

3.2 Intentional individualization .................................................................................................................5

3.2.1 Enabling users to change modalities..................................................................................................5

3.2.2 Enabling force feedback override........................................................................................................5

3.2.3 Enabling users to individualise tactile parameters ...........................................................................5

3.3 Unintentional user perceptions ...........................................................................................................5

3.3.1 Limiting acoustic output of tactile/haptic display..............................................................................5

3.3.2 Limiting heat gain of contact surface..................................................................................................5

3.3.3 Avoiding sensory adaptation ...............................................................................................................6

3.3.4 Recovering from sensory adaptation..................................................................................................6

3.3.5 Avoiding unintended perceptual illusions..........................................................................................6

3.3.6 Preventing temporal masking ..............................................................................................................6

4 Attributes of tactile and haptic encoding of information ..................................................................6

4.1 High level guidance on tactile/haptic encoding of information........................................................6

4.1.1 Using familiar tactile/haptic patterns ..................................................................................................6

4.1.2 Making tactile/haptic encoding obvious .............................................................................................6

4.1.3 Conformity to user expectations .........................................................................................................7

4.1.4 Using sensory substitution ..................................................................................................................7

4.1.5 Using appropriate spatial addressability and resolution..................................................................7

4.1.6 Using tactile apparent location ............................................................................................................7

4.1.7 Using distal body parts for high spatial resolution ...........................................................................7

4.1.8 Using higher addressability for trained users....................................................................................7

4.1.9 Using tactile apparent motion..............................................................................................................7

4.1.10 Preventing spatial masking..................................................................................................................8

4.2 Guidance on specific tactile/haptic attributes for encoding information........................................8

4.2.1 Selecting dimensions for encoding information................................................................................8

4.2.2 Discriminating between attribute values ............................................................................................9

4.2.3 Limiting the number of attribute values..............................................................................................9

4.2.4 Combining properties ...........................................................................................................................9

4.2.5 Limiting complexity...............................................................................................................................9

4.2.6 Encoding by object shape....................................................................................................................9

4.2.7 Encoding information by temporal pattern.........................................................................................9

© ISO 2009 – All rights reserved iii
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4.2.8 Encoding information using vibration amplitude...............................................................................9

4.2.9 Encoding information by vibration frequency..................................................................................10

4.2.10 Encoding by location ..........................................................................................................................10

4.2.11 Encoding by temperature ...................................................................................................................10

4.2.12 Encoding by thermal conductivity.....................................................................................................10

4.2.13 Identifying information values............................................................................................................10

5 Content-specific encoding..................................................................................................................11

5.1 Encoding and text data .......................................................................................................................11

5.2 Encoding and using graphical data...................................................................................................11

5.2.1 Displaying tactile/haptic graphics......................................................................................................11

5.2.2 Using grids on tactile graphs .............................................................................................................11

5.2.3 Using landmarks in tactile maps........................................................................................................11

5.2.4 Providing scales for tactile maps.......................................................................................................11

5.3 Encoding and using controls .............................................................................................................12

5.3.1 Using tactile/haptic controls...............................................................................................................12

5.3.2 Using size and spacing of controls to avoid accidental activation................................................12

5.3.3 Avoiding difficult control actions.......................................................................................................12

5.3.4 Using force to avoid accidental activation........................................................................................12

5.3.5 Interacting with controls .....................................................................................................................12

6 Design of tactile/haptic objects and space .......................................................................................13

6.1 Tactile/haptic display spaces .............................................................................................................13

6.1.1 Ease of perceiving multiple tactile/haptic objects ...........................................................................13

6.1.2 Ease of identifying adjacent tactile/haptic objects ..........................................................................13

6.1.3 Maintaining separation between surfaces of objects ......................................................................13

6.1.4 Separating tactile/haptic elements.....................................................................................................14

6.1.5 Avoiding empty spaces.......................................................................................................................14

6.1.6 Avoiding volume limits .......................................................................................................................14

6.1.7 Avoiding falling out of the tactile/haptic space ................................................................................14

6.2 Objects..................................................................................................................................................14

6.2.1 Using appropriate object size.............................................................................................................14

6.2.2 Creating discriminable tactile/haptic symbols .................................................................................14

6.2.3 Creating tactile/haptic symbols from visual symbols......................................................................15

6.2.4 Tactile/haptic object angles................................................................................................................15

6.2.5 Tactile/haptic object corners..............................................................................................................15

7 Interaction.............................................................................................................................................15

7.1 Navigating tactile/haptic space ..........................................................................................................15

7.1.1 Providing navigation information ......................................................................................................15

7.1.2 Supporting path planning ...................................................................................................................15

7.1.3 Providing well-designed paths...........................................................................................................15

7.1.4 Making landmarks easy to identify and recognise...........................................................................15

7.1.5 Providing appropriate navigation techniques ..................................................................................15

7.1.6 Providing navigational aids ................................................................................................................16

7.1.7 Understanding the tactile/haptic space.............................................................................................16

7.1.8 Supporting exploratory strategies (procedures)..............................................................................16

7.2 Reconfiguration ...................................................................................................................................16

7.2.1 Reconfiguring the tactile/haptic space..............................................................................................16

7.3 Interaction techniques ........................................................................................................................17

7.3.1 Implementing interaction techniques................................................................................................17

7.3.2 Avoiding unintended oscillation ........................................................................................................17

Annex A (informative) Overview of the ISO 9241 series................................................................................18

Bibliography ......................................................................................................................................................22

iv © ISO 2009 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 9241-920:2017
ISO 9241-920:2009(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 9241-920 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 159, Ergonomics, Subcommittee SC 4,

Ergonomics of human-system interaction.

ISO 9241 consists of the following parts, under the general title Ergonomic requirements for office work with

visual display terminals (VDTs):
⎯ Part 1: General introduction
⎯ Part 2: Guidance on task requirements
⎯ Part 4: Keyboard requirements
⎯ Part 5: Workstation layout and postural requirements
⎯ Part 6: Guidance on the work environment
⎯ Part 9: Requirements for non-keyboard input devices
⎯ Part 11: Guidance on usability
⎯ Part 12: Presentation of information
⎯ Part 13: User guidance
⎯ Part 14: Menu dialogues
⎯ Part 15: Command dialogues
⎯ Part 16: Direct manipulation dialogues
⎯ Part 17: Form filling dialogues

ISO 9241 also consists of the following parts, under the general title Ergonomics of human-system interaction:

⎯ Part 20: Accessibility guidelines for information/communication technology (ICT) equipment and services

⎯ Part 110: Dialogue principles
⎯ Part 151: Guidance on World Wide Web user interfaces
© ISO 2009 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 9241-920:2017
ISO 9241-920:2009(E)
⎯ Part 171: Guidance on software accessibility
⎯ Part 210: Human-centred design for interactive systems
⎯ Part 300: Introduction to electronic visual display requirements
⎯ Part 302: Terminology for electronic visual displays
⎯ Part 303: Requirements for electronic visual displays
⎯ Part 304: User performance test methods for electronic visual displays
⎯ Part 305: Optical laboratory test methods for electronic visual displays
⎯ Part 306: Field assessment methods for electronic visual displays
⎯ Part 307: Analysis and compliance test methods for electronic visual displays

⎯ Part 308: Surface-conduction electron-emitter displays (SED) [Technical Report]

⎯ Part 309: Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays [Technical Report]
⎯ Part 400: Principles and requirements for physical input devices
⎯ Part 410: Design criteria for products for physical input devices
⎯ Part 920: Guidance on tactile and haptic interactions
The following parts are under preparation:
⎯ Part 100: Introduction to standards related to software ergonomics
⎯ Part 129: Guidance on software individualization
⎯ Part 420: Selection procedures for physical input devices
⎯ Part 910: Framework for tactile and haptic interaction

Forms-based dialogues and design guidance for interactive voice response (IVR) applications are to form the

subjects of future parts 143 and 154.
vi © ISO 2009 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 9241-920:2017
ISO 9241-920:2009(E)
Introduction

Tactile and haptic interactions are becoming increasingly important as candidate interaction modalities in

computer systems such as special-purpose computing environments (e.g. simulation) and in assistive

technologies. While considerable research exists, a lack of ergonomic standards in this area could result in

systems being developed without sufficient concern for either ergonomics or interoperability, leading to

serious ergonomic difficulties for users of multiple, incompatible or conflicting tactile/haptic

devices/applications. This part of ISO 9241 provides ergonomics recommendations for tactile and haptic

hardware and software interactions, including guidance related to the design and evaluation of hardware,

software, and combinations of hardware and software interactions. The guidelines are not

technology-dependent and will also be applicable to future technologies.
© ISO 2009 – All rights reserved vii
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SIST EN ISO 9241-920:2017
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SIST EN ISO 9241-920:2017
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 9241-920:2009(E)
Ergonomics of human-system interaction —
Part 920:
Guidance on tactile and haptic interactions
1 Scope

This part of ISO 9241 gives recommendations for tactile and haptic hardware and software interactions. It

provides guidance on the design and evaluation of hardware, software, and combinations of hardware and

software interactions, including

⎯ the design/use of tactile/haptic inputs, outputs, and/or combinations of inputs and outputs, with general

guidance on their design/use as well as on designing/using combinations of tactile and haptic interactions

for use in combination with other modalities or as the exclusive mode of interaction,

⎯ the tactile/haptic encoding of information, including textual data, graphical data and controls,

⎯ the design of tactile/haptic objects,
⎯ the layout of tactile/haptic space, and
⎯ interaction techniques.

It does not provide recommendations specific to Braille, but can apply to interactions that make use of Braille.

The recommendations given in this part of ISO 9241 are applicable to at least the controls of a virtual

workspace, but they can also be applied to an entire virtual environment — consistent, in as far as possible,

with the simulation requirements.

NOTE It is recognized that some interactive scenarios might be constrained by the limitation that a real workspace is

to be modelled in a virtual environment. Objects can be in suboptimal positions or conditions for haptic interaction by virtue

of the situation being modelled.
2 Applying ISO 9241-920
2.1 Recommendations

Individual recommendations given in Clauses 5 to 7 should be evaluated for their applicability. The applicable

recommendations should be implemented unless there is evidence that to do so would cause deviation from

the design objectives.
2.2 Evaluation of products

If a product is claimed to have met the applicable recommendations in this part of ISO 9241 then the

procedures used to establish the product’s requirements, and to evaluate the product, shall be specified. The

level of detail of the specification is a matter of negotiation between the involved parties.

© ISO 2009 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 9241-920:2017
ISO 9241-920:2009(E)
3 Tactile/haptic inputs, outputs, and/or combinations
3.1 General guidance on tactile/haptic inputs, outputs and/or combinations
3.1.1 Optimizing performance
The system should be optimized to take account of the following.

a) The accuracy of available devices, the accuracy of the user, and the required accuracy of the task.

b) The ability of a user to control the speed and the force involved in operations.

NOTE 1 High speed of user actions is inconsistent with accurate control of force, and vice versa.

c) Acti
...

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