Solid recovered fuels - Determination of ash content (ISO 21656:2021)

This Standard specifies a method for the determination of ash content of all solid recovered fuels.

Feste Sekundärbrennstoffe - Bestimmung des Aschegehaltes (ISO 21656:2021)

Dieses Dokument legt Verfahren zur Bestimmung des Aschegehaltes sämtlicher festen Sekundärbrennstoffe fest.

Combustibles solides de récupération - Détermination de la teneur en cendres (ISO 21656:2021)

Trdna alternativna goriva - Določevanje vsebnosti pepela (ISO 21656:2021)

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
30-Mar-2020
Publication Date
28-Apr-2021
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
31-Mar-2021
Due Date
05-Jun-2021
Completion Date
29-Apr-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 21656:2021
01-junij-2021
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 15403:2011
Trdna alternativna goriva - Določevanje vsebnosti pepela (ISO 21656:2021)
Solid recovered fuels - Determination of ash content (ISO 21656:2021)
Feste Sekundärbrennstoffe - Bestimmung des Aschegehaltes (ISO 21656:2021)

Combustibles solides de récupération - Détermination de la teneur en cendres (ISO

21656:2021)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 21656:2021
ICS:
75.160.10 Trda goriva Solid fuels
SIST EN ISO 21656:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 21656:2021
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SIST EN ISO 21656:2021
EN ISO 21656
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
March 2021
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 75.160.10 Supersedes EN 15403:2011
English Version
Solid recovered fuels - Determination of ash content (ISO
21656:2021)

Combustibles solides de récupération - Détermination Feste Sekundärbrennstoffe - Bestimmung des

de la teneur en cendres (ISO 21656:2021) Aschegehaltes (ISO 21656:2021)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 6 March 2021.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 21656:2021 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 21656:2021
EN ISO 21656:2021 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 21656:2021
EN ISO 21656:2021 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 21656:2021) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 300 "Solid

recovered materials, including solid recovered fuels" in collaboration with Technical Committee

CEN/TC 343 “Solid Recovered Fuels” the secretariat of which is held by SFS.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by September 2021, and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by September 2021.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN 15403:2011.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 21656:2021 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 21656:2021 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 21656:2021
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SIST EN ISO 21656:2021
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 21656
First edition
2021-02
Solid recovered fuels — Determination
of ash content
Combustibles solides de récupération — Détermination de la teneur
en cendres
Reference number
ISO 21656:2021(E)
ISO 2021
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SIST EN ISO 21656:2021
ISO 21656:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 21656:2021
ISO 21656:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6 Sampling and sample preparation .................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.2 Pre-drying ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.3 Removed ash contributors (rac) .............................................................................................................................................. 3

7 Procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

7.2 Method A – ash content at 550 °C ........................................................................................................................................... 3

7.3 Method B – ash content at 815 °C ........................................................................................................................................... 4

8 Calculation .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

8.1 General analysis sample .................................................................................................................................................................. 5

8.2 Calculation of total ash content including removed ash contributors, on an as

received and dry basis ...................................................................................................................................................................... 5

9 Precision ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

9.1 Repeatability limit ................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

9.2 Reproducibility limit .......................................................................................................................................................................... 6

10 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

Annex A (informative) Interlaboratory test results .............................................................................................................................. 8

Annex B (informative) Environmental aspects .......................................................................................................................................11

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................13

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 21656:2021
ISO 21656:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 300, Solid recovered fuels, in collaboration

with the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/TC 343, Solid

recovered fuels, in accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation between ISO and CEN

(Vienna Agreement).

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 21656:2021
ISO 21656:2021(E)
Introduction

This document covers the determination of ash content of solid recovered fuels. It is primarily geared

toward laboratories, producers, suppliers and purchasers of solid recovered fuels but is also useful for

the authorities and inspection organizations.
[5]
The method A specified in this document is based on EN 15403 .
For information about environmental aspect, see Annex B.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 21656:2021
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SIST EN ISO 21656:2021
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 21656:2021(E)
Solid recovered fuels — Determination of ash content
1 Scope

This document specifies methods for the determination of ash content of all solid recovered fuels.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 21637, Solid recovered fuels — Vocabulary
ISO 21645, Solid recovered fuels — Methods for sampling
ISO 21646 , Solid recovered fuels — Sample preparation

ISO 21660-3, Solid recovered fuels — Determination of moisture content using the oven dry method —

Part 3: Moisture in general analysis sample
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 21637 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
ash
ash content on dry basis
total ash

mass of inorganic residue remaining after combustion of a fuel under specified conditions, typically

expressed as a percentage of the mass of dry matter in fuel

Note 1 to entry: Depending on the combustion efficiency the ash may contain combustibles.

Note 2 to entry: If a complete combustion is realized, ash contains only inorganic, non-combustible components.

[SOURCE: ISO 16559:2014, 4.13, modified — “Note 1 to entry” was removed and the following ones

renumbered, and symbol "A" was italicized.]
3.2
total ash content

mass of inorganic residue remaining after ignition of a fuel under specified conditions, expressed as

mass fraction in percent of the dry matter in the fuel, which also includes removed ash contributors

1) Under preparation. (Stage at the time of publication: ISO/DIS 21646:2021.)
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 21656:2021
ISO 21656:2021(E)
3.3
removed ash contributors
rac

coarse inert material (i.e. metals, glass, stones, tiles etc.) removed from the pre-dried sample before

preparation, in order to avoid damage to the preparation equipment

Note 1 to entry: Removed ash contributors are included in the total ash content calculations.

[SOURCE: ISO 21637:2020, 3.62, modified: Note 1 to entry was added]
3.4
total organic matter

combustible part of solid recovered fuels, which consists of the sum of volatile matter and fixed carbon

Note 1 to entry: It is calculated as: 100 - moisture content - ash content.

Note 2 to entry: It is the mass fraction of the matter lost by ignition, also known as “Loss of Ignition" (LOI).

3.5
volatile matter

relative part of the analysed sample, after moisture removal, that is lost when material is heated up

under specific conditions of temperature, time and in a reduced atmosphere (anoxic conditions)

3.6
fixed carbon

relative part of carbon contained in a material that can only be degraded in oxic conditions and high

temperature

Note 1 to entry: It is calculated as: 100 - moisture content - volatile matter content - ash content.

4 Principle

The sample is heated in air atmosphere up to a temperature of (550 ± 10) °C for Method A or (815 ± 10) °C

for Method B under rigidly controlled conditions of time, sample mass and equipment specifications.

The ash content is determined by calculation from the mass of the residue remaining after heating.

NOTE Difference in the ash content if determined at 815 °C compared to 550 °C is explained by decomposition

of carbonates forming CO , losses of volatile inorganic compounds (see also 3.5) and further oxidation of inorganic

[1]

compounds . In common standard practise, 550 °C is used for the determination of ash content in SRFs with a

[6]

high content of biomass. 550 °C can also be used for major elemental determination (see also EN 15410 ) and

[7]
trace elemental determination (see also EN 15411 ).

Automatic equipment (such as thermogravimetric analysers) may be used as long as the equipment is

validated by parallel measurements to the reference method. The automatic equipment shall fulfil all

the requirements regarding sample size, heating procedure, temperature, atmosphere and weighing

accuracy. Deviations from this paragraph shall be reported and justified.
5 Apparatus

5.1 Dish, consisting of inert material such as porcelain, silica or platinum, with a depth from 10 mm to

20 mm and such a size that the sample loading does not exceed 0,1 g/cm bottom area.

5.2 Furnace, capable of maintaining a zone of uniform temperature at the levels required in Clause 7

and to reach these levels in the specified heating rates. The ventilation rate through the furnace should

be such that no lack of oxygen arises during the heating procedure.
NOTE A ventilation rate from 5 air changes/min to 10
...

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