Soil and waste - Guidance on the selection and application of screening methods (ISO 12404:2021)

Boden und Abfall - Anleitung für die Auswahl und Anwendung von Screening-Verfahren (ISO 12404:2021)

Dieses Dokument gibt Anleitung zur Auswahl und Anwendung von Screening Verfahren für die Bewertung der Bodenbeschaffenheit und zur Charakterisierung von Abfällen, einschließlich der Verteilung von Zielparametern im Boden und bodenähnlichen Feststoffen. Ziel dieses Dokuments ist es, Kriterien dafür aufzustellen, wann die verschiedenen Arten von Screening Verfahren für die Analyse eines bestimmten Parameters im Boden, einschließlich bodenähnlichen Feststoffs, und Abfall angewendet werden können und welche Schritte zum Nachweis ihrer Eignung erforderlich sind.
Dieses Dokument empfiehlt kein bestimmtes Screening Verfahren, legt jedoch die Prinzipien dessen Auswahl und Anwendung fest.

Sol et déchets - Recommandations relatives à la sélection et à l'application des méthodes de diagnostic rapide (ISO 12404:2021)

Tla in odpadki - Navodilo za izbiro in uporabo presejalnih metod (ISO 12404:2021)

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
31-May-2020
Publication Date
11-Oct-2021
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
11-Jul-2021
Due Date
15-Sep-2021
Completion Date
12-Oct-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 12404:2021
01-november-2021
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 16123:2013
SIST EN ISO 12404:2015

Tla in odpadki - Navodilo za izbiro in uporabo presejalnih metod (ISO 12404:2021)

Soil and waste - Guidance on the selection and application of screening methods (ISO

12404:2021)

Boden und Abfall - Anleitung für die Auswahl und Anwendung von Screening-Verfahren

(ISO 12404:2021)
Sol et déchets - Recommandations relatives à la sélection et à l'application des
méthodes de diagnostic rapide (ISO 12404:2021)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 12404:2021
ICS:
13.080.10 Kemijske značilnosti tal Chemical characteristics of
soils
SIST EN ISO 12404:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 12404:2021
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SIST EN ISO 12404:2021
EN ISO 12404
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
June 2021
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 13.080.10 Supersedes EN 16123:2013, EN ISO 12404:2015
English Version
Soil and waste - Guidance on the selection and application
of screening methods (ISO 12404:2021)

Sol et déchets - Recommandations relatives à la Boden und Abfall - Anleitung für die Auswahl und

sélection et à l'application des méthodes de diagnostic Anwendung von Screening-Verfahren (ISO

rapide (ISO 12404:2021) 12404:2021)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 16 May 2021.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 12404:2021 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 12404:2021
EN ISO 12404:2021 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 12404:2021
EN ISO 12404:2021 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 12404:2021) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 190 "Soil

quality" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 444 “Environmental characterization of

solid matrices” the secretariat of which is held by NEN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by December 2021, and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by December 2021.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN 16123:2013 and EN ISO 12404:2015.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 12404:2021 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 12404:2021 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 12404:2021
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SIST EN ISO 12404:2021
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 12404
Second edition
2021-06
Soil and waste — Guidance on the
selection and application of screening
methods
Sol et déchets — Recommandations relatives à la sélection et à
l'application des méthodes de diagnostic rapide
Reference number
ISO 12404:2021(E)
ISO 2021
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SIST EN ISO 12404:2021
ISO 12404:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 12404:2021
ISO 12404:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principles ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

5 Typical areas for application of screening methods ....................................................................................................... 2

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.2 Support of sampling/sample preparation processes ............................................................................................ 2

5.3 On-site verification .............................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5.4 Monitoring of processes .................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5.5 Identification of homogeneity/heterogeneity of bulk material .................................................................... 2

5.6 Survey of contaminated sites (hot-spot identification) ....................................................................................... 2

5.7 Identification of sources of contamination ..................................................................................................................... 2

5.8 Monitoring of large areas ............................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.9 Safety issues .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

6 Selection of a screening method .......................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.1 General objectives ................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

6.2 Data quality objectives (DQOs) ................................................................................................................................................. 4

6.3 Selection criteria.................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.3.2 Sampling/sample pre-treatment/preparation ...................................................................................... 5

6.4 Checks for the selection of candidate methods ........................................................................................................... 5

6.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.4.2 Parameter definition .................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.4.3 Field of application ........................................................................................................................................................ 5

6.4.4 Method characteristics ............................................................................................................................................... 5

6.4.5 Boundary conditions .................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.5 Fit-for-purpose test ............................................................................................................................................................................. 6

6.6 Quality targets ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7 Applicability conditions for screening methods ................................................................................................................. 7

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.2 Performance requirements .......................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.3 Screening method applicability ................................................................................................................................................ 8

7.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.3.2 Measurement conditions .......................................................................................................................................... 8

7.3.3 Principle of the measurement .............................................................................................................................. 8

7.3.4 Instruction for method setup ................................................................................................................................ 8

7.3.5 Sampling and samples................................................................................................................................................. 9

7.3.6 Measurement steps........................................................................................................................................................ 9

7.3.7 Statement of results ...................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3.8 Sample and reagent disposal ................................................................................................................................. 9

7.3.9 Characteristic data of the method ..................................................................................................................... 9

8 Fit‑for‑purpose evaluation ......................................................................................................................................................................10

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

8.2 Accuracy testing ..................................................................................................................................................................................10

8.3 Exclusion of false negative results .......................................................................................................................................10

8.4 Testing of individual comparability ...................................................................................................................................11

9 Analytical acceptance criteria .............................................................................................................................................................11

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................11

9.2 Starting criteria ...................................................................................................................................................................................11

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 12404:2021
ISO 12404:2021(E)

9.3 Continuous criteria ...........................................................................................................................................................................11

10 Quality assurance .............................................................................................................................................................................................11

11 Documentation ....................................................................................................................................................................................................12

Annex A (informative) Example for the selection and application process of screening

methods to soil contamination ...........................................................................................................................................................13

Annex B (informative) Typical results on finding hot spots by screening methods.........................................15

Annex C (informative) Decision making process ..................................................................................................................................17

Annex D (informative) Example of documentation aid/check list .....................................................................................18

Annex E (informative) Statistical tool for individual comparability — Equality of results

from reference method and screening method: Mean value t‑test for real samples..................21

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................23

iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 12404:2021
ISO 12404:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www .iso .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 190, Soil quality, SC 3, Chemical and

physical characterization.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 12404:2011), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— The contents of ISO 12404:2011 and EN 16123:2013 were merged;
— The scope was widened to include waste;

— The document was developed parallel with CEN according to the Vienna Agreement;

— The text was editorially revised.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 12404:2021
ISO 12404:2021(E)
Introduction

This document provides guidance on the use of screening methods for soil, soil‑like materials and waste

characterization. Most of the following clauses are applicable to all matrices mentioned. However, a few

subclauses are specific to either waste or soil, including soil‑like material, only.

One field of application of screening methods is “on‑site verification” as recommended in the European

Landfill Directive (1999/31/EC) and the Landfill Decision (2003/33/EC).

Screening methods, which can be chemical, physical or biochemical in nature, can often be applied in

a quick and simple manner. Performance of quick and simple tests can be used in the field (i.e. on‑site)

and, in some cases, are also applicable for laboratory use. They can indicate the presence or absence of

an analyte or provide a qualitative estimate of a parameter such as a concentration or value, or generate

a semi‑quantitative result.

Screening methods are applicable to processes such as entrance control at waste disposal sites in

conjunction with standardized methods, because they allow fast verification of the documented waste

characteristics. They can also be used in similar way when soil or soil-like materials are to be reused in

accordance with the guidance in ISO 15176.

Regarding soil, they can also be used to produce a spatial distribution of concentrations or values within

a site, which can be supported by subsequent reference (laboratory‑based) analysis. When used in this

way, the purpose is generally to obtain information on target parameters or groups of parameters

and the location of unusual concentrations, possibly prior to undertaking a more detailed study

or investigation. In waste investigation, the location of samples is limited to an area where waste is

dumped but confirmation of the spatial distribution is still one of the investigation purposes, especially

when investigating soil‑like material.

The use of screening methods usually increases the efficiency of a site investigation. Generally, many

more samples can be analysed or checked and screened for target parameters and results generated

faster than using conventional laboratory-based reference methods. Additionally, screening methods,

particularly if carried out on‑site, can offer an immediate decision‑making opportunity which enables

staff to direct their efforts more effectively to those areas where a more thorough investigation might

need to be undertaken. Any required performance criteria prescribed for a parameter or group of

parameters need to be known; this should include an estimate of the uncertainty of the results.

NOTE Although soil screening methods are most commonly used to determine contaminants (pollutants)

in soils, for example in investigations of potentially contaminated sites, they can also be used to determine

parameters in uncontaminated soils (e.g. agricultural soils). Thus, the word “contaminant” in this document can

be construed to apply in any particular context to any relevant soil parameter (e.g. chemical, physical, biological).

vi © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 12404:2021
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 12404:2021(E)
Soil and waste — Guidance on the selection and application
of screening methods
1 Scope

This document provides guidance on the selection and application of screening methods for assessing

soil quality and waste characterization, including distribution of target parameters in soil and soil‑like

material. The aim of this document is to set up criteria as to when the different kind of screening

methods can be applied for the analysis of a certain parameter in soil, including soil‑like material, and

waste, and which steps are required to prove their suitability.

This document does not recommend any particular screening method but confirms the principles of

their selection and application.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
3.1
screening
application of any analytical semi‑quantitative method for exploratory analysis
3.2
screening method

method which is used (often on‑site) to quickly explore a given area including target parameter

distribution or to test a set of samples and obtain data on sample characteristics

Note 1 to entry: It is not necessarily directly comparable with reference methods.

3.3
reference method
method which is performed in accordance with national or international standards
3.4
on‑site verification

inspection to ensure that the waste accepted at a landfill is the same as described in the accompanying

documents and that it is in accordance with the basic characterization and/or compliance testing

Note 1 to entry: Procedures can be found in the European Landfill Directive (1999/31/EC) and the Landfill

Decision (2003/33/EC).
4 Principles

This document specifies a framework for selection and application of screening methods.

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 12404:2021
ISO 12404:2021(E)

It defines the whole process, from the selection of the screening method, the applicability and fit-for-

purpose testing, the fulfilling of the acceptance criteria, the quality control of the applied method, to

the documentation of measurement results.

The suitability of any particular screening method depends on the parameter or group of parameters

requiring determination and on the technical nature of the method.
5 Typical areas for application of screening methods
5.1 General

Screening methods constitute a useful addition to standard procedures in the following areas.

5.2 Support of sampling/sample preparation processes
Screening methods can be used for:

— selection of the most suitable analytical method (concentration range, interferences, specificity,

robustness);
— pre-selection of samples for analysis in the laboratory;

— provision of information about accompanying compounds relevant for sample preparation.

5.3 On‑site verification

Characteristics of sampled waste are verified, e.g. during transport or at the entrance of waste

treatment plants and landfills.
5.4 Monitoring of processes
Screening methods can be used:
— to monitor and control processes (e.g. success of treatment or remediation);
— to perform quality control on a treatment plant.
5.5 Identification of homogeneity/heterogeneity of bulk material

Screening methods can be applied to measure “target compounds” in large amounts of waste as well as

soil and soil-like material to check the degree of homogeneity.
5.6 Survey of contaminated sites (hot‑spot identification)

Screening methods are useful to identify contaminated areas in contamination-suspected sites.

Examples for the application to contaminated sites are given in Annex A (flowchart) and Annex B (hot

spot detection).
5.7 Identification of sources of contamination

Screening methods can be useful to identify the source of a contaminant (hot spot detection) and its

distribution or contamination variability in a material stream or stock-pile.
5.8 Monitoring of large areas

Screening methods can be used for determination of the distribution of key parameters, e.g. nutrients

in agricultural land.
2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 12404:2021
ISO 12404:2021(E)
5.9 Safety issues

Screening methods can be used to detect potentially toxic compounds (e.g. gases, radioactivity,

explosives) which could be hazardous to the personnel taking and processing samples.

6 Selection of a screening method
6.1 General objectives

Before the screening of a site can be carried out, a thorough planning phase is necessary.

First, all information available about the site should be evaluated, often by conducting a preliminary

investigation such as desk study and site reconnaissance following, for example, ISO 18400-202. This

may include historical records or data available from previous investigations. Essential prerequisites

for the suitable preparation of a screening investigation is information about the hydrogeological

situation, the kind of contaminants and/or parameters of interest and the concentrations or values

likely to be expected, as well as any information about the locality, including the former use of the

site. Furthermore, the infrastructure of the site and the accessibility might need to be taken into

consideration.
NOTE 1 Further additional steps can be considered:
— development of a conceptual site model (see e.g. ISO 21365);

— development of a suitable sampling strategy (see e.g. ISO 18400-104, and ISO 18400-203 or ISO 18400-205,

as appropriate);
— preparation of a sampling plan (see e.g. ISO 18400-101).

NOTE 2 Further information relevant to development of sampling strategies can be found in e.g. ISO 11504,

ISO 15175, ISO 15176, ISO 15799, ISO 15800 and ISO 19258.

When the target field is waste, a similar approach is advised. Information about sampling strategies

and planning can be found in e.g. CEN/TR 15310, Part 1-5.
NOTE 3 F
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN ISO 12404:2020
01-maj-2020
Kakovost tal - Navodilo za izbiro in uporabo presejalnih metod (ISO/DIS
12404:2020)

Soil quality - Guidance on the selection and application of screening methods (ISO/DIS

12404:2020)
Bodenbeschaffenheit - Anleitung für Auswahl und Anwendung von Vor-Ort-Verfahren
(ISO/DIS 12404:2020)

Qualité du sol - Lignes directrices pour la sélection et l'application des méthodes de

diagnostic rapide (ISO/DIS 12404:2020)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN ISO 12404
ICS:
13.080.10 Kemijske značilnosti tal Chemical characteristics of
soils
oSIST prEN ISO 12404:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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oSIST prEN ISO 12404:2020
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oSIST prEN ISO 12404:2020
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 12404
ISO/TC 190/SC 3 Secretariat: DIN
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2020-03-12 2020-06-04
Soil and waste — Guidance on the selection and application
of screening methods

Qualité du sol — Lignes directrices pour la sélection et l'application des méthodes de diagnostic rapide

ICS: 13.080.10
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
This document is circulated as received from the committee secretariat.
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
ISO/CEN PARALLEL PROCESSING
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/DIS 12404:2020(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 12404:2020
ISO/DIS 12404:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 12404:2020
ISO/DIS 12404:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principles ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

5 Typical areas for application of screening methods ....................................................................................................... 2

5.1 Support of sampling/sample preparation processes ............................................................................................ 2

5.2 On‑site verification .............................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5.3 Monit oring of processes .................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5.4 Identification of homogeneity/heterogeneity of bulk material .................................................................... 2

5.5 Survey of contaminated sites (hot‑spot identification) ....................................................................................... 2

5.6 Identification of sources of contamination ..................................................................................................................... 2

5.7 Monit oring of large areas ............................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.8 Safety issues .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

6 Selection of a screening method .......................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.1 General objectives ................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

6.2 Selection criteria.................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.2.1 Sampling/sample pretreatment/preparation ........................................................................................ 4

6.2.2 Parameter definition .................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2.3 Field of application ........................................................................................................................................................ 4

6.2.4 Method characteristics ............................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2.5 Boundary conditions .................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.3 Fit-for-purpose test ............................................................................................................................................................................. 5

6.4 Quality targets ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7 Applicability conditions for screening methods ................................................................................................................. 5

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7.2 Screening method requirements ............................................................................................................................................. 6

7.3 Screening method applicability ................................................................................................................................................ 6

7.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.3.2 Principle of the measurement .............................................................................................................................. 7

7.3.3 Instruction for method setup ................................................................................................................................ 7

7.3.4 Sampling and samples................................................................................................................................................. 7

7.3.5 Measurement steps........................................................................................................................................................ 7

7.3.6 Statement of results ...................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.3.7 Sample and reagent disposal instructions ................................................................................................. 8

7.3.8 Characteristic data of the method ..................................................................................................................... 8

7.3.9 Literature references .................................................................................................................................................... 8

8 Fit-for-purpose evaluation ......................................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.2 Accuracy testing ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.3 Exclusion of false negative results .......................................................................................................................................... 9

8.4 Testing of individual comparability ...................................................................................................................................... 9

9 Analytical acceptance criteria ................................................................................................................................................................ 9

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

9.2 Starting criteria ...................................................................................................................................................................................10

9.3 Continuous criteria ...........................................................................................................................................................................10

10 Quality assurance .............................................................................................................................................................................................10

11 Documentation ....................................................................................................................................................................................................11

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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oSIST prEN ISO 12404:2020
ISO/DIS 12404:2020(E)

Annex A (informative) Example for the selection and application process of screening

methods to soil contamination ...........................................................................................................................................................12

Annex B (informative) Typical results on finding hot spots by screening methods.........................................13

Annex C (informative) Decision making process ..................................................................................................................................15

Annex D (informative) Example of documentation aid/check list .....................................................................................16

Annex E (informative) Statistical tool for individual comparability — Equality of results

from reference method and screening method: Mean value t-test for real samples

Example of documentation aid/check list ..............................................................................................................................19

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................21

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Foreword

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bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

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electrotechnical standardization.

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described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

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URL: www .iso .org/ iso/ foreword .html.
This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 190, Soil quality.

Guidance on the selection and application of screening methods has been given in two standards for

soil and for waste, respectively. These are:

ISO 12404:2011, Soil quality — Guidance on the selection and application of screening methods

EN 16123:2013, Characterization of waste — Guidance on selection and application of screening methods

The principle for selection and application of screening methods is independent from the matrix

to which it is applied. This international standard combines both existing standards which will be

withdrawn.
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Introduction

This document provides guidance on the use of screening methods for soil, soil‑like solids and waste

characterization. Most of the following clauses are applicable to all matrices mentioned. However, a few

subclauses are specific to waste or soil, including soil‑like solid, only.

One field of application of screening methods is “on‑site verification” as recommended in the Landfill

Directive (1999/31/EC) and the Landfill Decision (2003/33/EC).

Screening methods, which can be chemical, physical or biochemical in nature, can often be applied in

a quick and simple manner. Performance of quick and simple tests can be used in the field (i.e. on‑site)

and, in some cases, are also applicable for laboratory use. They can indicate the presence or absence

of an analyte, or provide a qualitative estimate of a parameter such as a concentration or value, or

generate a semi‑quantitative result.

Screening methods are applicable to processes such as entrance control because, in addition to

standardized methods, they allow fast verification of the documented waste characteristics.

Regarding soil, they can also be used to produce a spatial distribution of concentrations or values

within a site, which can be supported by subsequent reference (laboratory‑base) analysis. When

used in this way, the purpose is generally to obtain information on target parameters or groups of

parameters and the location of unusual concentrations, possibly prior to undertaking a more detailed

study or investigation. In waste investigation, the location of samples is limited to an area where waste

is dumped but confirmation of the spatial distribution is still one of investigation purposes, especially

when investigating soil‑like solid.

The use of screening methods usually increases the efficiency of a site investigation. Generally, many

more samples can be analysed or checked for target parameters and results generated faster than

determined by conventional testing of laboratory reference methods. Additionally, screening methods,

particularly if carried out on‑site, can offer an immediate decision‑making opportunity which enables

staff to direct their efforts more effectively to those areas where a more thorough investigation might

need to be undertaken.

NOTE Although soil screening methods are most commonly used to determine contaminants (pollutants) in

soils, for example in site investigations, they can also be used to determine parameters in uncontaminated soils

(e.g. agricultural soils) The use of the word “contaminant” in this document can equally apply to any relevant soil

parameter.
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oSIST prEN ISO 12404:2020
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 12404:2020(E)
Soil and waste — Guidance on the selection and application
of screening methods
1 Scope

This document provides guidance on the selection and application of screening methods for assessing

soil quality and waste characterization, including distribution of target parameters in soil and soil‑like

solid. The aim of this document is to set up criteria as to when the different kind of screening methods

may be applied for the analysis of a certain parameter in soil, including soil‑like solid, and waste, and

which steps are required to prove their suitability.

This document does not recommend any particular screening method but confirms the principles of

their selection and application.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
3.1
screening
application of any analytical semi‑quantitative method for exploratory analysis
3.2
screening method

method which is used (often on‑site) to quickly explore a given area including target parameter

distribution or to test a set of samples and obtain data on sample characteristics

3.3
reference method

method which is performed in accordance with national or international standards and is not

necessarily comparable with screening methods
3.4
on‑site verification

third level of inspection according to the Landfill Directive and the Landfill Decision to ensure that the

waste accepted at a landfill is the same as described in the accompanying documents and that it is in

accordance with the basic characterization and/or compliance testing
4 Principles

This document specifies a framework for selection and application of screening methods.

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It defines the whole process, from the selection of the screening method, the applicability and fit‑for‑

purpose testing, the fulfilling of the acceptance criteria, the quality control of the applied method, to

the documentation of measurement results.

The suitability of any particular screening method depends on the parameter or group of parameters

requiring determination and on the technical nature of the method.
5 Typical areas for application of screening methods

Screening methods constitute a useful addition to standard procedures in the following areas.

5.1 Support of sampling/sample preparation processes
Screening methods may be used for:

— selection of the most suitable analytical method (concentration range, interferences, specificity,

robustness);
— pre‑selection of samples for analysis in the laboratory;

— provision of information about accompanying compounds relevant for sample preparation.

5.2 On‑site verification

Characteristics of sampled waste are verified, e.g. during transport or at the entrance of waste

treatment plants and landfills.
5.3 Monit oring of processes
Screening methods can be used:
— to monitor and control processes (e.g. success of treatment or remediation);
— to perform quality control on a treatment plant.
5.4 Identification of homogeneity/heterogeneity of bulk material

Screening methods may be applied to measure “target compounds” in large amounts of waste as well as

soil and soil‑like material to check the degree of homogeneity.
5.5 Survey of contaminated sites (hot‑spot identification)

Screening methods are useful to identify contaminated areas in contamination‑suspected sites.

Examples for the application to contaminated sites is given in Annexes A (flowchart) and B (hot spot

detection).
5.6 Identification of sources of contamination

Screening methods can be useful to identify the source of a contaminant (hot spot detection) and its

distribution or contamination variability in a material stream or stock‑pile.
5.7 Monit oring of large areas

Screening methods may be used for determination of the distribution of key parameters, e.g. nutrients

in agricultural land.
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5.8 Safety issues

Screening methods can be used to detect potentially toxic compounds (e.g. gases, radioactivity,

explosives) which may be hazardous to the personnel taking and processing samples.

6 Selection of a screening method
6.1 General objectives

Before the screening of a site can be conducted, a thorough planning phase is necessary.

First, all information available about the site has to be evaluated. This may be historical records or

data available from previous investigations. Essential prerequisites for the suitable preparation of a

screening investigation is information about the hydrogeologic situation, the kind of contaminants and

parameters of interest and the concentrations or values likely to be expected, as well as any information

about the locality, including the former use of the site.

Furthermore, the infrastructure of the site and the accessibility may need to be taken into consideration.

With this background information, data quality objectives have to be defined, that determine the

applicability of the screening method. Only with these preliminary steps is the selection of screening

methods possible.

Some examples of detailed questions are listed below. This list is not exhaustive and not all might be

relevant for a specific site:
— parameters and analytes of interest;
— matrices of interest and condition and variability of matrix;
— data quality objectives;
— parameter values known, expected or already found on‑site;
— general spatial extent of relevant parameters;
— ease of sampling;
— site facilities;
— site area;
— number of results per time unit;
— health and safety considerations.
6.2 Selection criteria

The following criteria should be taken into consideration when selecting the appropriate analytical

method. The different criteria shall be weighted depending on the intended application. The

decision‑making process and the results have to be documented by the user (see flowchart in Annex C

and documentation aid in Annex D).
Prerequisites are:
— one known parameter or a set of known parameters;
— aim of determination;
— matrix (soil, solid/liquid waste);
— confirmation of parameters’ spatial distribution.
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If a sample is collected from waste, the sample source of waste is obvious. In the case of a sample

collected from the ground, if the sample has no link with information on sampling location, screening

application has no meaning. Even with soil‑like solid, samples are to be linked with sampling location in

the same way.
6.2.1 Sampling/sample pretreatment/preparation
Sampling/sample pretreatment/preparation may include:

— direct measurement [e.g. (handheld) x‑ray‑fluorescence systems allow direct measurement with

limited sampling/sample pretreatment/preparation];
— pretreatment/preparation (e.g. extraction, separation);
— particle size and homogeneity.

Most screening methods require the provision of the analyte in an extract/eluate, which therefore

requires sample pre‑treatment. Pre‑treatment shall be carried out in accordance with the relevant

standards.
6.2.2 Parameter definition
Parameter definitions are as follows:
— total content (e.g. chromium, benzene);
3+ 6+ 2+ 3+
— individual species [e.g. Cr , Cr , Fe , Fe , volatile organic carbon (VOC)];

— group parameters [e.g. total organic carbon (TOC), adsorbable organically bound halogens (AOX)].

— in the case of on‑site verification, the AOX);parameters are typically defined by declaration or based

on the experience of the staff.
6.2.3 Field of application
— specified decision value (e.g. limit value, target value);
— concentration range;
— matrix;
— method limitations/interferences.
6.2.4 Method characteristics
Method characteristics are as follows:
— sensitivity, selectivity, accuracy value (e.g. limit value, target value);
— working range;
— limit of detection;
— matrix interferences;
— method limitations/interferences.
6.2.5 Boundary conditions
Boundary conditions are as follows:
— rapidity (in relation to aim of determination);
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— mobility;
— costs;
— quality target of analysis;
— frequency of use (continuous, once only);
— competence of staff;
— legal requirements;
— availability and/or ease of acquisition of the necessary equipment;
— infrastructural conditions.

The criteria shall be weighted differently depending on the intended application.

6.3 Fit-for-purpose test

In a second step, after passing the selection steps in 6.2, the selected method has to pass a fit‑for‑

purpose test as described in Clause 8.

In case of frequently repeated tasks, the most suitable screening method should be identified and

applied, the necessary equipment kept ready and the procedure documented in a standard operation

procedure. Selection and fit‑for‑purpose testing has therefore to be performed only once.

6.4 Quality targets

The general quality target of analytical questions is its ability to establish the relationship between

the analytical result and its confidence interval on the one hand, and the decision values on the other.

This relationship with the decision values means that the analytical method to be used is subject to

requirements regarding the quality of the analytical results. These requirements are task‑related and

shall be defined before the screening method is applied. The definition of these quality targets forms

the basis for the selection of the appropriate method.

A documented procedure for the application of a screening method and for all associated quality‑control

measurements shall be available to the person undertaking the test. Only after such tests have been

carried out and which demonstrate the intended sensitivity and stability, should field measurements be

undertaken.

Applying control charts to the results of such tests, over a long period of time, should demonstrate the

performance of the screening method and indicate whether it is acceptable or not.

7 Applicability conditions for screening methods
7.1 Gen
...

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