Railway applications - Braking - Functional and performance criteria of Electromagnetic Track Brake systems for use in railway rolling stock

EN 16207 specifies the functionality, position, constraints and control of a magnetic track brake system (MTB system) installed in bogies for use in emergency braking and in low adhesion conditions on Mainline Trains with speeds up to 280 km/h. It covers high suspension types of MTB only and not high/low and low suspension type of MTB. This document also contains test methods and acceptance criteria for an MTB system. It identifies interfaces with electrical equipment, bogie, track and other brake systems. On the basis of the existing international and national standards, additional requirements are defined for: - conditions of application for the MTB system; - retardation and brake forces; - functional and design features; - strength requirements; - type, series and vehicle implementation tests. For design and calculation a “reference surface” is established.

Bahnanwendungen - Bremse - Anforderungen an die Funktion und die Leistungsfähigkeit von elektromagnetischen Schienenbremssystemen für Schienenfahrzeuge

Dieses Dokument beschreibt die Funktion, Anordnung, Bemessungskriterien und den Betrieb eines Magnetschienenbremssystems (Mg-Bremssystem), welches in Drehgestelle von Vollbahnzügen eingebaut ist und bis zu Geschwindigkeiten von 280 km/h bei Schnellbremsungen sowie in Fällen reduzierter Kraftschlussbeiwerte genutzt wird. Sie umfasst daher nur Mg-Bremsen in Hochaufhängung und keine hoch/tief- bzw. tief aufgehängten Mg-Bremsen.
Dieses Dokument beinhaltet ebenfalls die Prüfverfahren und Zulassungsbedingungen für ein Mg-Bremssystem fest. Sie beschreibt die Schnittstellen zur elektrischen Ausrüstung, zum Drehgestell, zum Oberbau und zu anderen Bremssystemen.
Auf der Basis bestehender internationaler und nationaler Normen werden zusätzliche Anforderungen festgelegt für:
-   die Einsatzbedingungen der Mg-Bremse;
-   die Verzögerungs- und Bremskräfte;
-   die Funktion und die Gestaltungsgrundsätze;
-   die Festigkeitsanforderungen;
-   die Typ-, Serien und Einbauprüfungen.
Zur Konstruktion und Berechnung wird ein virtueller Rahmen (Normalquadrat) eingeführt.

Applications ferroviaires - Freinage - Critères pour la fonction et la performance des systèmes de freinage électromagnétiques pour véhicules ferroviaires

La présente norme européenne spécifie la fonctionnalité, la position, les contraintes et le contrôle d'un système de frein électromagnétique (système FEM) installé sur des bogies et utilisé en cas de freinage d'urgence et dans des conditions de faible adhérence sur des trains de grandes lignes pouvant atteindre des vitesses de 280 km/h. Elle couvre uniquement les types de FEM à suspension haute, à l’exclusion des  types de FEM à suspensions haute/basse et à suspensions basses.
Le présent document contient également des méthodes d'essais et des critères d'acceptation pour un système FEM. Il identifie les interfaces entre l'équipement électrique, le bogie, la voie et d'autres systèmes de frein.
Sur la base des Normes nationales et internationales existantes, des exigences supplémentaires sont définies pour les :
-   conditions d’application du système FEM ;
-   forces de décélération et de freinage ;
-   caractéristiques fonctionnelles et de conception ;
-   exigences de résistance ;
-   essais de type, de série et d'implémentation sur véhicules.
Pour la conception et les calculs, une « surface de référence » est établie.

Železniške naprave - Zavore - Funkcionalna merila in merila za zmogljivost elektromagnetnih zavornih sistemov za železniška vozila

Standard EN 16207 določa funkcionalnost, lego, omejitve in nadzor magnetnega tirnega zavornega sistema (sistema MTB), vgrajenega v vozičke za uporabo med izrednim zaviranjem ter pri pogojih nizke oprijemljivosti na glavnih vlakih, ki dosegajo hitrosti do 280 km/h. Zajema le vrste magnetnih tirnih zavor z visokim vzmetenjem in ne vrst magnetnih tirnih zavor z visokim/nizkim in nizkim vzmetenjem. Ta dokument vsebuje tudi preskusne metode in merila sprejemljivosti za magnetni tirni zavorni sistem. Določa vmesnike, ki imajo električno opremo, vozičke, tire in druge zavorne sisteme. Na podlagi obstoječih mednarodnih in nacionalnih standardov so določene dodatne zahteve za: – pogoje za uporabo magnetnega tirnega zavornega sistema; – zakasnitvene in zavorne sile; – funkcionalne in konstrukcijske lastnosti; – zahteve glede moči; – izvedbene preskuse tipa, serije in vozila. Za konstruiranje in izračun se določi »referenčna površina«.

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Public Enquiry End Date
24-Feb-2011
Publication Date
14-Sep-2014
Withdrawal Date
20-Nov-2019
Technical Committee
Current Stage
9900 - Withdrawal (Adopted Project)
Start Date
21-Nov-2019
Due Date
14-Dec-2019
Completion Date
21-Nov-2019

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Železniške naprave - Zavore - Funkcionalna merila in merila za zmogljivost elektromagnetnih zavornih sistemov za železniška vozilaBahnanwendungen - Bremse - Anforderungen an die Funktion und die Leistungsfähigkeit von elektromagnetischen Schienenbremssystemen für SchienenfahrzeugeApplications ferroviaires - Freinage - Critères pour la fonction et la performance des systèmes de freinage électromagnétiques pour véhicules ferroviairesRailway applications - Braking - Functional and performance criteria of Electromagnetic Track Brake systems for use in railway rolling stock45.040Materiali in deli za železniško tehnikoMaterials and components for railway engineeringICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 16207:2014SIST EN 16207:2014en,fr,de01-november-2014SIST EN 16207:2014SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST EN 16207:2014
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 16207
August 2014 ICS 45.060.01 English Version

Railway applications - Braking - Functional and performance criteria of Magnetic Track Brake systems for use in railway rolling stock

Applications ferroviaires - Freinage - Critères pour la fonction et la performance des systèmes de freinage magnétiques pour véhicules ferroviaires

Bahnanwendungen - Bremse - Anforderungen an Funktion und Leistungsfähigkeit von Magnetschienenbremssystemen für Schienenfahrzeuge This European Standard was approved by CEN on 28 June 2014.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Avenue Marnix 17,

B-1000 Brussels © 2014 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Members. Ref. No. EN 16207:2014 ESIST EN 16207:2014

EN 16207:2014 (E) 2 Contents Page Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................4 1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................5 2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................5 3 Terms, definitions and abbreviations ..................................................................................................6 3.1 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................6 3.2 Abbreviations .........................................................................................................................................7 4 Task and purpose of the MTB ..............................................................................................................8 5 Design requirements .......................................................................................................................... 10 5.1 Space envelope to be observed by the MTB ................................................................................... 10 5.2 Retardation force ................................................................................................................................ 10 5.3 Guidance of the activated magnet when applied to the rails ......................................................... 11 5.4 Rest position of the magnet above the rail surface ........................................................................ 11 5.5 Magnet elements ................................................................................................................................. 11 5.5.1 End pieces ........................................................................................................................................... 11 5.5.2 Pole shoes ........................................................................................................................................... 12 5.6 Clearance for wheel lathe machines and wheel skates .................................................................. 12 5.7 Strength requirements ....................................................................................................................... 13 5.8 Mechanical fastening of the MTB parts to the bogie ...................................................................... 15 5.9 Additional requirements for permanent magnets ........................................................................... 15 5.10 Control of the MTB.............................................................................................................................. 15 6 Load combinations for component tests ......................................................................................... 16 6.1 MTB performance considered in the emergency brake performance ........................................... 16 6.2 MTB performance not considered in the emergency brake performance .................................... 17 7 MTB diagnostics ................................................................................................................................. 17 8 EMC and interfaces............................................................................................................................. 17 8.1 Compatibility with train detection systems ..................................................................................... 17 8.2 Bogie components in the area of MTB ............................................................................................. 18 8.3 EMC-proof in accordance with EN 50121-3-2 .................................................................................. 18 9 Type and series production tests ..................................................................................................... 18 9.1 Type test .............................................................................................................................................. 18 9.1.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 18 9.1.2 Magnetic test ....................................................................................................................................... 18 9.1.3 Electric test .......................................................................................................................................... 18 9.1.4 Thermal test ......................................................................................................................................... 19 9.1.5 Mechanical test ................................................................................................................................... 19 9.1.6 Other tests and proofs ....................................................................................................................... 19 9.2 Series production testing .................................................................................................................. 20 10 Vehicle implementation tests ............................................................................................................ 20 Annex A (normative)

Design loads (load assumptions) of the MTB ........................................................... 21 A.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 21 A.2 Rest position ....................................................................................................................................... 21 A.3 Working position (brake application position) ................................................................................ 23 A.4 Rail brakes ........................................................................................................................................... 26 A.5 FME(C)A ............................................................................................................................................... 27 SIST EN 16207:2014

EN 16207:2014 (E) 3 A.6 Load collective for operational safety proof..................................................................................... 27 A.7 Load collective for component tests on the example of 10 000 brake applications .................... 29 A.8 Test procedure ..................................................................................................................................... 29 A.9 Test result............................................................................................................................................. 29 Annex B (normative)

Measurement of the magnetic attractive force — Functional test of brake magnets ................................................................................................................................................ 30 B.1 Measurement of the magnetic attractive force of MTB magnets ................................................... 30 B.2 Formation of the mean magnetic attractive force for rigid magnets ............................................. 31 B.3 Formation of the mean magnetic attractive force for articulated magnets ................................... 31 Annex C (normative)

End pieces of MTB ....................................................................................................... 33 Annex ZA (informative)

Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential Requirements of EU Directive 2008/57/EC ........................................................................................ 37 Bibliography ...................................................................................................................................................... 40

SIST EN 16207:2014

EN 16207:2014 (E) 4 Foreword This document (EN 16207:2014) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 256 “Railway applications”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by February 2015 and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by February 2015. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive 2008/57/EC. For relationship with EU Directive 2008/57/EC, see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part of this document. According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. SIST EN 16207:2014

EN 16207:2014 (E) 5 1 Scope This European Standard specifies the functionality, position, constraints and control of a magnetic track brake system (MTB system) installed in bogies for use in emergency braking and in low adhesion conditions on Mainline Trains with speeds up to 280 km/h. It covers high suspension types of MTB only and not high/low and low suspension type of MTB. This document also contains test methods and acceptance criteria for an MTB system. It identifies interfaces with electrical equipment, bogie, track and other brake systems. On the basis of the existing international and national standards, additional requirements are defined for: — conditions of application for the MTB system; — retardation and brake forces; — functional and design features; — strength requirements; — type, series and vehicle implementation tests. For design and calculation a “reference surface” is established. 2 Normative references The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN 10025-2, Hot rolled products of structural steels — Part 2: Technical delivery conditions for non-alloy structural steels EN 13674-1, Railway applications — Track — Rail — Part 1: Vignole railway rails 46 kg/m and above EN 14198, Railway applications — Braking — Requirements for the brake system of trains hauled by a locomotive EN 14478, Railway applications — Braking — Generic vocabulary prEN 14531-2, Railway applications — Methods for calculation of stopping and slowing distances and immobilisation braking — Part 2: Step by step calculations for train sets or single vehicles EN 15085 (all parts), Railway applications — Welding of railway vehicles and components EN 15179, Railway applications — Braking — Requirements for the brake system of coaches EN 15273-1:2013, Railway applications — Gauges — Part 1: General — Common rules for infrastructure and rolling stock EN 15273-2, Railway applications — Gauges — Part 2: Rolling stock gauge EN 15734-1, Railway applications — Braking systems of high speed trains — Part 1: Requirements and definitions SIST EN 16207:2014

EN 16207:2014 (E) 6 EN 15734-2, Railway applications — Braking systems of high speed trains — Part 2: Test methods prEN 16185-1, Railway applications — Braking systems of multiple unit trains — Part 1: Requirements and definitions prEN 16185-2, Railway applications — Braking systems of multiple unit trains — Part 2: Test methods EN 45545-2, Railway applications — Fire protection on railway vehicles — Part 2: Requirements for fire behavior of materials and components EN 50121-3-2, Railway applications — Electromagnetic compatibility — Part 3-2: Rolling stock — Apparatus EN 50124-1, Railway applications — Insulation coordination — Part 1: Basic requirements — Clearances and creepage distances for all electrical and electronic equipment EN 50126, Railway applications — The specification and demonstration of Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety (RAMS) EN 50128, Railway applications — Communications, signalling and processing systems — Software for railway control and protection systems EN 50129, Railway applications — Communication, signalling and processing systems — Safety related electronic systems for signalling EN 60077-1:2002, Railway applications — Electric equipment for rolling stock — Part 1: General service conditions and general rules (IEC 60077-1:1999, modified) EN 60529, Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code) (IEC 60529) EN 61373, Railway applications — Rolling stock equipment — Shock and vibration tests (IEC 61373) EN ISO 2409, Paints and varnishes — Cross-cut test (ISO 2409) EN ISO 4628-3, Paints and varnishes — Evaluation of degradation of coatings — Designation of quantity and size of defects, and of intensity of uniform changes in appearance — Part 3: Assessment of degree of rusting (ISO 4628-3) EN ISO 9227, Corrosion tests in artificial atmospheres — Salt spray tests (ISO 9227) UIC 544-1:2004, Brakes — Braking power 3 Terms, definitions and abbreviations 3.1 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 14478 and the following apply. 3.1.1 actuator device to lower the MTB to the rail head, commonly a pneumatic cylinder with a return spring SIST EN 16207:2014

EN 16207:2014 (E) 7 3.1.2 end pieces guide the magnets on the rails Note 1 to entry: They also contribute to the braking force Note 2 to entry: They are subject to wear. 3.1.3 high suspension variation of the MTB in which the magnets are connected with each other by means of tie bars and, in their rest position, are fastened to centring elements situated at a rest position in the running gear where they are held by spring action, and in which, so as to apply the magnets, an energy source is used for lowering them onto the rails 3.1.4 high/low suspension variation of the MTB in which the magnets are likewise connected with each other by means of tie bars and, in their rest position, are fastened to centring elements situated at a rest position in the running gear where they are displaced to their low position by using an external energy source, whereas, in their low position, however they are situated at a height which, when the magnets are energized, causes the magnets to get self-attracted by the rails, against a spring force 3.1.5 low suspension variation of the MTB in which the magnets are suspended above the rail surface, by the action of a spring, at a level that allows the magnets, when they are energized, to become self-attracted by the rail 3.1.6 pole shoes friction elements of the magnet that produce the braking force Note 1 to entry: They are subject to wear and are therefore replaceable. 3.1.7 rest position position of the MTB in which the magnets suspended at a significant distance from the rail surface, unless a brake application command has been issued and in which position the magnet is guided and positioned by the bogie Note 1 to entry: This position corresponds to the geometrical defined rest position in case of high suspension and high/low suspension. 3.1.8 weld-ons accumulation of metallic wear debris that attaches to the underside of the MTB pole pieces Note 1 to entry: The presence of this material reduces the braking performance of the MTB and thus needs to be removed during maintenance activities. 3.1.9 working position position of the MTB in which the magnets are in contact with the rail where it centres itself, due to the action of the magnetic field and in which, when the magnet is energized, the brake force is produced by friction 3.2 Abbreviations For the purposes of this document, the following abbreviations apply. SIST EN 16207:2014

EN 16207:2014 (E) 8 BP Brake Pipe CCS Control Command and Signalling DC Direct Current EMC Electromagnetic Compatibility FME(C)A Failure Mode Effect (criticality) Analysis g acceleration by gravitation (9,81 m/s2) IP67 IP-Code: a coding system to indicate the degrees of protection by an enclosure against access to hazardous parts, ingress of solid foreign objects, ingress of water and to give additional information in connection with such protection, according to EN 60529 MTB Magnetic Track Brake, equipment for one bogie/running gear PD2 degrees of pollution for the purpose of evaluating creepage distances and clearances, according to EN 50124–1 q clearance in mm between wheel set and lower part of the bogie frame in accordance with EN 15273–2 R+Mg brake mode with the MTB function active in accordance with EN 14198 TSI Technical Specification for Interoperability UN nominal battery voltage WSP Wheel Slide Protection 4 Task and purpose of the MTB The MTB is an additional braking device that directly acts on the rails and is therefore independent of wheel/rail adhesion. Its action is obtained by friction due to the magnetic attractive force. The magnetic attractive force can be generated electrically or by permanent magnets. The MTB is installed into the bogie or running gear, if required, to complement the brake depending on the wheel/rail adhesion. In the bogie the magnets are installed between the wheels. Figure 1 shows an example of an MTB with high suspension fitted to a bogie, which is represented in a simplified version. SIST EN 16207:2014

EN 16207:2014 (E) 9

Key 1 magnet with segmented or rigid pole shoes 2 actuator 3 tie bar 4 brake reaction bracket, non-magnetic 5 centring device to restrict lateral movement in the rest position 6 special end pieces for negotiating point work 7 electrical interface 8 pneumatical interface Figure 1 — Installation of an MTB into a bogie (example) The MTB is generally used in the following cases: a) Emergency brake applications: The MTB is activated automatically in case of an emergency brake application. If the MTB is part of the emergency braking performance then it is subject to specific safety and reliability requirements with respect to its availability to be applied. In this situation the retardation rate can be included in the braked weight value/overall retardation of the vehicle. b) Brake application under low adhesion conditions or steep slopes: The MTB may be actuated at the driver’s discretion independently of the wheel/rail adhesion dependent brake. SIST EN 16207:2014

EN 16207:2014 (E) 10 If MTB is on vehicles that are to be run through shunting areas, the system shall allow the inhibition of MTB and the clearance restrictions in accordance with EN 15273-1:2013, Figure C.4 shall be observed. NOTE 1 There is a risk that roll down humps, rail brakes and other shunting and retarding devices may contact MTBs particularly on track curves having a radius of R < 150 m. NOTE 2 Vehicles which by reason of their design are liable to sustain damage when crossing shunting humps will be marked with EN 15877-2:2013, Figure 76. Vehicles which are not designed for passing rail brakes will be marked with EN 15877-2:2013, Figure 58. 5 Design requirements 5.1 Space envelope to be observed by the MTB The position of the brake magnets above rail shall ensure a clearance which is sufficient under all operating configurations/conditions to prevent the magnets making contact with the rail if not activated (due to vibrations or suspension movements, independent of speed, even under extreme conditions with wheel wear and new brake magnets. The clearances shall take into account the lateral excursion and the vertical height position of the MTB when the vehicle is in the operating condition. The clearances of the vehicles to be observed are generally guided by the following provisions: a) The permissible clearances in accordance with EN 15273-1:2013, Figure C.4, including space "e", for the lower limitation of the vehicles shall not be exceeded by any parts of the MTB, neither in its rest nor in its working position. When the brake is in its working position, the magnets are centred on the rail, due to their magnetic force, as a consequence of which their gauge clearance only needs to be provided for the rest position of the brake. b) For the short time during the transition from its rest to its working position and vice versa gauge clearance shall be equated with its working position. c) In case space "e" should be used in working position and the magnets should contact with the track, e.g. when passing over switches, track or road crossings, their safe return to space "d" shall be ensured, without any functional impediment. d) When performing the clearance check, the following criteria shall be taken into account: 1) the wear condition of the wheels; 2) the condition of the pole shoes; 3) the suspension movements of the bogie. 5.2 Retardation force The retardation of the MTB depends on its magnetic attractive force on the rail, the magnet length applied, the material of its magnets and their condition during the braking process. The braking force produced by friction between the magnets and the rail results from the combined effect of the magnetic force applied and the coefficient of friction element/rail. For dimension and design purposes calculations shall be carried out in accordance with prEN 14531-2. The performance shall be verified by testing. SIST EN 16207:2014

EN 16207:2014 (E) 11 The MTB shall, whenever possible, reach its specified retardation rate under all environmental conditions that are typical for railway operation. It is permitted during winter control to use heating elements to reduce the build-up of ice on the pole shoes. The magnetic attractive force of the MTB on to the rail head shall be defined in the technical documents of the manufacturer and is expressed and measured in accordance with the methods described in 9.1.2. 5.3 Guidance of the activated magnet when applied to the rails As a rule, each magnet or both magnets jointly, arranged opposite each other, shall have an optimum contact with the rail head when activated. For this purpose, the MTB shall be provided with sufficient lateral freedom in the bogie in the working position. The MTB shall have an adequate lateral clearance. In EN 15273-1 the clearance between axle and bogie underframe is defined by q:

qx = lateral clearance + The distance between the centre lines of the magnets shall be 1 510 mm for standard gauge (1 435 mm), see Annex C. When intended for use on different gauges the distance between the centre lines shall be adjusted accordingly. A bogie shall always comprise two magnets with pole shoes of identical construction. Appropriate devices (e. g. tie bars) shall be provided to maintain the pole shoes in a parallel position to each other. When the rail head is interrupted (switches, crossings), guidance of the magnet along the longitudinal axis of the rail head and its geometrical position, in relation to the vertical axis, shall be ensured in an optimum way to achieve a retardation rate that is as uniform as possible and to make sure that the MTB guiding elements in the running gear be subjected to the least possible mechanical load. The working MTB shall be capable of passing over switches and crossings (incorporating fixed crossings). A reference switch where the tangent of the crossing angle is tg . ≥ 0,034 is able to verify the capable function. 5.4 Rest position of the magnet above the rail surface The MTB when in its rest position with the vehicle in working order, with fully worn wheels and taking into account static deflection of the running gear shall: — remain within the space "b", as defined in EN 15273-1:2013, Figure C.4; — be 40 mm to 100 mm above the rail surface. It may be assumed that the stationary parts in the switch and crossing environment do not exceed a height of 80 mm above the rail surface. 5.5 Magnet elements 5.5.1 End pieces The end pieces of a magnet have several tasks: — they protect the magnet pole shoes transmitting the braking force from mechanical damage; — they assist the passage of the magnet over switches and crossings when the magnets are in working position, to reduce the risk of derailment; — they contribute to the overall retardation generated by the magnet. SIST EN 16207:2014

EN 16207:2014 (E) 12 To ensure these characteristics, the end pieces are fixed on the support frame of the magnets and shall have a suitable geometry. The present state of the art is documented in Annex C. 5.5.2 Pole shoes The magnet can have a single rigid pole shoe which is generally used in low speed applications. For Mainline operation the state of the art is a magnet body with several pole shoes, which are free to move within the support frame. The width of the pole shoe that is in contact with the rail head shall be 65 mm to 72 mm and the maximum width of the magnet shall not exceed 140 mm. It is permitted for the magnets to be fitted with renewable friction plates to enable easy replacement while on the vehicle. The limit of wear of the pole shoe and/or the friction plates shall be clearly identifiable. The total length L over which the MTB is in contact with the rail should be at least 1 000 mm. 5.6 Clearance for wheel lathe machines and wheel skates The installation of the MTB shall be made in such a way that sufficient space is available in the vicinity of the wheel to perform maintenance or repair work with underfloor wheel lathe machines. An example of the clearance required for this purpose is represented in Figure 2. SIST EN 16207:2014

EN 16207:2014 (E) 13

Key D wheel diameter d diameter of driving roller S distance between axis of driving rollers 1 driving roller of the wheel lathe 2 lathe tool Figure 2 — Typical underfloor wheel lathe configuration NOTE Typical dimensions for wheel lathe machines are: — diameter of driving roller d = 220 mm; — distance between axis of driving rollers S = 440 mm. To permit the use of wheel skates, it shall be possible to remove the magnets or their end pieces without damage. 5.7 Strength requirements The MTB (magnets, actuators, tie bar, brake reaction bracket – see Figure 1) should be designed so that: — no resonant vibrations are exerted on the bogie frame and the parts of the MTB; SIST EN 16207:2014

EN 16207:2014 (E) 14 — all movements and loads originating from the guiding elements of the

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