Hydrometry - Measurement of discharge by the ultrasonic transit time (time of flight) method (ISO 6416:2017)

This document describes the establishment and operation of an ultrasonic (transit-time) gauging
station for the continuous measurement of discharge in a river, an open channel or a closed conduit.
It also describes the basic principles on which the method is based, the operation and performance of
associated instrumentation and procedures for commissioning.
It is limited to the “transit time of ultrasonic pulses” technique, and is not applicable to systems that
make use of the “Doppler shift” or “correlation” or “level-to-flow” techniques.
This document is not applicable to measurement in rivers with ice.
NOTE This document focuses on open channel flow measurement. IEC 60041 covers the use of the technique
for full pipe flow measurement.

Hydrometrie - Messung des Durchflusses mit dem Ultraschall-Laufzeitverfahren (Transit-time-/Time-of-flight-Verfahren) (ISO 6416:2017)

Dieses Dokument beschreibt die Einrichtung und Arbeitsweise einer nach dem Ultraschall-Laufzeit-verfahren (Transit-time-/Time-of-flight-Verfahren) arbeitenden Messstation zur kontinuierlichen Messung des Durchflusses in einem Fluss, in einem offenen Gerinne oder in einem geschlossenen Kanal. Außerdem werden Verfahrensgrundlagen, Arbeitsweise und Leistungsverhalten der dazugehörigen Messgeräte sowie die Verfahren zur Inbetriebnahme festgelegt.
Es beschränkt sich auf das Verfahren, bei dem die „Laufzeit von Ultraschallimpulsen“ ausgewertet wird, und es gilt nicht für Systeme, die die „Doppler-Verschiebung“, die „Korrelations-“ oder die „Wasserstands-Durchflussbeziehungen“ anwenden.
Dieses Dokument gilt nicht für Messungen in mit Eis bedeckten Flüssen.
ANMERKUNG   Dieses Dokument fokussiert sich auf Durchflussmessungen im offenen Gerinne. IEC 60041 deckt die Rohrströmungsmessung ab.

Hydrométrie - Mesure du débit par le temps de transit ultrasonique (temps de vol) méthode (ISO 6416:2017)

L'ISO 6416 décrit l'installation et le fonctionnement d'une station de jaugeage ultrasonique (temps de transit) conçue pour mesurer en continu le débit dans une rivière, un canal découvert ou une conduite fermée. Il décrit également les principes de base sur lesquels reposent la méthode, le fonctionnement et la performance des appareils associés et les modes opératoires de mise en service.
Il est limité à la technique du «temps de transit des impulsions ultrasonores» et n'est pas applicable aux systèmes basés sur les techniques utilisant «l'effet Doppler», «la corrélation d'échos» ou «les relations hauteur/débit».
L'ISO 6416 n'est pas applicable au mesurage en rivières en présence de glace.
NOTE       L'ISO 6416 est axé sur le mesurage du débit dans les canaux découverts. L'IEC 60041 couvre l'utilisation de la technique de mesure du débit dans les conduites en charge.

Hidrometrija - Merjenje pretoka z ultrazvočno časovno prenosno metodo (čas letenja) (ISO 6416:2017)

Ta dokument opisuje vzpostavitev in delovanje ultrazvočne (časovno prenosne) postaje za neprekinjeno merjenje pretoka v reki, odprtem kanalu ali zaprtem vodu.
Opisuje tudi osnovna načela, na katerih temelji metoda, delovanje ter učinkovitost
povezanih instrumentov in postopkov za zagon.
Omejuje se na tehniko »časa prenosa ultrazvočnih impulzov« in se ne uporablja za sisteme, ki uporabljajo tehniko »Dopplerjevega zamika«, »korelacije« ali »ravni do pretoka«.
Ta dokument se ne uporablja za merjenje v poledenelih rekah.
OPOMBA: Ta dokument se osredotoča na merjenje pretoka v odprtem kanalu. IEC 60041 zajema uporabo tehnike za merjenje pretoka v celotni cevi.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
29-Feb-2016
Publication Date
03-Jan-2018
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
20-Dec-2017
Due Date
24-Feb-2018
Completion Date
04-Jan-2018

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Standards Content (Sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 6416:2018
01-februar-2018
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN ISO 6416:2005
+LGURPHWULMD0HUMHQMHSUHWRND]XOWUD]YRþQRþDVRYQRSUHQRVQRPHWRGR þDV
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Hydrometry - Measurement of discharge by the ultrasonic transit time (time of flight)

method (ISO 6416:2017)

Hydrometrie - Messung des Durchflusses mit dem Ultraschall-Laufzeitverfahren (Transit-

time-/Time-of-flight-Verfahren) (ISO 6416:2017)

Hydrométrie - Mesure du débit par le temps de transit ultrasonique (temps de vol)

méthode (ISO 6416:2017)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 6416:2017
ICS:
17.120.20 Pretok v odprtih kanalih Flow in open channels
SIST EN ISO 6416:2018 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 6416:2018
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SIST EN ISO 6416:2018
EN ISO 6416
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
November 2017
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 17.120.20 Supersedes EN ISO 6416:2005
English Version
Hydrometry - Measurement of discharge by the ultrasonic
transit time (time of flight) method (ISO 6416:2017)

Hydrométrie - Mesure du débit par la méthode du Hydrometrie - Messung des Durchflusses mit dem

temps de transit ultrasonique (temps de vol) (ISO Ultraschall-Laufzeitverfahren (Transit-time-/Time-of-

6416:2017) flight-Verfahren) (ISO 6416:2017)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 22 August 2017.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2017 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 6416:2017 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 6416:2018
EN ISO 6416:2017 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 6416:2018
EN ISO 6416:2017 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 6416:2017) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 113

“Hydrometry” in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 318 “Hydrometry” the secretariat of

which is held by BSI.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by May 2018, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by May 2018.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 6416:2005.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 6416:2017 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 6416:2017 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 6416:2018
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SIST EN ISO 6416:2018
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 6416
Fourth edition
2017-10
Hydrometry — Measurement of
discharge by the ultrasonic transit
time (time of flight) method
Hydrométrie — Mesure du débit par la méthode du temps de transit
ultrasonique (temps de vol)
Reference number
ISO 6416:2017(E)
ISO 2017
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SIST EN ISO 6416:2018
ISO 6416:2017(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2017, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
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Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 6416:2018
ISO 6416:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Applications ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4.1 Types of applications ......................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4.2 Attributes and limitations ............................................................................................................................................................. 2

5 Method of measurement .............................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5.1 Discharge ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.2 Calculation of discharge from the transit-time measurement ....................................................................... 3

6 Flow velocity determination by the ultrasonic (transit time) method ........................................................3

6.1 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

6.2 Sound propagation in water ........................................................................................................................................................ 5

6.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.2.2 Speed of sound in water ............................................................................................................................................ 6

6.2.3 Propagation losses ......................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.2.4 Signal path bending ....................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.2.5 Reflection ...................................................................... .......................................................................................................... 9

7 Gauge configuration .......................................................................................................................................................................................10

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

7.2 Single-path systems .........................................................................................................................................................................10

7.3 Multi-path systems ...........................................................................................................................................................................11

7.4 Crossed-path systems ....................................................................................................................................................................11

7.5 Reflected-path systems .................................................................................................................................................................13

7.6 Systems using transponders ....................................................................................................................................................14

7.7 Wireless systems (if a cable crossing is not possible) .......................................................................................15

7.8 Systems using divided cross-sections ..............................................................................................................................16

7.9 Sloping paths .........................................................................................................................................................................................16

8 Determination of discharge ...................................................................................................................................................................17

8.1 Single-path systems .........................................................................................................................................................................17

8.2 Multi-path systems ...........................................................................................................................................................................18

8.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................18

8.2.2 Mid-section method ...................................................................................................................................................19

8.2.3 Mean-section method ...............................................................................................................................................20

8.3 Systems with transducers in the channel .....................................................................................................................21

9 System verification and calibration ...............................................................................................................................................22

10 Site selection ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................23

11 Site survey — Before design and construction ..................................................................................................................23

11.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................23

11.2 Visual survey ..........................................................................................................................................................................................23

11.3 Survey of the cross-section ........................................................................................................................................................24

11.4 Survey of velocity distribution ...............................................................................................................................................24

11.5 Survey of signal propagation ...................................................................................................................................................24

12 Operational measurement requirements ...............................................................................................................................24

12.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................24

12.2 Basic components of flow determination .....................................................................................................................25

12.3 Water velocity determination .................................................................................................................................................25

12.4 Determination of water stage or depth ..........................................................................................................................25

12.5 Determination of mean bed level .........................................................................................................................................26

12.6 Channel width .......................................................................................................................................................................................27

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 6416:2018
ISO 6416:2017(E)

13 Gauging station equipment ....................................................................................................................................................................27

13.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................27

13.2 Design and construction of equipment ...........................................................................................................................28

13.2.1 Transducers.......................................................................................................................................................................28

13.2.2 Transducer cables ........................................................................................................................................................29

13.3 Reflectors ..................................................................................................................................................................................................29

13.4 Civil engineering works ................................................................................................................................................................32

13.5 Signal timing and processing ...................................................................................................................................................32

13.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................32

13.5.2 Signal-to-noise ratio ...................................................................................................................................................32

13.5.3 Signal maintenance (gain control) ................................................................................................................33

13.5.4 Signal detection ...................................................................... ........................................................................................33

13.5.5 Post-detection filtering ............................................................................................................................................34

13.6 System self-checking .......................................................................................................................................................................34

13.7 Site-specific data (or site parameters) ............................................................................................................................35

13.8 Clock and calendar ............................................................................................................................................................................35

13.9 System performance criteria ...................................................................................................................................................35

13.9.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................35

13.9.2 Operating environment ...........................................................................................................................................36

13.9.3 Water environment.....................................................................................................................................................36

13.9.4 Mechanical environment .......................................................................................................................................36

13.9.5 Extreme environmental conditions ..............................................................................................................36

13.9.6 Power source ....................................................................................................................................................................36

13.9.7 Measurement uncertainty ....................................................................................................................................36

13.10 System output .......................................................................................................................................................................................37

13.10.1 Local display .....................................................................................................................................................................37

13.10.2 Local record .......................................................................................................................................................................37

13.10.3 Remote record .................................................................................................................................................................37

13.10.4 Diagnostic information ............................................................................................................................................37

13.11 Installation ...............................................................................................................................................................................................37

13.12 Commissioning ....................................................................................................................................................................................38

13.13 Operating manual ..............................................................................................................................................................................38

13.14 Maintenance ...........................................................................................................................................................................................39

14 Measurement uncertainties ..................................................................................................................................................................40

14.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................40

14.2 Definition of uncertainty .............................................................................................................................................................40

14.3 Uncertainty in discharge .............................................................................................................................................................41

14.3.1 Uncertainty equation ................................................................................................................................................41

14.3.2 Effective number of paths .....................................................................................................................................42

14.3.3 Uncertainty in the line velocity, U ................................................................................................................

lv 42

14.3.4 Uncertainty in the channel width estimation, U ...........................................................................42

14.3.5 Examples of uncertainty estimation ............................................................................................................43

14.3.6 Uncertainty estimate at low flow ...................................................................................................................44

14.3.7 Uncertainty estimate at high flow ..................................................................................................................45

Annex A (informative) Principle of measurement uncertainty .............................................................................................47

Annex B (informative) Performance guide for hydrometric equipment for use in technical

standard examples ..........................................................................................................................................................................................54

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................58

iv © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 6416:2018
ISO 6416:2017(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 113, Hydrometry, Subcommittee SC 1,

Velocity area methods.

This fourth edition cancels and replaces the third edition (ISO 6416:2004), which has been technically

revised. The main changes from the previous edition are:
— the title has been changed;
— a new subclause (7.7) on wireless systems has been added;
— former subclauses 9.2 and 11.6 have been removed;
— Clause 10 on site selection has been revised;

— Annex A (Principle of measurement uncertainty) and Annex B (Performance guide for hydrometric

equipment for use in technical standards) have been added.
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 6416:2018
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SIST EN ISO 6416:2018
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 6416:2017(E)
Hydrometry — Measurement of discharge by the ultrasonic
transit time (time of flight) method
1 Scope

This document describes the establishment and operation of an ultrasonic (transit-time) gauging

station for the continuous measurement of discharge in a river, an open channel or a closed conduit.

It also describes the basic principles on which the method is based, the operation and performance of

associated instrumentation and procedures for commissioning.

It is limited to the “transit time of ultrasonic pulses” technique, and is not applicable to systems that

make use of the “Doppler shift” or “correlation” or “level-to-flow” techniques.
This document is not applicable to measurement in rivers with ice.

NOTE This document focuses on open channel flow measurement. IEC 60041 covers the use of the technique

for full pipe flow measurement.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 772, Hydrometry — Vocabulary and symbols
ISO 4373, Hydrometry — Water level measuring devices
ISO/TS 25377, Hydrometric uncertainty guidance (HUG)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 772 apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
4 Applications
4.1 Types of applications
a) Open channels
b) Multiple channels
c) Closed conduits

This method does not need a man-made or natural control, as it does not rely upon the establishment of

a unique relationship between water level and discharge.
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 6416:2018
ISO 6416:2017(E)
4.2 Attributes and limitations

The following attributes and limitations shall be considered when deploying this measuring system.

Attributes
1. Potential for high accuracy
2. Tolerant of back water effects
3. Able to measure multiple channels and combine results to give total flow

4. Capable of determining individual velocities at distinct heights within the water column

5. Visually unobtrusive
6. Fish friendly
7. Mains power supply not essential
8. Intrinsically safe systems available for use in explosive atmospheres
9. No obstru
...

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