Information and documentation -- Transliteration of Devanagari and related Indic scripts into Latin characters

This International Standard provides tables which enable the transliteration into Latin characters from text in Indic
scripts which are largely specified in rows 09 to 0D of UCS (ISO/IEC 10646-1 and Unicode).
The tables provide for the Devanagari, Bengali (including the characters used for writing Assamese), Gujarati,
Gurmukhi, Kannada, Malayalam, Oriya, Sinhala, Tamil, and Telugu scripts which are used in India, Nepal,
Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. The Devanagari, Bengali, Gujarati, Gurmukhi, and Oriya scripts are North Indian
scripts, and the Kannada, Malayalam, Tamil, and Telugu scripts are South Indian scripts.
The Burmese, Khmer, Thai, Lao and Tibetan scripts which also share a common origin with the Indic scripts, and
which are used predominantly in Myanmar, Cambodia, Thailand, Laos, Bhutan and the Tibetan Autonomous
Region within China, are not covered by this International Standard.
This International Standard applies to transliteration of Devanagari, and to Indic scripts related to Devanagari,
independent of the period in which it is or was used (i.e. for Devanagari script it can be used for transliterating text
in classical Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, and the Vedic language, for instance).
Other Indic scripts whose character repertoires are covered by the tables may also be transliterated using this
International Standard.
Options in this International Standard are defined in clause 9.

Information et documentation -- Translittération du Devanagari et des écritures indiennes liées en caractères latins

Informatika in dokumentacija – Transliteracija pisave devanagari in drugih sorodnih indijskih pisav v latinične znake

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
31-Oct-2005
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
01-Nov-2005
Due Date
01-Nov-2005
Completion Date
01-Nov-2005

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 15919
First edition
2001-10-01
Information and documentation —
Transliteration of Devanagari and related
Indic scripts into Latin characters
Information et documentation — Translittération du Devanagari et des
écritures indiennes liées en caractères latins
Reference number
ISO 15919:2001(E)
ISO 2001
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 15919:2001(E)
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ii © ISO 2001 – All rights reserved
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ISO 15919:2001(E)
Contents Page

1 Scope ..............................................................................................................................................................1

2 Conformance..................................................................................................................................................1

3 Normative references ....................................................................................................................................1

4 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................................................2

5 Abbreviated terms .........................................................................................................................................3

6 Characteristics of Indic scripts ....................................................................................................................3

7 Transliteration tables ....................................................................................................................................4

8 Special requirements and recommendations...........................................................................................16

8.1 Special requirements ..................................................................................................................................16

8.2 Recommendations.......................................................................................................................................18

9 Options .........................................................................................................................................................18

10 Tables for uniform transliteration of Indic scripts ...................................................................................19

11 Transliteration scheme for limited character set .....................................................................................19

12 Recommended transliteration of Indic schemes for Perso-Arabic characters.....................................19

13 Additional Indic scripts ...............................................................................................................................19

14 Reverse transliteration................................................................................................................................19

Annex A (normative) Tables for uniform transliteration .......................................................................................20

Annex B (normative) Transliteration table for limited (7-bit) character set ........................................................24

Annex C (normative) Recommended transliteration of Indic schemes for Perso-Arabic characters..............25

Annex D (informative) Examples of Indic characters used for Perso-Arabic .....................................................26

Annex E (informative) Additional Indic scripts ......................................................................................................27

Annex F (informative) Reverse transliteration of Indic scripts.............................................................................28

F.1 Overview.......................................................................................................................................................28

F.2 Examples of reverse transliteration in modern Indic languages............................................................28

F.3 Reverse transliteration in Vedic texts .......................................................................................................28

Bibliography..............................................................................................................................................................29

© ISO 2001 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 15919:2001(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies (ISO

member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO technical

committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been established has

the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in

liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical

Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 3.

Draft International Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting.

Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this International Standard may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard ISO 15919 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 46, Information and

documentation, Subcommittee SC 2, Conversion of written languages.

Annexes A, B and C form a normative part of this International Standard. Annexes D, E and F are for information

only.
iv © ISO 2001 – All rights reserved
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ISO 15919:2001(E)
Introduction

Script conversion is often required for documents such as historical and literary texts, geographical texts (including

maps and atlases), bibliographies, catalogues, lists and passports (and other identification documents).

Text in Devanagari script or other Indic scripts sometimes needs to be shown in Latin script, where users, or

equipment that they are using, cannot read or write the text.
© ISO 2001 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 15919:2001(E)
Information and documentation — Transliteration of Devanagari
and related Indic scripts into Latin characters
1 Scope

This International Standard provides tables which enable the transliteration into Latin characters from text in Indic

scripts which are largely specified in rows 09 to 0D of UCS (ISO/IEC 10646-1 and Unicode).

The tables provide for the Devanagari, Bengali (including the characters used for writing Assamese), Gujarati,

Gurmukhi, Kannada, Malayalam, Oriya, Sinhala, Tamil, and Telugu scripts which are used in India, Nepal,

Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. The Devanagari, Bengali, Gujarati, Gurmukhi, and Oriya scripts are North Indian

scripts, and the Kannada, Malayalam, Tamil, and Telugu scripts are South Indian scripts.

The Burmese, Khmer, Thai, Lao and Tibetan scripts which also share a common origin with the Indic scripts, and

which are used predominantly in Myanmar, Cambodia, Thailand, Laos, Bhutan and the Tibetan Autonomous

Region within China, are not covered by this International Standard.

This International Standard applies to transliteration of Devanagari, and to Indic scripts related to Devanagari,

independent of the period in which it is or was used (i.e. for Devanagari script it can be used for transliterating text

in classical Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, and the Vedic language, for instance).

Other Indic scripts whose character repertoires are covered by the tables may also be transliterated using this

International Standard.
Options in this International Standard are defined in clause 9.
2 Conformance

Text originally in non-Latin script which is converted to a Latin-script representation conforms to this International

Standard with or without any of the specific recommendations, if it follows the rules defined in 8.1 and the

conversion tables given in clause 7 and normative annexes A and B, with or without following any of the three

recommendations given in 8.2 and clause 12, all in accordance with the options defined in clause 9.

A claim of conformance shall specify which options have been chosen, and which recommendations have been

followed.
3 Normative references

The following normative documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of

this International Standard. For dated references, subsequent amendments to, or revisions of, any of these

publications do not apply. However, parties to agreements based on this International Standard are encouraged to

investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the normative documents indicated below. For

undated references, the latest edition of the normative document referred to applies. Members of ISO and IEC

maintain registers of currently valid International Standards.

ISO/IEC 10646-1, Information technology — Universal Multiple-Octet Coded Character Set (UCS) — Part 1:

Architecture and Basic Multilingual Plane

ISO/IEC 646:1991, Information technology — ISO 7-bit coded character set for information interchange

© ISO 2001 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 15919:2001(E)
4 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this International Standard, the following terms and definitions apply.

4.1
conversion

representing graphic characters from a source script by the graphic characters of a target script, most commonly by

romanization

NOTE The two basic methods of conversion of a system of writing are transliteration and transcription. The use of the

terms source script and target script in transliteration is analogous to the terms source language and target language in

translation.
4.2
script
set of graphic characters used for the written form of one or more languages
4.3
graphic character

character (other than a control character) that has a visual representation, normally handwritten, printed or

displayed

NOTE A graphic character is a single element of a script. Examples are letters, conjunct characters, numerical digits,

punctuation marks or diacritical marks.
4.4
reverse transliteration

process whereby the characters of a target script are transliterated into those of the source script

NOTE This International Standard aims to enable reverse-transliterated text to be identical to the original source text up to

equivalent orthography. However, non-reversible transcription-like transliterations are often found to be useful when quoting

recent material.
4.5
romanization

conversion of non-Latin graphic characters into Latin graphic characters, using either transliteration or transcription

4.6
transcription

representation of the sounds of a source language by graphic characters associated with a target language

4.7
transliteration

representation of the graphic characters of a source script by the graphic characters of a target script

NOTE In transcription, pronunciation conventions are of primary importance, while in transliteration, writing conventions are

of primary importance.
4.8
UCS
Universal Multiple-Octet Coded Character Set (UCS) as defined in ISO/IEC 10646-1

NOTE 1 The Indic scripts listed in ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 form a subset (with identical codes) of the Indic scripts listed in

ISO/IEC 10646-1:2000. Similarly, the Indic scripts listed in the Unicode standard (version 1.0 onwards) form a subset (with

identical codes) to the Indic scripts listed in ISO/IEC 10646-1:2000 and the Unicode standard, version 3.0. Any of these

standards provide valid character codes for the specific characters concerned.

NOTE 2 ISO/IEC 10646-1 is increasingly used for providing character identifiers in a wide range of International Standards,

including some in this International Standard. Use of these identifiers does not impose any requirements to use ISO/IEC 10646-1 or

any other character coding standard to represent either the source characters or the target characters in any computer system or

in information interchange.
2 © ISO 2001 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 15919:2001(E)
5 Abbreviated terms
� Ben. Bengali script
� Dev. Devanagari script
� Guj. Gujarati script
� Gur. Gurmukhi script
� Kan. Kannada script
� Mal. Malayalam script
� Ori. Oriya script
� Tam. Tamil script
� Tel. Telugu script
� Sin. Sinhala script
� P-A. Perso-Arabic script
6 Characteristics of Indic scripts

Characters in Indic scripts represent vowels, consonants and their combinations; nasalization, breathings,

numerals and punctuation.

Each vowel has a full form (occupying a full character space in text, and required when beginning a word or in

vowel hiatus) and a combining form (mātrā) used when the vowel follows a consonant, except that the short a

standing at the beginning of Indic alphabets has only a full form, because no mātrā is required (see below).

Consonants include stops, semivowels, spirants, and other speech sounds. Stop consonants are arranged in

classes, or vargas, according to the point of articulation, and within each class are subdivided into unvoiced or

voiced, unaspirated or aspirated consonants, and a nasal consonant.

Characters for consonants are most simply quoted in a form which includes the inherent vowel a,as inthe first

consonant ka in Table 1. The inherent vowel is removed by the virāma sign of the relevant script (Dev., Ben., Guj.,

Gur., Ori. ���,Tam. ��,Tel.���,Kan. ��,Mal. ��,Sin. � .AThe relevant mātrā is used when any other vowel

follows a consonant. Consonant clusters frequently form conjunct characters. Use of virāma to form consonant

clusters is unusual, except in Tamil where it is the normal method. When a mātrā is associated with a consonant, it

replaces the inherent vowel. Mātrās have various forms, even in a single script, and details may be found in

dictionaries and grammars.

It is important to note that many Indic characters have variant forms. Such differences of orthography are not

distinguished in this International Standard.

Devanagari is used for writing various modern languages, such as Hindi, Marathi, Rajasthani and other languages

in India, and Nepali in Nepal. Devanagari and most of the other Indic scripts are used for writing classical

languages often used in religious texts, such as the Sanskrit and Vedic languages, and Pali. In some cases, text in

Indic scripts uses additional characters for writing words in languages which do not normally use these scripts.

Thus some Urdu consonants are typically represented by adding a dot (nuqta) below certain letters (see Table 1,

normative annex C and informative annex D). Two English vowels may also be represented. Devanagari has also

been extended to write South Indian languages.
© ISO 2001 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 15919:2001(E)

Sinhala script (used in Sri Lanka) has additional letters, in comparison with the scripts which are used in India,

Nepal and Bangladesh. Tamil script (used in South India and also in Sri Lanka) uses fewer characters, in

comparison with other scripts which are used in India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.

When the Bengali script is used to write the Assamese language (in parts of North India), two characters not used

in writing Bengali are required. Hence the Assamese script is sometimes regarded as separate from the Bengali

script.
7 Transliteration tables

7.1 The transliteration from each Indic script to the Latin script shall be as specified in the Tables 1 to 10 and

A.3, subject to the rules specified in 8.1 and the options specified in clause 9.

7.2 The structure of the transliteration tables is explained in the following paragraphs.

The target characters (Latin script) fall within the ranges 0020-01FF and 0300-0332 of ISO/IEC 10646-1:2000.

The repertoires for many of the source characters fall within the following ranges of ISO/IEC 10646-1:2000, for the

script concerned:
� 0900-097F Devanagari
� 0980-09FF Bengali
� 0A00-0A7F Gurmukhi
� 0A80-0AFF Gujarati
� 0B00-0B7F Oriya
� 0B80-0BFF Tamil
� 0C00-0C7F Telugu
� 0C80-0CFF Kannada
� 0D00-0D7F Malayalam
� 0D80-0DFF Sinhala

Some additional Indic scripts whose character repertoires are included in the character repertoires of these scripts

are listed in informative annex E.
Consonants are shown with their inherent vowel a.

Only a single form of each Indic character is shown, just as in ISO/IEC 10646-1. Specifications of alternative forms

of these characters, including shapes when these are included in conjunct forms or in consonant-vowel

combinations, are outside the scope of this International Standard.

This clause gives tables for each script, with references to the rules of 8.1. Numerals are shown in Table A.3 of

annex A. Tables 1 to 10 are in the order of ISO 10646-1:2000. Vowels are shown in full form followed by a typical

form of the corresponding mātrā.

Normative annex A gives tables showing linguistically equivalent characters in each script (except that Gurmukhi

Bindi is not exactly equivalent to anusvara in the other scripts). Extended and ancient characters, apart from

numerals, are shown in Table A.2 unless an equivalent modern character exists in another script, in which case

they are enclosed in round brackets in Table A.1. (See also the requirements in clause 10.) In Tables A.1 to A.3

the scripts are ordered according to similarity of character repertoires.
4 © ISO 2001 – All rights reserved
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ISO 15919:2001(E)

A few rare characters for which attestation is not currently available are omitted.

Normative annex B gives the transliteration table (Table B.1) that shall be used when it is necessary to avoid use of

Latin letters with diacritics.

Normative annex C gives the recommended method of transliterating Indic characters specified as representing

Perso-Arabic characters (Table C.1 and its rules of application).

In the “Ref.” column of all these tables, the 3-digit decimal references are derived from hexadecimal to decimal

conversion of character codes in ISO/IEC 10646-1:2000. Note that the earlier International Standard

ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 also includes these decimal codes explicitly in its tables, in case visual comparisons are

required between this International Standard and ISO/IEC 10646-1.

3-digit decimal characters with an additional letter refer to characters not in ISO/IEC 10646-1:2000.

The order of characters in tables follows approximate alphabetical order, rather than the order in

ISO/IEC 10646-1:2000.
© ISO 2001 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 15919:2001(E)
Table 1 — Transliteration of Devanagari script
Ref. Indic Transliteration Ref. Indic Transliteration Ref. Indic Transliteration
005 aa Rule 2 027 chacha 053 vava
aa chacha vava
�� �� ��
�� �� ��
006 āāāā 028 jajajaja 054 śaśaśaśa
���� ����� ���� ����
007 iiii 029 jhajhajhajha 055 �a�a�a�a
����� ���� ���� ����
008 īīīī 030 ñañañaña 056 sasasasa
���� ����� ���� ����
009 uuuu 031 �a�a�a�a 057 hahahaha
���� ����� ���� ����
010 ūūūū 032 �ha�ha�ha�ha 088 qaqaqaqa
���� ����� ���� ����
011 ���� 033 �a�a�a�a 089 �a�a�a�a
���� ����� ���� ��������
���
096 �� ���� 034 �ha�ha�ha�ha 090 �a�a�a�a
����
���� ���� � � � �
012 ���� 035 �a�a�a�a 091 zazazaza
!!!! �""""
#### $$$$
097 ���� 036 tatatata 092 �a�a�a�a
%�%�%�%� �&&&&
’’’’ ((((
015 eeee 037 thathathatha 093 �ha�ha�ha�ha
)))) �**** ++++ ,,,,
016 aiaiaiai 038 dadadada 094 fafafafa
---- �.... //// 0000
019 oooo 039 dhadhadhadha 048a ����
1�1�1�1� ��*�*�*�* 2222 3333
020 auauauau 040 nananana 051 �a�a�a�a
4444 ��.�.�.�. 5555 6666
b a
013 êêêê 042 papapapa 002 !!!! Rules 3, 5, 8
)7)7)7)7 �7777 8888 �9999
b a
017 ôôôô 043 phaphaphapha 001 #### Rules 4, 5, 8
�7�7�7�7 ��7�7�7�7 :::: �;;;;
021 kakakaka 044 babababa 003 &&&&
<<<< ==== ����
022 khakhakhakha 045 bhabhabhabha 003a ’’’’
>>>> ???? X
023 gagagaga 046 mamamama 003b ****
@@@@ AAAA �
024 ghaghaghagha 047 yayayaya 061 ’’’’ Rule 15
BBBB CCCC DDDD
025 -a-a-a-a 048 rararara
EEEE FFFF
026 cacacaca 050 lalalala
GGGG HHHH

NOTE 1 Additional characters from Extended Devanagari may be found in Table A.1. See also Table D.1.

NOTE 2 The treatment of Vedic accents may be found in 8.1 (Rule 14 in clause 8), 8.2 and Table B.1.

Seeclause8.
English vowels as in bê�a, bôla, English “bat, ball”.
Used in Marathi and Nepali.
6 © ISO 2001 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 15919:2001(E)
Table 2 — Transliteration of Bengali script
Ref. Indic Transliteration Ref. Indic Transliteration Ref. Indic Transliteration
133 aa Rule 2 154 caca 174 mama
aa caca mama
�� �� ��
�� �� ��
134 āāāā 155 chachachacha 175 yayayaya
���� ����� ���� ����
135 iiii 156 jajajaja 176 rararara
����� ���� ���� ����
136 īīīī 157 jhajhajhajha 240 ���� rararara
���� ����� ����
137 uuuu 158 ñañañaña 178 lalalala
���� ����� ���� ����
138 ūūūū 159 �a�a�a�a 241 vavavava
���� ����� ���� ����
139 ���� 160 �ha�ha�ha�ha 182 śaśaśaśa
���� ����� ���� ����
224 ���� 161 �a�a�a�a 183 �a�a�a�a
���� � ���� ����
140 ���� 162 �ha�ha�ha�ha 184 sasasasa
�� ���� ����
225 ���� 163 �a�a�a�a 185 hahahaha
�� ���� ����
143 eeee 164 tatatata 220 �a�a�a�a
! !!!� """" �#�#�#�#
144 aiaiaiai 165 thathathatha 221 �ha�ha�ha�ha
$$%$$ %%%� &&&& �#�#�#�#
147 oooo 166 dadadada 223 0a0a0a0a Rule 9
’’!’’ !!!����� (((( )�)�)�)�
148 auauauau 167 dhadhadhadha 156a zazazaza
**!** !!!�++++ ,,,, �#�#�#�#
149 kakakaka 168 nananana 172a wawawawa
---- .... ������������
150 khakhakhakha 170 papapapa 130 !!!! Rules 3, 5, 8
//// 0000 1111
151 gagagaga 171 phaphaphapha 129 #### Rules 4, 5, 8
2222 3333 �4444
152 ghaghaghagha 172 babababa 131 &&&&
5555 6666 7777
153 -a-a-a-a 173 bhabhabhabha 061 ’’’’ Rule 15
8888 9999
Seeclause8.
Assamese character.

Used for transliteration of Persian and Arabic words into Bengali script. See also Table A.2 and informative annex D.

© ISO 2001 – All rights reserved 7
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ISO 15919:2001(E)
Table 3 — Transliteration of Gurmukhi script
Ref. Indic Transliteration Ref. Indic Transliteration Ref. Indic Transliteration
005 aa Rule 2 027 chacha 046 mama
aa chacha mama
�� �� ��
�� �� ��
006 āāāā 028 jajajaja 047 yayayaya
���� ����� ���� ����
007 iiii 029 jhajhajhajha 048 rararara
����� ���� ���� ����
008 īīīī 030 ñañañaña 050 lalalala
���� ����� ���� ����
009 uuuu 031 �a�a�a�a 053 vavavava
���� ����� ���� ����
010 ���� ����� ūūūū 032 �ha�ha�ha�ha 092 �a�a�a�a
���� ����
015 eeee 033 �a�a�a�a 054 śaśaśaśa
�������� ����� ���� ����
016 aiaiaiai 034 �ha�ha�ha�ha 089 �a�a�a�a
���� ����� ���� ����
019 oooo 035 �a�a�a�a 090 �a�a�a�a
!!!! �"""" #### ����$$$$
020 auauauau 036 tatatata 091 zazazaza
%%%% �&&&& ’’’’ ((((
056 sasasasa 037 thathathatha 094 fafafafa
)))) **** ++++
057 hahahaha 038 dadadada 051 �a�a�a�a
,,,, ---- ....
021 kakakaka 039 dhadhadhadha 088 qaqaqaqa
//// 0000 /1/1/1/1
022 khakhakhakha 040 nananana 002 �9�9�9�9� !!!! Rules 6, 8
2222
023 gagagaga 042 papapapa 112 �4444 2222 Rules 6, 8
$$$$ 3333
024 ghaghaghagha 043 phaphaphapha 001 �;;;; ####
5555 6666
025 -a-a-a-a 044 babababa 003 ���� &&&&
7777 8888
026 cacacaca 045 bhabhabhabha
9999 ::::

NOTE Adhik ��������before an aspirated stop indicates insertion of the unaspirated stop; elsewhere it doubles a following

consonant.
Seeclause8.
Exceptionally used in Urdu words.
Used in old orthography.
8 © ISO 2001 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
ISO 15919:2001(E)
Table 4 — Transliteration of Gujarati script
Ref. Indic Transliteration Ref. Indic Transliteration Ref. Indic Transliteration
133 aa Rule 2 153 -a-a 174 mama
aa �� -a-a mama
�� �� ��
�� ��
134 āāāā 154 cacacaca 175 yayayaya
����
���� ����� ����
135 iiii 155 chachachacha 176 rararara
����
����� ���� ����
136 īīīī 156 jajajaja 178 lalalala
����
���� ����� ����
137 ���� ����� uuuu 157 jhajhajhajha 181 vavavava
����
����
138 ūūūū 158 ñañañaña 182 śaśaśaśa
���� ����� ����
����
139 ���� 159 �a�a�a�a 183 �a�a�a�a
�������� ����� ����
����
224 �������� ����� ���� 160 �ha�ha�ha�ha 184 sasasasa
����
140 �������� ���� 161 �a�a�a�a 185 hahahaha
!!!! """"
225 #### ���� 162 �ha�ha�ha�ha 179 �a�a�a�a
$$$$ %%%%
143 eeee 163 �a�a�a�a 088 qaqaqaqa
)*)*)*)*
&&&& �’’’’ ((((
144 aiaiaiai 164 tatatata 089 �a�a�a�a
.*.*.*.*
++++ �,,,, ----
147 oooo 165 thathathatha 090 �a�a�a�a
0000 1*1*1*1*
//// ����’�’’’
148 auauauau 166 dadadada 091 �*�*�*�* zazazaza
3333
2222 ��,�,�,�,
b c
013 êêêê 167 dhadhadhadha 094 6666������� � fafafafa
5555
&4&4&4&4���� �4444
b a
017 ôôôô 168 nananana 130 �8888 !!!! Rules 3, 5, 8
7777
�4�4�4�4���� �4�4�4�4�
149 kakakaka 170 papapapa 129 #### Rules 4, 5, 8
9999
)))) �::::
150 khakhakhakha 171 6666 phaphaphapha 131 ;;;; &&&&
....
151 gagagaga 172 babababa 189 ==== ’’’’ Rule 15
1111 <<<<
152 ghaghaghagha 173 bhabhabhabha
>>>> ????
Seeclause8.
English vowels as in bê�a, bôla, English “bat, ball”.
Sometimes used for Urdu words.
© ISO 2001 – All rights reserved 9
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
ISO 15919:2001(E)
Table 5 — Transliteration of Oriya script
Ref. Indic Transliteration Ref. Indic Transliteration Ref. Indic Transliteration
005 �� aa Rule 2 026 �� caca 046 �� mama
�� aa �� caca �� mama
006 ���� ����� āāāā 027 ���� chachachacha 047 ���� yayayaya
007 iiii 028 jajajaja 048 rararara
���� ���� � ���� ����
008 īīīī 029 jhajhajhajha 050 lalalala
���� ����� ���� ����
009 ���� ���� � uuuu 030 ñañañaña 054 ���� śaśaśaśa
����
010 ���� ���� � ūūūū 031 �a�a�a�a 055 ���� �a�a�a�a
����
�� �
011 �� ���� 032 �ha�ha�ha�ha 056 ���� sasasasa
�� ����
096 ���� 033 �a�a�a�a 057 ���� hahahaha
���� ����
����
012 ���� 034 �ha�ha�ha�ha 092 �a�a�a�a
���� ���� � � � �
097 ���� 035 �a�a�a�a 093 � � � � �ha�ha�ha�ha
���� !!!!
015 eeee 036 tatatata 095 �%�%�%�% 0a0a0a0a Rule 9
""#"" ###� $$$$
016 aiaiaiai 037 thathathatha 051 )))) �a�a�a�a
&&#&& ###�’’’ ’ ((((
019 oooo 038 dadadada 053a vavavava
**#** ###����� ++++
����
020 auauauau 039 dhadhadhadha 053b wawawawa
,,#,, ###�---- .... ////
021 kakakaka 040 nananana 002 !!!! Rules 3, 5, 8
1111 �2222
0000
022 khakhakhakha 042 papapapa 001 #### Rules 4, 5, 8
3333 4444 �5555
023 gagagaga 043 phaphaphapha 003 &&&&
6666 7777 8888
024 ghaghaghagha 044 babababa 061 ’’’’ Rule 15
9999 :::: ;;;;
025 -a-a-a-a 045 bhabhabhabha
<<<< ====
Seeclause8.
Used for Sanskrit words.
Used for English and Urdu words.
10 © ISO 2001 – All rights reserved
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ISO 15919:2001(E)
Table 6 — Transliteration of Tamil script
Ref. Indic Transliteration Ref. Indic Transliteration Ref. Indic Transliteration
133 ���� aa Rule 2 149 �� kaka 178 �� lala
aa �� kaka �� lala
����
134 āāāā 153 ���� -a-a-a-a 181 ���� vavavava
�����
����
135 ���� iiii 154 ���� cacacaca 180 3a3a3a3a
�����
136 ���� ����� īīīī 158 ñañañaña 179 ���� �a�a�a�a
137 ���� uuuu 159 �� �a�a�a�a 177 ���� 4a4a4a4a
���� ��
138 ���� ūūūū 163 �� �a�a�a�a 169 ���� 5a5a5a5a
���� ��
�� ����
142 eeee 164 tatatata 156 jajajaja
����� ����
����
143 ēēēē 168 nananana 182a śaśaśaśa
����� ����
����
����
144 ��� aiaiaiai 170 papapapa 183 �a�a�a�a
�� ����
146 oooo 174 mamamama 184 #### sasasasa
����� """"
����
147 ōōōō 175 yayayaya 185 &&&& hahahaha
����� %%%%
����
!�!�!�!�
148 auauauau 176 rararara 131 )))) 8888
�����’’’’ ((((
Seeclause8.
© ISO 2001 – All rights reserved 11
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ISO 15919:2001(E)
Table 7 — Transliteration of Telugu script
Ref. Indic Transliteration Ref. Indic Transliteration Ref. Indic Transliteration
005 �� aa Rule 2 025 �� -a-a 046 �� mama
�� aa �� -a-a �� mama
006 ���� ����� āāāā 026 ���� cacacaca 047 ���� yayayaya
007 ���� ����� iiii 027 ���� chachachacha 048 ���� rararara
008 īīīī 028 ���� jajajaja 050 ���� lalalala
���� �����
009 uuuu 029 ���� jhajhajhajha 053 � vavavava
���� �����
010 ūūūū 030 ���� ñañañaña 054 ���� śaśaśaśa
���� �����
�����
011 ���� 031 ���
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 15919:2005
01-november-2005
,QIRUPDWLNDLQGRNXPHQWDFLMD±7UDQVOLWHUDFLMDSLVDYHGHYDQDJDULLQGUXJLK
VRURGQLKLQGLMVNLKSLVDYYODWLQLþQH]QDNH

Information and documentation -- Transliteration of Devanagari and related Indic scripts

into Latin characters

Information et documentation -- Translittération du Devanagari et des écritures indiennes

liées en caractères latins
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 15919:2001
ICS:
01.140.10 3LVDQMHLQSUHþUNRYDQMH Writing and transliteration
SIST ISO 15919:2005 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 15919:2005
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SIST ISO 15919:2005
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 15919
First edition
2001-10-01
Information and documentation —
Transliteration of Devanagari and related
Indic scripts into Latin characters
Information et documentation — Translittération du Devanagari et des
écritures indiennes liées en caractères latins
Reference number
ISO 15919:2001(E)
ISO 2001
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SIST ISO 15919:2005
ISO 15919:2001(E)
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ii © ISO 2001 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 15919:2005
ISO 15919:2001(E)
Contents Page

1 Scope ..............................................................................................................................................................1

2 Conformance..................................................................................................................................................1

3 Normative references ....................................................................................................................................1

4 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................................................2

5 Abbreviated terms .........................................................................................................................................3

6 Characteristics of Indic scripts ....................................................................................................................3

7 Transliteration tables ....................................................................................................................................4

8 Special requirements and recommendations...........................................................................................16

8.1 Special requirements ..................................................................................................................................16

8.2 Recommendations.......................................................................................................................................18

9 Options .........................................................................................................................................................18

10 Tables for uniform transliteration of Indic scripts ...................................................................................19

11 Transliteration scheme for limited character set .....................................................................................19

12 Recommended transliteration of Indic schemes for Perso-Arabic characters.....................................19

13 Additional Indic scripts ...............................................................................................................................19

14 Reverse transliteration................................................................................................................................19

Annex A (normative) Tables for uniform transliteration .......................................................................................20

Annex B (normative) Transliteration table for limited (7-bit) character set ........................................................24

Annex C (normative) Recommended transliteration of Indic schemes for Perso-Arabic characters..............25

Annex D (informative) Examples of Indic characters used for Perso-Arabic .....................................................26

Annex E (informative) Additional Indic scripts ......................................................................................................27

Annex F (informative) Reverse transliteration of Indic scripts.............................................................................28

F.1 Overview.......................................................................................................................................................28

F.2 Examples of reverse transliteration in modern Indic languages............................................................28

F.3 Reverse transliteration in Vedic texts .......................................................................................................28

Bibliography..............................................................................................................................................................29

© ISO 2001 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST ISO 15919:2005
ISO 15919:2001(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies (ISO

member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO technical

committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been established has

the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in

liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical

Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 3.

Draft International Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting.

Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this International Standard may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard ISO 15919 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 46, Information and

documentation, Subcommittee SC 2, Conversion of written languages.

Annexes A, B and C form a normative part of this International Standard. Annexes D, E and F are for information

only.
iv © ISO 2001 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 15919:2005
ISO 15919:2001(E)
Introduction

Script conversion is often required for documents such as historical and literary texts, geographical texts (including

maps and atlases), bibliographies, catalogues, lists and passports (and other identification documents).

Text in Devanagari script or other Indic scripts sometimes needs to be shown in Latin script, where users, or

equipment that they are using, cannot read or write the text.
© ISO 2001 – All rights reserved v
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SIST ISO 15919:2005
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SIST ISO 15919:2005
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 15919:2001(E)
Information and documentation — Transliteration of Devanagari
and related Indic scripts into Latin characters
1 Scope

This International Standard provides tables which enable the transliteration into Latin characters from text in Indic

scripts which are largely specified in rows 09 to 0D of UCS (ISO/IEC 10646-1 and Unicode).

The tables provide for the Devanagari, Bengali (including the characters used for writing Assamese), Gujarati,

Gurmukhi, Kannada, Malayalam, Oriya, Sinhala, Tamil, and Telugu scripts which are used in India, Nepal,

Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. The Devanagari, Bengali, Gujarati, Gurmukhi, and Oriya scripts are North Indian

scripts, and the Kannada, Malayalam, Tamil, and Telugu scripts are South Indian scripts.

The Burmese, Khmer, Thai, Lao and Tibetan scripts which also share a common origin with the Indic scripts, and

which are used predominantly in Myanmar, Cambodia, Thailand, Laos, Bhutan and the Tibetan Autonomous

Region within China, are not covered by this International Standard.

This International Standard applies to transliteration of Devanagari, and to Indic scripts related to Devanagari,

independent of the period in which it is or was used (i.e. for Devanagari script it can be used for transliterating text

in classical Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, and the Vedic language, for instance).

Other Indic scripts whose character repertoires are covered by the tables may also be transliterated using this

International Standard.
Options in this International Standard are defined in clause 9.
2 Conformance

Text originally in non-Latin script which is converted to a Latin-script representation conforms to this International

Standard with or without any of the specific recommendations, if it follows the rules defined in 8.1 and the

conversion tables given in clause 7 and normative annexes A and B, with or without following any of the three

recommendations given in 8.2 and clause 12, all in accordance with the options defined in clause 9.

A claim of conformance shall specify which options have been chosen, and which recommendations have been

followed.
3 Normative references

The following normative documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of

this International Standard. For dated references, subsequent amendments to, or revisions of, any of these

publications do not apply. However, parties to agreements based on this International Standard are encouraged to

investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the normative documents indicated below. For

undated references, the latest edition of the normative document referred to applies. Members of ISO and IEC

maintain registers of currently valid International Standards.

ISO/IEC 10646-1, Information technology — Universal Multiple-Octet Coded Character Set (UCS) — Part 1:

Architecture and Basic Multilingual Plane

ISO/IEC 646:1991, Information technology — ISO 7-bit coded character set for information interchange

© ISO 2001 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST ISO 15919:2005
ISO 15919:2001(E)
4 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this International Standard, the following terms and definitions apply.

4.1
conversion

representing graphic characters from a source script by the graphic characters of a target script, most commonly by

romanization

NOTE The two basic methods of conversion of a system of writing are transliteration and transcription. The use of the

terms source script and target script in transliteration is analogous to the terms source language and target language in

translation.
4.2
script
set of graphic characters used for the written form of one or more languages
4.3
graphic character

character (other than a control character) that has a visual representation, normally handwritten, printed or

displayed

NOTE A graphic character is a single element of a script. Examples are letters, conjunct characters, numerical digits,

punctuation marks or diacritical marks.
4.4
reverse transliteration

process whereby the characters of a target script are transliterated into those of the source script

NOTE This International Standard aims to enable reverse-transliterated text to be identical to the original source text up to

equivalent orthography. However, non-reversible transcription-like transliterations are often found to be useful when quoting

recent material.
4.5
romanization

conversion of non-Latin graphic characters into Latin graphic characters, using either transliteration or transcription

4.6
transcription

representation of the sounds of a source language by graphic characters associated with a target language

4.7
transliteration

representation of the graphic characters of a source script by the graphic characters of a target script

NOTE In transcription, pronunciation conventions are of primary importance, while in transliteration, writing conventions are

of primary importance.
4.8
UCS
Universal Multiple-Octet Coded Character Set (UCS) as defined in ISO/IEC 10646-1

NOTE 1 The Indic scripts listed in ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 form a subset (with identical codes) of the Indic scripts listed in

ISO/IEC 10646-1:2000. Similarly, the Indic scripts listed in the Unicode standard (version 1.0 onwards) form a subset (with

identical codes) to the Indic scripts listed in ISO/IEC 10646-1:2000 and the Unicode standard, version 3.0. Any of these

standards provide valid character codes for the specific characters concerned.

NOTE 2 ISO/IEC 10646-1 is increasingly used for providing character identifiers in a wide range of International Standards,

including some in this International Standard. Use of these identifiers does not impose any requirements to use ISO/IEC 10646-1 or

any other character coding standard to represent either the source characters or the target characters in any computer system or

in information interchange.
2 © ISO 2001 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 15919:2005
ISO 15919:2001(E)
5 Abbreviated terms
� Ben. Bengali script
� Dev. Devanagari script
� Guj. Gujarati script
� Gur. Gurmukhi script
� Kan. Kannada script
� Mal. Malayalam script
� Ori. Oriya script
� Tam. Tamil script
� Tel. Telugu script
� Sin. Sinhala script
� P-A. Perso-Arabic script
6 Characteristics of Indic scripts

Characters in Indic scripts represent vowels, consonants and their combinations; nasalization, breathings,

numerals and punctuation.

Each vowel has a full form (occupying a full character space in text, and required when beginning a word or in

vowel hiatus) and a combining form (mātrā) used when the vowel follows a consonant, except that the short a

standing at the beginning of Indic alphabets has only a full form, because no mātrā is required (see below).

Consonants include stops, semivowels, spirants, and other speech sounds. Stop consonants are arranged in

classes, or vargas, according to the point of articulation, and within each class are subdivided into unvoiced or

voiced, unaspirated or aspirated consonants, and a nasal consonant.

Characters for consonants are most simply quoted in a form which includes the inherent vowel a,as inthe first

consonant ka in Table 1. The inherent vowel is removed by the virāma sign of the relevant script (Dev., Ben., Guj.,

Gur., Ori. ���,Tam. ��,Tel.���,Kan. ��,Mal. ��,Sin. � .AThe relevant mātrā is used when any other vowel

follows a consonant. Consonant clusters frequently form conjunct characters. Use of virāma to form consonant

clusters is unusual, except in Tamil where it is the normal method. When a mātrā is associated with a consonant, it

replaces the inherent vowel. Mātrās have various forms, even in a single script, and details may be found in

dictionaries and grammars.

It is important to note that many Indic characters have variant forms. Such differences of orthography are not

distinguished in this International Standard.

Devanagari is used for writing various modern languages, such as Hindi, Marathi, Rajasthani and other languages

in India, and Nepali in Nepal. Devanagari and most of the other Indic scripts are used for writing classical

languages often used in religious texts, such as the Sanskrit and Vedic languages, and Pali. In some cases, text in

Indic scripts uses additional characters for writing words in languages which do not normally use these scripts.

Thus some Urdu consonants are typically represented by adding a dot (nuqta) below certain letters (see Table 1,

normative annex C and informative annex D). Two English vowels may also be represented. Devanagari has also

been extended to write South Indian languages.
© ISO 2001 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST ISO 15919:2005
ISO 15919:2001(E)

Sinhala script (used in Sri Lanka) has additional letters, in comparison with the scripts which are used in India,

Nepal and Bangladesh. Tamil script (used in South India and also in Sri Lanka) uses fewer characters, in

comparison with other scripts which are used in India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.

When the Bengali script is used to write the Assamese language (in parts of North India), two characters not used

in writing Bengali are required. Hence the Assamese script is sometimes regarded as separate from the Bengali

script.
7 Transliteration tables

7.1 The transliteration from each Indic script to the Latin script shall be as specified in the Tables 1 to 10 and

A.3, subject to the rules specified in 8.1 and the options specified in clause 9.

7.2 The structure of the transliteration tables is explained in the following paragraphs.

The target characters (Latin script) fall within the ranges 0020-01FF and 0300-0332 of ISO/IEC 10646-1:2000.

The repertoires for many of the source characters fall within the following ranges of ISO/IEC 10646-1:2000, for the

script concerned:
� 0900-097F Devanagari
� 0980-09FF Bengali
� 0A00-0A7F Gurmukhi
� 0A80-0AFF Gujarati
� 0B00-0B7F Oriya
� 0B80-0BFF Tamil
� 0C00-0C7F Telugu
� 0C80-0CFF Kannada
� 0D00-0D7F Malayalam
� 0D80-0DFF Sinhala

Some additional Indic scripts whose character repertoires are included in the character repertoires of these scripts

are listed in informative annex E.
Consonants are shown with their inherent vowel a.

Only a single form of each Indic character is shown, just as in ISO/IEC 10646-1. Specifications of alternative forms

of these characters, including shapes when these are included in conjunct forms or in consonant-vowel

combinations, are outside the scope of this International Standard.

This clause gives tables for each script, with references to the rules of 8.1. Numerals are shown in Table A.3 of

annex A. Tables 1 to 10 are in the order of ISO 10646-1:2000. Vowels are shown in full form followed by a typical

form of the corresponding mātrā.

Normative annex A gives tables showing linguistically equivalent characters in each script (except that Gurmukhi

Bindi is not exactly equivalent to anusvara in the other scripts). Extended and ancient characters, apart from

numerals, are shown in Table A.2 unless an equivalent modern character exists in another script, in which case

they are enclosed in round brackets in Table A.1. (See also the requirements in clause 10.) In Tables A.1 to A.3

the scripts are ordered according to similarity of character repertoires.
4 © ISO 2001 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 15919:2005
ISO 15919:2001(E)

A few rare characters for which attestation is not currently available are omitted.

Normative annex B gives the transliteration table (Table B.1) that shall be used when it is necessary to avoid use of

Latin letters with diacritics.

Normative annex C gives the recommended method of transliterating Indic characters specified as representing

Perso-Arabic characters (Table C.1 and its rules of application).

In the “Ref.” column of all these tables, the 3-digit decimal references are derived from hexadecimal to decimal

conversion of character codes in ISO/IEC 10646-1:2000. Note that the earlier International Standard

ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 also includes these decimal codes explicitly in its tables, in case visual comparisons are

required between this International Standard and ISO/IEC 10646-1.

3-digit decimal characters with an additional letter refer to characters not in ISO/IEC 10646-1:2000.

The order of characters in tables follows approximate alphabetical order, rather than the order in

ISO/IEC 10646-1:2000.
© ISO 2001 – All rights reserved 5
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SIST ISO 15919:2005
ISO 15919:2001(E)
Table 1 — Transliteration of Devanagari script
Ref. Indic Transliteration Ref. Indic Transliteration Ref. Indic Transliteration
005 aa Rule 2 027 chacha 053 vava
aa chacha vava
�� �� ��
�� �� ��
006 āāāā 028 jajajaja 054 śaśaśaśa
���� ����� ���� ����
007 iiii 029 jhajhajhajha 055 �a�a�a�a
����� ���� ���� ����
008 īīīī 030 ñañañaña 056 sasasasa
���� ����� ���� ����
009 uuuu 031 �a�a�a�a 057 hahahaha
���� ����� ���� ����
010 ūūūū 032 �ha�ha�ha�ha 088 qaqaqaqa
���� ����� ���� ����
011 ���� 033 �a�a�a�a 089 �a�a�a�a
���� ����� ���� ��������
���
096 �� ���� 034 �ha�ha�ha�ha 090 �a�a�a�a
����
���� ���� � � � �
012 ���� 035 �a�a�a�a 091 zazazaza
!!!! �""""
#### $$$$
097 ���� 036 tatatata 092 �a�a�a�a
%�%�%�%� �&&&&
’’’’ ((((
015 eeee 037 thathathatha 093 �ha�ha�ha�ha
)))) �**** ++++ ,,,,
016 aiaiaiai 038 dadadada 094 fafafafa
---- �.... //// 0000
019 oooo 039 dhadhadhadha 048a ����
1�1�1�1� ��*�*�*�* 2222 3333
020 auauauau 040 nananana 051 �a�a�a�a
4444 ��.�.�.�. 5555 6666
b a
013 êêêê 042 papapapa 002 !!!! Rules 3, 5, 8
)7)7)7)7 �7777 8888 �9999
b a
017 ôôôô 043 phaphaphapha 001 #### Rules 4, 5, 8
�7�7�7�7 ��7�7�7�7 :::: �;;;;
021 kakakaka 044 babababa 003 &&&&
<<<< ==== ����
022 khakhakhakha 045 bhabhabhabha 003a ’’’’
>>>> ???? X
023 gagagaga 046 mamamama 003b ****
@@@@ AAAA �
024 ghaghaghagha 047 yayayaya 061 ’’’’ Rule 15
BBBB CCCC DDDD
025 -a-a-a-a 048 rararara
EEEE FFFF
026 cacacaca 050 lalalala
GGGG HHHH

NOTE 1 Additional characters from Extended Devanagari may be found in Table A.1. See also Table D.1.

NOTE 2 The treatment of Vedic accents may be found in 8.1 (Rule 14 in clause 8), 8.2 and Table B.1.

Seeclause8.
English vowels as in bê�a, bôla, English “bat, ball”.
Used in Marathi and Nepali.
6 © ISO 2001 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 15919:2005
ISO 15919:2001(E)
Table 2 — Transliteration of Bengali script
Ref. Indic Transliteration Ref. Indic Transliteration Ref. Indic Transliteration
133 aa Rule 2 154 caca 174 mama
aa caca mama
�� �� ��
�� �� ��
134 āāāā 155 chachachacha 175 yayayaya
���� ����� ���� ����
135 iiii 156 jajajaja 176 rararara
����� ���� ���� ����
136 īīīī 157 jhajhajhajha 240 ���� rararara
���� ����� ����
137 uuuu 158 ñañañaña 178 lalalala
���� ����� ���� ����
138 ūūūū 159 �a�a�a�a 241 vavavava
���� ����� ���� ����
139 ���� 160 �ha�ha�ha�ha 182 śaśaśaśa
���� ����� ���� ����
224 ���� 161 �a�a�a�a 183 �a�a�a�a
���� � ���� ����
140 ���� 162 �ha�ha�ha�ha 184 sasasasa
�� ���� ����
225 ���� 163 �a�a�a�a 185 hahahaha
�� ���� ����
143 eeee 164 tatatata 220 �a�a�a�a
! !!!� """" �#�#�#�#
144 aiaiaiai 165 thathathatha 221 �ha�ha�ha�ha
$$%$$ %%%� &&&& �#�#�#�#
147 oooo 166 dadadada 223 0a0a0a0a Rule 9
’’!’’ !!!����� (((( )�)�)�)�
148 auauauau 167 dhadhadhadha 156a zazazaza
**!** !!!�++++ ,,,, �#�#�#�#
149 kakakaka 168 nananana 172a wawawawa
---- .... ������������
150 khakhakhakha 170 papapapa 130 !!!! Rules 3, 5, 8
//// 0000 1111
151 gagagaga 171 phaphaphapha 129 #### Rules 4, 5, 8
2222 3333 �4444
152 ghaghaghagha 172 babababa 131 &&&&
5555 6666 7777
153 -a-a-a-a 173 bhabhabhabha 061 ’’’’ Rule 15
8888 9999
Seeclause8.
Assamese character.

Used for transliteration of Persian and Arabic words into Bengali script. See also Table A.2 and informative annex D.

© ISO 2001 – All rights reserved 7
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
SIST ISO 15919:2005
ISO 15919:2001(E)
Table 3 — Transliteration of Gurmukhi script
Ref. Indic Transliteration Ref. Indic Transliteration Ref. Indic Transliteration
005 aa Rule 2 027 chacha 046 mama
aa chacha mama
�� �� ��
�� �� ��
006 āāāā 028 jajajaja 047 yayayaya
���� ����� ���� ����
007 iiii 029 jhajhajhajha 048 rararara
����� ���� ���� ����
008 īīīī 030 ñañañaña 050 lalalala
���� ����� ���� ����
009 uuuu 031 �a�a�a�a 053 vavavava
���� ����� ���� ����
010 ���� ����� ūūūū 032 �ha�ha�ha�ha 092 �a�a�a�a
���� ����
015 eeee 033 �a�a�a�a 054 śaśaśaśa
�������� ����� ���� ����
016 aiaiaiai 034 �ha�ha�ha�ha 089 �a�a�a�a
���� ����� ���� ����
019 oooo 035 �a�a�a�a 090 �a�a�a�a
!!!! �"""" #### ����$$$$
020 auauauau 036 tatatata 091 zazazaza
%%%% �&&&& ’’’’ ((((
056 sasasasa 037 thathathatha 094 fafafafa
)))) **** ++++
057 hahahaha 038 dadadada 051 �a�a�a�a
,,,, ---- ....
021 kakakaka 039 dhadhadhadha 088 qaqaqaqa
//// 0000 /1/1/1/1
022 khakhakhakha 040 nananana 002 �9�9�9�9� !!!! Rules 6, 8
2222
023 gagagaga 042 papapapa 112 �4444 2222 Rules 6, 8
$$$$ 3333
024 ghaghaghagha 043 phaphaphapha 001 �;;;; ####
5555 6666
025 -a-a-a-a 044 babababa 003 ���� &&&&
7777 8888
026 cacacaca 045 bhabhabhabha
9999 ::::

NOTE Adhik ��������before an aspirated stop indicates insertion of the unaspirated stop; elsewhere it doubles a following

consonant.
Seeclause8.
Exceptionally used in Urdu words.
Used in old orthography.
8 © ISO 2001 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 16 ----------------------
SIST ISO 15919:2005
ISO 15919:2001(E)
Table 4 — Transliteration of Gujarati script
Ref. Indic Transliteration Ref. Indic Transliteration Ref. Indic Transliteration
133 aa Rule 2 153 -a-a 174 mama
aa �� -a-a mama
�� �� ��
�� ��
134 āāāā 154 cacacaca 175 yayayaya
����
���� ����� ����
135 iiii 155 chachachacha 176 rararara
����
����� ���� ����
136 īīīī 156 jajajaja 178 lalalala
����
���� ����� ����
137 ���� ����� uuuu 157 jhajhajhajha 181 vavavava
����
����
138 ūūūū 158 ñañañaña 182 śaśaśaśa
���� ����� ����
����
139 ���� 159 �a�a�a�a 183 �a�a�a�a
�������� ����� ����
����
224 �������� ����� ���� 160 �ha�ha�ha�ha 184 sasasasa
����
140 �������� ���� 161 �a�a�a�a 185 hahahaha
!!!! """"
225 #### ���� 162 �ha�ha�ha�ha 179 �a�a�a�a
$$$$ %%%%
143 eeee 163 �a�a�a�a 088 qaqaqaqa
)*)*)*)*
&&&& �’’’’ ((((
144 aiaiaiai 164 tatatata 089 �a�a�a�a
.*.*.*.*
++++ �,,,, ----
147 oooo 165 thathathatha 090 �a�a�a�a
0000 1*1*1*1*
//// ����’�’’’
148 auauauau 166 dadadada 091 �*�*�*�* zazazaza
3333
2222 ��,�,�,�,
b c
013 êêêê 167 dhadhadhadha 094 6666������� � fafafafa
5555
&4&4&4&4���� �4444
b a
017 ôôôô 168 nananana 130 �8888 !!!! Rules 3, 5, 8
7777
�4�4�4�4���� �4�4�4�4�
149 kakakaka 170 papapapa 129 #### Rules 4, 5, 8
9999
)))) �::::
150 khakhakhakha 171 6666 phaphaphapha 131 ;;;; &&&&
....
151 gagagaga 172 babababa 189 ==== ’’’’ Rule 15
1111 <<<<
152 ghaghaghagha 173 bhabhabhabha
>>>> ????
Seeclause8.
English vowels as in bê�a, bôla, English “bat, ball”.
Sometimes used for Urdu words.
© ISO 2001 – All rights reserved 9
---------------------- Page: 17 ----------------------
SIST ISO 15919:2005
ISO 15919:2001(E)
Table 5 — Transliteration of Oriya script
Ref. Indic Transliteration Ref. Indic Transliteration Ref. Indic Transliteration
005 �� aa Rule 2 026 �� caca 046 �� mama
�� aa �� caca �� mama
006 ���� ����� āāāā 027 ���� chachachacha 047 ���� yayayaya
007 iiii 028 jajajaja 048 rararara
���� ���� � ���� ����
008 īīīī 029 jhajhajhajha 050 lalalala
���� ����� ���� ����
009 ���� ���� � uuuu 030 ñañañaña 054 ���� śaśaśaśa
����
010 ���� ���� � ūūūū 031 �a�a�a�a 055 ���� �a�a�a�a
����
�� �
011 �� ���� 032 �ha�ha�ha�ha 056 ���� sasasasa
�� ����
096 ���� 033 �a�a�a�a 057 ���� hahahaha
���� ����
����
012 ���� 034 �ha�ha�ha�ha 092 �a�a�a�a
���� ���� � � � �
097 ���� 035 �a�a�a�a 093 � � � � �ha�ha�ha�ha
���� !!!!
015 eeee 036 tatatata 095 �%�%�%�% 0a0a0a0a Rule 9
""#"" ###� $$$$
016 aiaiaiai 037 thathathatha 051 )))) �a�a�a�a
&&#&& ###�’’’ ’ ((((
019 oooo 038 dadadada 053a vavavava
**#** ###����� ++++
����
020 auauauau 039 dhadhadhadha 053b wawawawa
,,#,, ###�---- .... ////
021 kakakaka 040 nananana 002 !!!! Rules 3, 5, 8
1111 �2222
0000
022 khakhakhakha 042 papapapa 001 #### Rules 4, 5, 8
3333 4444 �5555
023 gagagaga 043 phaphaphapha 003 &&&&
6666 7777 8888
024 ghaghaghagha 044 babababa 061 ’’’’ Rule 15
9999 :::: ;;;;
025 -a-a-a-a 045 bhabhabhabha
<<<< ====
Seeclause8.
Used for Sanskrit words.
Used for English and Urdu words.
10 © ISO 2001 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 18 ----------------------
SIST ISO 15919:2005
ISO 15919:2001(E)
Table 6 — Transliteration of Tamil script
Ref. Indic Transliteration Ref. Indic Transliteration Ref. Indic Transliteration
133 ���� aa Rule 2 149 �� kaka 178 �� lala
aa �� kaka �� lala
����
134 āāāā 153 ���� -a-a-a-a 181 �
...

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