Space engineering - Definition of the Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) and their criteria of assessment (ISO 16290:2013, modified)

This European Standard defines Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs). It is applicable primarily to space system hardware, although the definitions could be used in a wider domain in many cases.
The definition of the TRLs provides the conditions to be met at each level, enabling accurate TRL assessment.

Raumfahrttechnik - Definition des Technologie-Reifegrades (TRL) und der Beurteilungskriterien (ISO 16290:2013, modifiziert)

Dieses Dokument legt Technologie-Reifegrade (TRL) fest. In erster Linie ist es auf die Hardware von Raumfahrtsystemen anwendbar, auch wenn die Festlegungen in einem weiteren Zusammenhang in vielen Fällen Anwendung finden könnten.
Die Festlegung der TRL liefert die für jeden einzelnen Grad zu erfüllenden Bedingungen und ermöglicht so eine genaue Beurteilung des TRL.

Ingénierie spatiale - Définition des Niveaux de Maturité de la Technologie (TRL) et de leurs critères d'évaluation (ISO 16290:2013, modifiée)

Le présent document définit les Niveaux de Maturité Technologique. Il est applicable principalement aux matériels relatifs aux systèmes spatiaux bien que, dans de nombreux cas, les définitions puissent être utilisées dans un domaine plus large.
La définition des TRL fournit les conditions à remplir à chaque niveau, permettant une évaluation de TRL précise

Vesoljska tehnika - Definicija ravni tehnološke zrelosti in merila za ocenjevanje (ISO 16290:2013, spremenjen)

Ta evropski standard določa ravni tehnološke zrelosti (TRL). Uporablja se predvsem za strojno opremo vesoljskih sistemov, čeprav je mogoče definicije uporabiti širše v številnih primerih. Definicija ravni tehnološke zrelosti določa pogoje, ki jih je treba izpolnjevati na posamezni ravni, kar omogoča točno oceno ravni tehnološke zrelosti.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
28-Nov-2018
Publication Date
11-Dec-2019
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
06-Dec-2019
Due Date
10-Feb-2020
Completion Date
12-Dec-2019

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 16603-11:2020
01-februar-2020

Vesoljska tehnika - Definicija ravni tehnološke zrelosti in merila za ocenjevanje

(ISO 16290:2013, spremenjen)

Space engineering - Definition of the Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) and their

criteria of assessment (ISO 16290:2013, modified)
Raumfahrttechnik - Definition des Technologie-Reifegrades (TRL) und der
Beurteilungskriterien (ISO 16290:2013, modifiziert)

Ingénierie spatiale - Définition des Niveaux de Maturité de la Technologie (TRL) et de

leurs critères d'évaluation (ISO 16290:2013, modifiée)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 16603-11:2019
ICS:
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
SIST EN 16603-11:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 16603-11:2020
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SIST EN 16603-11:2020
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 16603-11
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
November 2019
ICS 49.140
English version
Space engineering - Definition of the Technology Readiness
Levels (TRLs) and their criteria of assessment (ISO
16290:2013, modified)

Ingénierie spatiale - Définition des Niveaux de Raumfahrttechnik - Definition des Technologie-

Maturité de la Technologie (TRL) et de leurs critères Reifegrades (TRL) und der Beurteilungskriterien (ISO

d'évaluation (ISO 16290:2013, modifiée) 16290:2013, modifiziert)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 23 August 2019.

CEN and CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for

giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical

references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to

any CEN and CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN and CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. EN 16603-11:2019 E

reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
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EN 16603-11:2019 (E)
Contents Page

European Foreword ......................................................................................................................................................3

Introduction .....................................................................................................................................................................4

1 Scope ....................................................................................................................................................................5

2 Normative references ....................................................................................................................................5

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms .............................................................................................5

3.1 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................................................5

3.2 Abbreviated terms ..........................................................................................................................................9

4 Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) .......................................................................................................9

4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................9

4.2 TRL 1 — Basic principles observed and reported ............................................................................ 10

4.2.1 Description ...................................................................................................................................................... 10

4.2.2 Examples .......................................................................................................................................................... 11

4.3 TRL 2 — Technology concept and/or application formulated ..................................................... 11

4.3.1 Description ...................................................................................................................................................... 11

4.3.2 Examples .......................................................................................................................................................... 11

4.4 TRL 3 — Analytical and experimental critical function and/or characteristic

proof-of-concept............................................................................................................................................ 11

4.4.1 Description ...................................................................................................................................................... 11

4.4.2 Examples .......................................................................................................................................................... 11

4.5 TRL 4 — Component and/or breadboard functional verification in laboratory

environment ................................................................................................................................................... 12

4.5.1 Description ...................................................................................................................................................... 12

4.5.2 Examples .......................................................................................................................................................... 12

4.6 TRL 5 — Component and/or breadboard critical function verification in a

relevant environment ................................................................................................................................. 12

4.6.1 Description ...................................................................................................................................................... 12

4.6.2 Examples .......................................................................................................................................................... 13

4.7 TRL 6 — Model demonstrating the critical functions of the element in a

relevant environment ................................................................................................................................. 13

4.7.1 Description ...................................................................................................................................................... 13

4.7.2 Examples .......................................................................................................................................................... 14

4.8 TRL 7 — Model demonstrating the element performance for the operational

environment ................................................................................................................................................... 14

4.8.1 Description ...................................................................................................................................................... 14

4.8.2 Examples .......................................................................................................................................................... 15

4.9 TRL 8 — Actual system completed and accepted for flight (“flight qualified”) ...................... 15

4.9.1 Description ...................................................................................................................................................... 15

4.9.2 Examples .......................................................................................................................................................... 15

4.10 TRL 9 — Actual system “flight proven” through successful mission operations ................... 15

4.10.1 Description ...................................................................................................................................................... 15

4.10.2 Examples .......................................................................................................................................................... 16

5 Summary table ............................................................................................................................................... 16

6 TRL requirements ........................................................................................................................................ 18

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 19

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EN 16603-11:2019 (E)
European Foreword

This document (EN 16603-11:2019) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/CLC/TC 5

“Space”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of

an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by May 2020, and conflicting national

standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by May 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the

subject of patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.

The text of the International Standard ISO 16290:2013 was approved by CEN/CENELEC as a

European Standard with agreed common modifications.

This document originates from ISO 16290:2013 taking into account the specificities of the ECSS

Adoption Notice ECSS-E-AS-11C “Space engineering -Adoption Notice of ISO 16290, Space

systems - Definition of the Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) and their criteria of assessment”.

These specificities are listed in Clause 5 of this standard.

This document has been developed to cover specifically space systems and will therefore have

precedence over any EN covering the same scope but with a wider domain of applicability (e.g.

aerospace).

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary,

Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland,

Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden,

Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.
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Introduction

Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) are used to quantify the technology maturity status of an

element intended to be used in a mission. Mature technology corresponds to the highest TRL,

namely TRL 9, or flight proven elements.

The TRL scale can be useful in many areas including, but not limited to the following examples:

a) For early monitoring of basic or specific technology developments serving a given future

mission or a family of future missions;

b) For providing a status on the technical readiness of a future project, as input to the project

implementation decision process;
c) In some cases, for monitoring the technology progress throughout development.

The TRL descriptions are provided in Clause 3 of this document. The achievements that are

requested for enabling the TRL assessment at each level are identified in the summary table in

Clause 4. The detailed procedure for the TRL assessment is to be defined by the relevant

organization or institute in charge of the activity.

The originating document (ISO 16290:2013) of this document was produced by taking due

consideration of previous available documents on the subject, in particular including those from

the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA), the US Department of Defence (DoD)

and European space institutions (DLR, CNES and ESA).
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1 Scope

This document defines Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs). It is applicable primarily to space

system hardware, although the definitions could be used in a wider domain in many cases.

The definition of the TRLs provides the conditions to be met at each level, enabling accurate TRL

assessment.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1.1
acceptance review
activity undertaken to allow the customer to declare acceptance of a product
3.1.2
breadboard

physical model (3.1.12) designed to test functionality and tailored to the demonstration need

3.1.3
commissioning result review

activity undertaken to allow to declare readiness of a product for routine operation and

utilization

NOTE 1 to entry: The commissioning result review is held at the end of the commissioning as part of the

in-orbit stage verification.
3.1.4
critical function of an element
mandatory function which requires specific technology (3.1.22) verification

Note 1 to entry: This situation occurs when either the element or components of the element are new and

cannot be assessed by relying on previous realizations, or when the element is used in a new domain, such

as new environmental conditions or a new specific use not previously demonstrated.

Note 2 to entry: Wherever used in this Standard, “critical function” always refers to “technology critical

function” and should not be confused with “safety critical function”.

Note 3 to entry: Wherever used in this Standard, “critical function” always refers to “critical function of an

element”.
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3.1.5
critical part of an element
element (3.1.6) part associated to a critical function

Note 1 to entry: The critical part of an element can represent a subset of the element and the technology

verification for the critical function may be achievable through dedicated tests achieved on the critical

part only.

Note 2 to entry: Wherever used in this Standard, “critical part” always refers to “technology critical part”.

Note 3 to entry: Wherever used in this Standard, “critical part” always refers to “critical part of an

element”.
3.1.6
element
item or object under consideration for the technology readiness assessment

Note 1 to entry: The element can be a component, a piece of equipment, a subsystem or a system.

3.1.7
element function
intended effect of the element (3.1.6)
3.1.8
functional performance requirements

subset of the performance requirements (3.1.16) of an element (3.1.6) specifying the element

functions (3.1.7)

Note 1 to entry: The functional performance requirements do not necessarily include requirements

resulting from the operational environment (3.1.13).
3.1.9
laboratory environment

controlled environment needed for demonstrating the underlying principles and functional

performance

Note 1 to entry: The laboratory environment does not necessarily address the operational environment

(3.1.13).
3.1.10
mature technology

technology defined by a set of reproducible processes (3.1.20) for the design, manufacture, test

and operation of an element (3.1.6) for meeting a set of performance requirements (3.1.16) in

the actual operational environment (3.1.13)
3.1.11
mission operations
sequence of events that are defined for accomplishing the mission
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3.1.12
model

physical or abstract representation of relevant aspects of an element (3.1.6) that is put forward

as a basis for calculations, predictions, tests or further assessment

Note 1 to entry: The term “model” can also be used to identify particular instances of the element, e.g.

flight model.
Note 2 to entry: Adapted from ISO 10795, definition 1.141.
3.1.13
operational environment

set of natural and induced conditions that constrain the element (3.1.6) from its design

definition to its operation

EXAMPLE 1 Natural conditions: weather, climate, ocean conditions, terrain, vegetation, dust, light,

radiation, etc.

EXAMPLE 2 Induced conditions: electromagnetic interference, heat, vibration, pollution, contamination,

etc.
3.1.14
operational performance requirements

subset of the performance requirements (3.1.16) of an element (3.1.6) specifying the element

functions (3.1.7) in its operational environment (3.1.13)

Note 1 to entry: The operational performance requirements are expressed through technical

specifications covering all engineering domains. They are validated through successful in orbit operation

and can be verified through a collection of element verifications on the ground which comprehensively

cover the operational case.

Note 2 to entry: The full set of performance requirements of an element consists of the operational

performance requirements and the performance requirements for the use of the element on ground.

3.1.15
performance

aspects of an element (3.1.6) observed or measured from its operation or function

Note 1 to entry: These aspects are generally quantified.
Note 2 to entry: Adapted from ISO 10795, definition 1.155.
3.1.16
performance requirements
set of parameters that are intended to be satisfied by the element (3.1.6)

Note 1 to entry: The complete set of performance requirements inevitably include the environment

conditions in which the element is used and operated and are therefore linked to the mission(s) under

consideration and also to the environment of the system in which it is incorporated.

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3.1.17
process

set of interrelated or interacting activities which transform inputs into outputs

Note 1 to entry: Inputs to a process are generally outputs of other processes.

Note 2 to entry: Processes in an organization are generally planned and carried out under controlled

conditions to add value.

Note 3 to entry: A process where the conformity of the resulting product cannot be readily economically

verified is frequently referred to as a “special process”.
[SOURCE: ISO 10795, definition 1.160]
3.1.18
qualification review
activity undertaken to allow the customer to declare qualification of a product
3.1.19
relevant environment

minimum subset of the operational environment (3.1.13) that is required to demonstrate critical

functions of the element (3.1.4) performance in its operational environment (3.1.13)

3.1.20
reproducible process
process (3.1.17) that can be repeated in time

Note 1 to entry: It is fundamental in the definition of “mature technology” and is intimately linked to

realization capability and to verifiability.

Note 2 to entry: An element developed “by chance”, even if meeting the requirements, can obviously not

be declared as relying on a mature technology if there is little possibility of reproducing the element on a

reliable schedule. Conversely, reproducibility implicitly introduces the notion of time in the mature

technology definition. A technology can be declared mature at a given time, and degraded later at a lower

readiness level because of the obsolescence of its components or because the processes involve a specific

organization with unique skills that has closed.
3.1.21
requirement
need or expectation that is stated and to be complied with
Note 1 to entry: Adapted from ISO 10795, definition 1.190.
3.1.22
technology

application of scientific knowledge, tools, techniques, crafts, systems or methods of organization

in order to solve a problem or achieve an objective
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3.1.23
validation

confirmation, through objective evidence, that the requirements (3.1.21) for a specific intended

use or application have been fulfilled

Note 1 to entry: The term “validated” is used to designate the corresponding status.

Note 2 to entry: The use conditions for validation can be real or simulated.

Note 3 to entry: May be determined by a combination of test, analysis, demonstration, and inspection.

Note 4 to entry: When the element is validated it is confirmed that it is able to accomplish its intended use

in the intended operational environment (3.1.13).
Note 5 to entry: Adapted from ISO 10795, definition 1.228.
3.1.24
verification

confirmation through the provision of objective evidence that specified requirements (3.1.21)

have been fulfilled

Note 1 to entry: The term “verified” is used to designate the corresponding status.

Note 2 to entry: Confirmation can be comprised of activities such as: performing alternative calculations,

comparing a new design specification with a similar proven design specification, undertaking tests and

demonstrations, and reviewing documents prior to issue.

Note 3 to entry: Verification may be determined by a combination of test, analysis, demonstration, and

inspection.

Note 4 to entry: When an element is verified, it is confirmed that it meets the design specifications.

Note 5 to entry: Adapted from ISO 10795, definition 1.229
3.2 Abbreviated terms
For the purposes of this document, the following abbreviated terms apply.
Abbreviation Meaning
AR acceptance review
CRR commissioning result review
QR qualification review
TRL technology readiness level
4 Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs)
4.1 General

A technology for an element intended for an application reaches the maturity level,

corresponding to TRL 9, when it is well-defined by a set of reproducible processes for the design,

manufacture, test and operation of the element and when, in addition, the element meets a set of

performance requirements in the actual operational environment.

The element under consideration is assumed to be a physical part of a system. Systems are

generally subdivided into sub-systems with potentially several sub-levels. The element can be

any part of the system and is not necessarily a specific sub-system or at a specific sub-level.

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A prerequisite for TRL assessment is the identification of the element that is subject to the

assessment. Higher TRLs further require the definition of the performance requirements, and

therefore require the knowledge of the mission and the system where the element is intended to

be used and its operational environment. Performance requirements can be preliminary and

targeting several missions at low TRLs, then progressively refined and verified at higher levels.

The entire TRL scale applies for a given element. Therefore, there is no gradation in the element

complexity when moving from low to high TRLs.

Higher TRLs also imply that the element is in its final form and is being integrated into a system

for validation or use. Therefore, the TRL of a given element may be downgraded if this same

element is used in a different system, unless all environment and interface requirements for the

element in the new system can be demonstrated to be equally or less demanding than for the

original system.

A TRL assessment is valid for a given element and at a given point in time. It may evolve if the

conditions that prevailed at the time of the assessment are no longer valid. Such a situation may

lead to TRL reassessment and degradation, which can occur in particular when the re-build/re-

use of an element is envisioned. Examples are when the obsolescence of the electronics requires

modifications or when the production involves a specific knowledge that has been lost.

The time or effort to move from one TRL to another are technology dependent and are not

linearly connected to the TRL scale. Experience shows that they can vary widely depending on

the element and mission under consideration. Therefore, while the TRL scale is an appropriate

tool for assessing the technology maturity status at a given point in time, it gives no indication of

the effort and cost to be spent for reaching the next level.

While TRL 9 refers to mature technology, lower TRLs reflect the fact that one or more conditions

for reaching a mature technology have not been met, such as:

a) The processes involved for the element manufacturing have not been fully defined,

b) The operational performance requirements have not yet been fully defined,
c) The element has not yet been fully defined,
d) The element has not yet been built,

e) The element performance requirements have not yet been demonstrated in its operational

environment.

When the element is an integrated system or subsystem, it can consist of sub-elements, each

involving some specific technology. In that case, the TRL of the element cannot be greater than

that of the individual sub-elements.

For each TRL, the expected status of the element performance requirements is stated in the

description.
4.2 TRL 1 — Basic principles observed and reported
4.2.1 Description

Scientific research exists related to the technology to be assessed and begins to be translated

into applied research and development. Basic principles are observed and reported through

academic-like research. Potential applications are identified but performance requirements are

not yet specified.

At TRL1, no specific mission can be associated with the technology as concepts and/or

applications are only formulated at TRL 2. Therefore, the performance requirements may not be

defined at this stage.
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4.2.2 Examples
The following are examples of TRL 1:
a) In 1895 German physicist William Conrad Roentgen discovered X-rays.

b) Superconductivity is discovered by H. Kamerlingh Onnes in 1911, showing abrupt

disappearance of electrical resistance for certain materials below a characteristic

temperature.

c) In October 2010 researchers announced the discovery of the world's second giant virus,

dubbed CroV. This virus, which infects single-cell marine creatures, is considered enormous

due to the size of its genome – approximately 730 000 base pairs, or genetic building blocks,

more than double the size of the largest known “normal” virus.
4.3 TRL 2 — Technology concept and/or application formulated
4.3.1 Description

Once basic principles are observed, practical applications can be invented. Applications are

speculative and there may be no proof or detailed analysis to support the assumptions.

At TRL 2, the element performance requirements are general and broadly defined but consistent

with any formulated concept or application.
4.3.2 Examples
The following are examples of TRL 2:

a) The use of a superconducting material, such as aluminium or titanium, around its

superconducting transition edge temperature is envisioned for building high sensitive

bolometric detectors. Energy coupled to the detector increases the temperature of the

superconducting material, pushing it further into the non-superconducting state and

thereby increasing its electrical resistance. This increase in resistance can be used to detect

very small changes in temperature, and hence in energy.

b) The concept of using the photoelectric effect for building solar cell power generators is

formulated.
4.4 TRL 3 — Analytical and experimental critical function and/or characteristic
proof-of-concept
4.4.1 Description

The proof of the element function or characteristic is done by analysis, including modelling and

simulation, and by experimentation. The proof must include both analytical studies to set the

technology into an appropriate context and laboratory-based experiments or measurements to

physically support the analytical predictions and models.

At TRL 3, the element performance requirements are general, broadly defined and can be

preliminary. They are consistent with any formulated concept or application. The element

functional performance requirements are established and the objectives are defined in relation

to the current state of the art.
4.4.2 Examples
The following are examples of TRL 3:
...

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