Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design - Part 1: General rules

(1) EN 1997-1 is intended to be used as a general basis for the geotechnical aspects of the design of buildings and civil engineering works.
(2) The following subjects are dealt with in EN 1997-1:
Section 1: General
Section 2: Basis of geotechnical design
Section 3: Geotechnical data
Section 4: Supervision of construction, monitoring and maintenance
Section 5: Fill, dewatering, ground improvement and reinforcement
Section 6: Spread foundations
Section 7: Pile foundations
Section 8: Anchorages
Section 9: Retaining structures
Section 10: Hydraulic failure
Section 11: Overall stability
Section 12: Embankments
(3) EN 1997-1 is accompanied by Annexes A to J, which provide:
- in A: recommended partial safety factor values; different values of the partial factors may be set by the National annex;
- in B to J: supplementary informative guidance such as internationally applied calculation methods.

Eurocode 7: Entwurf, Berechnung und Bemessung in der Geotechnik - Teil 1: Allgemeine Regeln

1.1.1   Anwendungsbereich der EN 1997
(1)   Die Anwendung der EN 1997 ist in Verbindung mit EN 1990:2002 vorgesehen, in der die Grundsätze und Anforderungen für Sicherheit und Gebrauchstauglichkeit festgelegt sind, die Grundlagen der Planung und der Nachweise beschrieben und Richtlinien für die damit verbundenen Gesichtspunkte der Zuverlässigkeit von Tragwerken angegeben werden.
(2)   Es ist vorgesehen, EN 1997 für die geotechnischen Gesichtspunkte bei der Planung von Hoch- und Ingenieurbauwerken anzuwenden. Sie ist in mehrere Teile gegliedert (siehe 1.1.2 und 1.1.3).
(3)   EN 1997 behandelt Anforderungen an die Festigkeit, Standsicherheit, Gebrauchstauglichkeit und Dauerhaftigkeit der Bauwerke. Andere Anforderungen, z. B. an den Wärme- und Schallschutz, werden nicht behandelt.
(4)   Die bei der Planung von Hoch- und Ingenieurbauwerken anzusetzenden Zahlenwerte für die Einwirkungen gibt die EN 1991 an. Aus dem Baugrund herrührende Einwirkungen wie Erddrücke müssen nach den in EN 1997 genannten Regeln ermittelt werden.
(5)   Für Fragen der Qualitätssicherung und Ausführung sind eigene Europäische Normen vorgesehen. Auf sie wird in den entsprechenden Abschnitten verwiesen.
(6)   In EN 1997 wird die Ausführung nur so weit behandelt, wie das für die Erfüllung der Voraussetzungen der Bemessungsregeln erforderlich ist.
(7)   EN 1997 deckt nicht die besonderen Anforderungen an einen erdbebensicheren Entwurf ab. EN 1998 gibt ergänzende Regeln für eine geotechnische seismische Bemessung an, die die Regeln dieser Norm vervollständigen oder anpassen.

Eurocode 7: Calcul géotechnique - Partie 1: Regles générales

(1) La norme EN 1997 doit etre utilisée conjointement avec la norme EN 1990 :2002, qui définit les principes et les exigences en matiere de sécurité et d'aptitude au service, décrit les principes de base du calcul et de la vérification des structures et donne des directives sur les aspects liés a leur fiabilité.  
(2) La norme EN 1997 doit etre appliquée aux aspects géotechniques du calcul des bâtiments et ouvrages de génie civil. Elle est divisée en plusieurs parties (voir 1.1.2 et 1.1.3).
(3) La norme EN 1997 traite des exigences de résistance, de stabilité, d'aptitude au service et de durabilité des ouvrages. Les autres exigences, par exemple celles qui concernent l'isolation thermique ou sonore, ne sont pas abordées.
(4) Les valeurs numériques des actions sur les bâtiments et les ouvrages de génie civil a prendre en compte dans le calcul sont fournies par la norme EN 1991, en fonction des types de constructions. Les actions imposées par le terrain, comme les pressions des terres, doivent etre calculées conformément aux regles de l'Eurocode 7.
(5) Des normes européennes séparées doivent etre utilisées pour traiter les questions d'exécution et de main d'?uvre. Elles sont notées dans les sections concernées.
(6) Dans la norme EN 1997, l'exécution est traitée dans la mesure ou cela est nécessaire pour assurer sa conformité avec les hypotheses des regles de calcul.
(7) La norme EN 1997 ne traite pas des exigences particulieres du calcul sismique. La norme EN 1998 donne des regles complémentaires pour le calcul sismique, qui completent ou adaptent les regles de la présente norme.

Evrokod 7: Geotehnično projektiranje - 1. del: Splošna pravila

(1)   EN 1997-1 naj se uporablja kot splošna osnova za geotehnične vidike projektiranja stavb in gradbenih inženirskih objektov.
(2)   EN 1997-1 obravnava naslednje teme:
1. poglavje: Splošno
2. poglavje: Osnove geotehničnega projektiranja
3. poglavje: Geotehnični podatki
4. poglavje: Nadzor gradnje, tehnično opazovanje in vzdrževanje
5. poglavje: Nasutje, odvodnjavanje, poboljšanje in armiranje tal
6. poglavje: Plitvo temeljenje
7. poglavje: Temeljenje na pilotih
8. poglavje: Sidra
9. poglavje: Podporne konstrukcije
10. poglavje: Hidravlične porušitve
11. poglavje: Globalna stabilnost
12. poglavje: Nasipi

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
30-Apr-2005
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6100 - Translation of adopted SIST standards (Adopted Project)
Start Date
01-Oct-2006
Due Date
01-Oct-2006
Completion Date
01-Oct-2006

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 1997-1:2005
01-maj-2005
(YURNRG*HRWHKQLþQRSURMHNWLUDQMHGHO6SORãQDSUDYLOD
Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design - Part 1: General rules
Eurocode 7: Entwurf, Berechnung und Bemessung in der Geotechnik - Teil 1:
Allgemeine Regeln
Eurocode 7: Calcul géotechnique - Partie 1: Regles générales
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 1997-1:2004
ICS:
91.010.30 7HKQLþQLYLGLNL Technical aspects
93.020 Zemeljska dela. Izkopavanja. Earthworks. Excavations.
Gradnja temeljev. Dela pod Foundation construction.
zemljo Underground works
SIST EN 1997-1:2005 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 1997-1
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
November 2004
ICS 91.120.20 Supersedes ENV 1997-1:1994
English version
Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design - Part 1: General rules

Eurocode 7: Calcul géotechnique - Partie 1: Règles Eurocode 7: Entwurf, Berechnung und Bemessung in der

générales Geotechnik - Teil 1: Allgemeine Regeln
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 23 April 2004.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the Central Secretariat or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official

versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,

Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia,

Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels

© 2004 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 1997-1:2004: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
EN 1997-1:2004 (E)
Contents

Foreword................................................................................................................................. 5

Section 1 General................................................................................................................ 9

1.1 Scope.............................................................................................................................. 9

1.2 Normative references .................................................................................................... 10

1.3 Assumptions.................................................................................................................. 11

1.4 Distinction between Principles and Application Rules..................................................... 11

1.5 Definitions .....................................................................................................................12

1.6 Symbols ........................................................................................................................ 13

Section 2 Basis of geotechnical design........................................................................... 19

2.1 Design requirements ..................................................................................................... 19

2.2 Design situations........................................................................................................... 21

2.3 Durability....................................................................................................................... 22

2.4 Geotechnical design by calculation................................................................................ 23

2.5 Design by prescriptive measures ................................................................................... 35

2.6 Load tests and tests on experimental models................................................................. 36

2.7 Observational method ................................................................................................... 36

2.8 Geotechnical Design Report.......................................................................................... 36

Section 3 Geotechnical data............................................................................................. 38

3.1 General ......................................................................................................................... 38

3.2 Geotechnical investigations ........................................................................................... 38

3.3 Evaluation of geotechnical parameters .......................................................................... 39

3.4 Ground Investigation Report.......................................................................................... 47

Section 4 Supervision of construction, monitoring and maintenance ........................... 49

4.1 General ......................................................................................................................... 49

4.2 Supervision ................................................................................................................... 49

4.3 Checking ground conditions........................................................................................... 51

4.4 Checking construction ................................................................................................... 52

4.5 Monitoring ..................................................................................................................... 53

4.6 Maintenance.................................................................................................................. 54

Section 5 Fill, dewatering, ground improvement and reinforcement.............................. 55

5.1 General ......................................................................................................................... 55

5.2 Fundamental requirements............................................................................................ 55

5.3 Fill construction ............................................................................................................. 55

5.4 Dewatering.................................................................................................................... 59

5.5 Ground improvement and reinforcement........................................................................ 60

Section 6 Spread foundations .......................................................................................... 61

6.1 General ......................................................................................................................... 61

6.2 Limit states....................................................................................................................61

6.3 Actions and design situations ........................................................................................ 61

6.4 Design and construction considerations......................................................................... 61

6.5 Ultimate limit state design.............................................................................................. 62

6.6 Serviceability limit state design ...................................................................................... 65

6.7 Foundations on rock; additional design considerations................................................... 67

6.8 Structural design of spread foundations......................................................................... 68

6.9 Preparation of the subsoil .............................................................................................. 68

Section 7 Pile foundations................................................................................................ 70

7.1 General ......................................................................................................................... 70

7.2 Limit states....................................................................................................................70

7.3 Actions and design situations ........................................................................................ 70

---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
EN 1997-1:2004(E)

7.4 Design methods and design considerations ................................................................... 72

7.5 Pile load tests ................................................................................................................ 74

7.6 Axially loaded piles ........................................................................................................ 76

7.7 Transversely loaded piles .............................................................................................. 86

7.8 Structural design of piles................................................................................................ 88

7.9 Supervision of construction............................................................................................ 88

Section 8 Anchorages ....................................................................................................... 91

8.1 General ......................................................................................................................... 91

8.2 Limit states ....................................................................................................................92

8.3 Design situations and actions......................................................................................... 92

8.4 Design and construction considerations ......................................................................... 93

8.5 Ultimate limit state design .............................................................................................. 94

8.6 Serviceability limit state design....................................................................................... 95

8.7 Suitability tests...............................................................................................................95

8.8 Acceptance tests ........................................................................................................... 96

8.9 Supervision and monitoring............................................................................................ 96

Section 9 Retaining structures ......................................................................................... 97

9.1 General ......................................................................................................................... 97

9.2 Limit states ....................................................................................................................97

9.3 Actions, geometrical data and design situations ............................................................. 98

9.4 Design and construction considerations ....................................................................... 101

9.5 Determination of earth pressures ................................................................................. 102

9.6 Water pressures .......................................................................................................... 105

9.7 Ultimate limit state design ............................................................................................ 105

9.8 Serviceability limit state design..................................................................................... 109

Section 10 Hydraulic failure............................................................................................ 111

10.1 General...................................................................................................................... 111

10.2 Failure by uplift .......................................................................................................... 112

10.3 Failure by heave ........................................................................................................ 114

10.4 Internal erosion.......................................................................................................... 114

10.5 Failure by piping ........................................................................................................ 115

Section 11 Overall stability ............................................................................................. 117

11.1 General...................................................................................................................... 117

11.2 Limit states ................................................................................................................ 117

11.3 Actions and design situations..................................................................................... 117

11.4 Design and construction considerations ..................................................................... 118

11.5 Ultimate limit state design .......................................................................................... 119

11.6 Serviceability limit state design................................................................................... 121

11.7 Monitoring.................................................................................................................. 121

Section 12 Embankments................................................................................................ 123

12.1 General...................................................................................................................... 123

12.2 Limit states ................................................................................................................ 123

12.3 Actions and design situations..................................................................................... 123

12.4 Design and construction considerations ..................................................................... 124

12.5 Ultimate limit state design .......................................................................................... 125

12.6 Serviceability limit state design................................................................................... 126

12.7 Supervision and monitoring........................................................................................ 126

Annex A (normative) Partial and correlation factors for ultimate limit states

and recommended values .................................................................................................. 128

Annex B (informative) Background information on partial factors for Design

Approaches 1, 2 and 3........................................................................................................ 138

Annex C (informative) Sample procedures to determine limit values of earth

pressures on vertical walls ................................................................................................ 141

Annex D (informative) A sample analytical method for bearing resistance

calculation........................................................................................................................... 156

3
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
EN 1997-1:2004 (E)
Annex E (informative) A sample semi-empirical method for bearing

resistance estimation..........................................................................................................160

Annex F (informative) Sample methods for settlement evaluation...................................161

Annex G (informative) A sample method for deriving presumed bearing

resistance for spread foundations on rock........................................................................163

Annex H (informative) Limiting values of structural deformation and

foundation movement .........................................................................................................165

Annex J (informative) Checklist for construction supervision and

performance monitoring .....................................................................................................167

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
EN 1997-1:2004(E)
Foreword
This document (EN 1997-1) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC250

“Structural Eurocodes”, the secretariat of which is held by BSI. CEN/TC 250 is responsible for

all Structural Eurocodes.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication

of an identical text, or by endorsement, at the latest by May 2005 and conflicting national

standards shall be withdrawn by March 2010.
This document supersedes ENV 1997-1:1994.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of

the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium,

Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary,

Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland,

Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
Background to the Eurocode programme

In 1975, the Commission of the European Community decided on an action programme in the

field of construction, based on article 95 of the Treaty. The objective of the programme was the

elimination of technical obstacles to trade and the harmonisation of technical specifications.

Within this action programme, the Commission took the initiative to establish a set of

harmonised technical rules for the design of construction works which, in a first stage, would

serve as an alternative to the national rules in force in the Member States and, ultimately,

would replace them.

For fifteen years, the Commission, with the help of a Steering Committee with Representatives

of Member States, conducted the development of the Eurocodes programme, which led to the

first generation of European codes in the 1980s.

In 1989, the Commission and the Member States of the EU and EFTA decided, on the basis of

an agreement between the Commission and CEN, to transfer the preparation and the

publication of the Eurocodes to CEN through a series of Mandates, in order to provide them

with a future status of European Standard (EN). This links de facto the Eurocodes with the

provisions of all the Council’s Directives and/or Commissions Decisions dealing with European

standards (e.g. the Council Directive 89/106/EEC on construction products - CPD - and

Council Directives 93/37/EEC, 92/50/EEC and 89/440/EEC on public works and services and

equivalent EFTA Directives initiated in pursuit of setting up the internal market).

The Structural Eurocode programme comprises the following standards generally consisting of

a number of Parts:
EN 1990 Eurocode : Basis of Structural Design
EN 1991 Eurocode 1: Actions on structures
EN 1992 Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures
EN 1993 Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures

1 Agreement between the Commission of the European Communities and the European Committee for

Standardisation (CEN) concerning the work on EUROCODES for the design of building and civil engineering works

(BC/CEN/03/89).
5
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
EN 1997-1:2004 (E)
EN 1994 Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete structures
EN 1995 Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures
EN 1996 Eurocode 6: Design of masonry structures
EN 1997 Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design
EN 1998 Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance
EN 1999 Eurocode 9: Design of aluminium structures

Eurocode standards recognise the responsibility of regulatory authorities in each Member

State and have safeguarded their right to determine values related to regulatory safety matters

at national level where these continue to vary from State to State.
Status and field of application of Eurocodes
The Member States of the EU and EFTA recognise that Eurocodes serve as reference
documents for the following purposes:

— as a means to prove compliance of building and civil engineering works with the essential

requirements of Council Directive 89/106/EEC, particularly Essential Requirement N°1 –

Mechanical resistance and stability – and Essential Requirement N°2 – Safety in case of

fire;

— as a basis for specifying contracts for construction works and related engineering services;

— as a framework for drawing up harmonised technical specifications for construction

products (ENs and ETAs)

The Eurocodes, as far as they concern the construction works themselves, have a direct

relationship with the Interpretative Documents referred to in Article 12 of the CPD, although

they are of a different nature from harmonised product standards . Therefore, technical aspects

arising from the Eurocodes work need to be adequately considered by CEN Technical

Committees and/or EOTA Working Groups working on product standards with a view to

achieving full compatibility of these technical specifications with the Eurocodes.

The Eurocode standards provide common structural design rules for everyday use for the

design of whole structures and component products of both a traditional and an innovative

nature. Unusual forms of construction or design conditions are not specifically covered and

additional expert consideration will be required by the designer in such cases.

2 According to Art. 3.3 of the CPD, the essential requirements (ERs) shall be given concrete form in interpretative

documents for the creation of the necessary links between the essential requirements and the mandates for

harmonised ENs and ETAGs/ETAs.
3 According to Art. 12 of the CPD the interpretative documents shall :

a) give concrete form to the essential requirements by harmonising the terminology and the technical bases and indicating

classes or levels for each requirement where necessary ;

b) indicate methods of correlating these classes or levels of requirement with the technical specifications, e.g. methods of

calculation and of proof, technical rules for project design, etc. ;

c) serve as a reference for the establishment of harmonised standards and guidelines for European technical approvals.

The Eurocodes, de facto, play a similar role in the field of the ER 1 and a part of ER 2.

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
EN 1997-1:2004(E)
National Standards implementing Eurocodes

The National Standards implementing Eurocodes will comprise the full text of the Eurocode

(including any annexes), as published by CEN, which may be preceded by a National title page

and National foreword, and may be followed by a National annex.

The National annex may only contain information on those parameters, which are left open in

the Eurocode for national choice, known as Nationally Determined Parameters, to be used for

the design of buildings and civil engineering works to be constructed in the country concerned,

i.e. :
— values and/or classes where alternatives are given in the Eurocode,
— values to be used where a symbol only is given in the Eurocode,
— country specific data (geographical, climatic), e.g. snow map,

— the procedure to be used where alternative procedures are given in the Eurocode.

It may also contain:
— decisions on the application of informative annexes,

— references to non-contradictory complementary information to assist the user to apply the

Eurocode.

Links between Eurocodes and harmonised technical specifications (ENs and ETAs) for

products

There is a need for consistency between the harmonised technical specifications for

construction products and the technical rules for works . Furthermore, all the information

accompanying the CE Marking of the construction products, which refer to Eurocodes should

clearly mention which Nationally Determined Parameters have been taken into account.

Additional information specific to Eurocode 7

EN 1997-1 gives design guidance and actions for geotechnical design of buildings and civil

engineering works.

EN 1997-1 is intended for clients, designers, contractors and public authorities.

EN 1997-1 is intended to be used with EN 1990 and EN 1991 to EN 1999.

In using EN 1997-1 in practice, particular regard should be paid to the underlying assumptions

and conditions given in 1.3.

The 12 sections of EN 1997-1 are complemented by 1 normative and 8 informative annexes.

National annex for EN 1997-1

This standard gives alternative procedures and recommended values with notes indicating

where national choices may have to be made. Therefore the National Standard implementing

EN 1997-1 should have a National annex containing all Nationally Determined Parameters to

be used for the design of buildings and civil engineering works to be constructed in the relevant

country.

4 see Art.3.3 and Art.12 of the CPD, as well as clauses 4.2, 4.3.1, 4.3.2 and 5.2 of ID 1.

7
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
EN 1997-1:2004 (E)
National choice is allowed in EN 1997-1 through the following paragraphs:

— 2.1(8)P, 2.4.6.1(4)P, 2.4.6.2(2)P, 2.4.7.1(2)P, 2.4.7.1(3), 2.4.7.2(2)P, 2.4.7.3.2(3)P,

2.4.7.3.3(2)P, 2.4.7.3.4.1(1)P, 2.4.7.4(3)P, 2.4.7.5(2)P, 2.4.8(2), 2.4.9(1)P, 2.5(1),

7.6.2.2(8)P, 7.6.2.2(14)P, 7.6.2.3(4)P, 7.6.2.3(5)P, 7.6.2.3(8), 7.6.2.4(4)P, 7.6.3.2(2)P,

7.6.3.2(5)P, 7.6.3.3(3)P, 7.6.3.3(4)P, 7.6.3.3(6), 8.5.2(2)P, 8.5.2(3), 8.6(4), 11.5.1(1)P

and the following clauses in annex A:
— A.2
— A.3.1, A.3.2, A.3.3.1, A.3.3.2, A.3.3.3, A.3.3.4, A.3.3.5, A.3.3.6,
— A.4
— A.5
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
EN 1997-1:2004(E)
Section 1 General
1.1 Scope
1.1.1 Scope of EN 1997

(1) EN 1997 is intended to be used in conjunction with EN 1990:2002, which establishes the

principles and requirements for safety and serviceability, describes the basis of design and

verification and gives guidelines for related aspects of structural reliability.

(2) EN 1997 is intended to be applied to the geotechnical aspects of the design of buildings

and civil engineering works. It is subdivided into various separate parts (see 1.1.2 and 1.1.3).

(3) EN 1997 is concerned with the requirements for strength, stability, serviceability and

durability of structures. Other requirements, e.g. concerning thermal or sound insulation, are

not considered.

(4) Numerical values of actions on buildings and civil engineering works to be taken into

account in design are provided in EN 1991 for the various types of construction. Actions

imposed by the ground, such as earth pressures, shall be calculated according to the rules of

EN 1997.

(5) Separate European Standards are intended to be used to treat matters of execution and

workmanship. They are denoted in the relevant sections.

(6) In EN 1997 execution is covered to the extent that is necessary to comply with the

assumptions of the design rules.

(7) EN 1997 does not cover the special requirements of seismic design. EN 1998 provides

additional rules for geotechnical seismic design, which complete or adapt the rules of this

Standard.
1.1.2 Scope of EN 1997-1

(1) EN 1997-1 is intended to be used as a general basis for the geotechnical aspects of the

design of buildings and civil engineering works.
(2) The following subjects are dealt with in EN 1997-1:
Section 1: General
Section 2: Basis of geotechnical design
Section 3: Geotechnical data
Section 4: Supervision of construction, monitoring and maintenance
Section 5: Fill, dewatering, ground improvement and reinforcement
Section 6: Spread foundations
Section 7: Pile foundations
Section 8: Anchorages
Section 9: Retaining structures
9
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
EN 1997-1:2004 (E)
Section 10: Hydraulic failure
Section 11: Overall stability
Section 12: Embankments
(3) EN 1997-1 is accompanied by Annexes A to J, which provide:

— in A: recommended partial safety factor values; different values of the partial factors may be

set by the National annex;

— in B to J: supplementary informative guidance such as internationally applied calculation

methods.
1.1.3 Further Parts of EN 1997

(1) EN 1997-1 is supplemented by EN 1997-2 that provides requirements for the performance

and evaluation of field and laboratory testing.
1.2 Normative references

(1) This European Standard incorporates by dated or undated reference, provisions from other

publications. These normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text and the

publications are listed hereafter. For dated references, subsequent amendments to or revisions

of any of these publications apply to this European Standard only when incorporated in it by

amendment or revision. For undated references the latest edition of the publication referred to

applies (including amendments).

NOTE The Eurocodes were published as European Prestandards. The following European Standards

which are published or in preparation are cited in normative clauses
EN 1990:2002 Eurocode: Basis of structural de
...

SLOVENSKI SIST EN 1997-1
STANDARD
maj 2005
Evrokod 7: Geotehnično projektiranje – 1. del: Splošna pravila
Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design – Part 1: General rules
Eurocode 7: Calcul gèotechnique – Partie 1: Règles générales
Eurocode 7: Entwurf, Berechnung und Bemessung in der Geotehnik –
Teil 1: Allgemeine Regeln
Referenčna oznaka
ICS 91.010.30; 93.020 SIST EN 1997-1:2005 (sl)
Nadaljevanje na straneh II in III ter od 1 do 146

© 2006-10. Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 1997-1 : 2005
NACIONALNI UVOD

Standard SIST EN 1997-1 (sl), Evrokod 7: Geotehnično projektiranje – 1. del: Splošna pravila, 2005,

ima status slovenskega standarda in je istoveten evropskemu standardu EN 1997-1 (en), Eurocode 7:

Geotechnical design – Part 1: General rules, 2004.
NACIONALNI PREDGOVOR

Evropski standard EN 1997-1:2004 je pripravil tehnični odbor Evropskega komiteja za standardizacijo

CEN/TC 250 Konstrukcijski evrokodi, katerega tajništvo je v pristojnosti BSI.

Slovenski standard SIST EN 1997-1:2005 je prevod evropskega standarda EN 1997-1:2004. V

primeru spora glede besedila slovenskega prevoda v tem standardu je odločilen izvirni evropski

standard v angleškem jeziku. Slovensko izdajo standarda je pripravil tehnični odbor SIST/TC KON

Konstrukcije.
ZVEZA Z NACIONALNIMI STANDARDI

V standardu SIST EN 1997-1:2005 pomeni sklicevanje na evropske in mednarodne standarde, ki je

vključeno v ta evropski standard, sklicevanje na enakovredne slovenske standarde, npr.:

EN 1991-1 pomeni SIST EN 1991-1.
NACIONALNI DODATEK

V skladu s standardom EN 1997-1:2004 bo pripravljen nacionalni dodatek k standardu SIST EN 1997-

1:2005. Nacionalni dodatek vsebuje alternativne postopke, vrednosti in priporočila za razrede z

opombami, ki kažejo, kje se lahko uveljavi nacionalna izbira. Zato bo nacionalni dodatek SIST EN

1997-1:2005/A101 vseboval nacionalno določene parametre, ki jih je treba uporabiti pri projektiranju

stavb in gradbenih inženirskih objektov, ki bodo zgrajeni v Republiki Sloveniji.
Nacionalna izbira je v SIST EN 1997-1:2005 dovoljena v:
− 2.1(8)P − 7.6.2.2(14)P
− 2.4.6.1(4)P − 7.6.2.3(4)P
− 2.4.6.2(2)P − 7.6.2.3(5)P
− 2.4.7.1(2)P − 7.6.2.3(8)
− 2.4.7.1(3) − 7.6.2.4(4)P
− 2.4.7.2(2)P − 7.6.3.2(2)P
− 2.4.7.3.2(3)P − 7.6.3.2(5)P
− 2.4.7.3.3(2)P − 7.6.3.3(3)P
− 2.4.7.3.4.1(1)P − 7.6.3.3(4)P
− 2.4.7.4(3)P − 7.6.3.3(6)
− 2.4.7.5(2)P − 8.5.2(2)P
− 2.4.8(2) − 8.5.2(3)
− 2.4.9(1)P − 8.6(4)
– 11.5.1(1)P
− 2.5(1)
− 7.6.2.2(8)P
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SIST EN 1997-1 : 2005
ter v naslednjih poglavjih iz dodatka A:
− A.2
− A.3.1, A.3.2, A.3.3.1, A.3.3.2, A.3.3.3, A.3.3.4, A.3.3.5, A.3.3.6
− A.4
− A.5
OSNOVA ZA IZDAJO STANDARDA
– privzem standarda EN 1997-1:2004
OPOMBE
– Povsod, kjer se v besedilu standarda uporablja izraz “evropski standard”, v
SIST EN 1997-1:2005 to pomeni “slovenski standard”.
– Nacionalni uvod in nacionalni predgovor nista sestavni del standarda.

– Ta nacionalni dokument je istoveten EN 1997-1:2004 in je objavljen z dovoljenjem

CEN
Rue de Stassart 36
1050 Bruselj
Belgija

This national document is identical with EN 1997-1::2004 and is published with the permission of

CEN
Rue de Stassart, 36
1050 Bruxelles
Belgium
III
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 1997-1 : 2005
(Prazna stran)
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
EVROPSKI STANDARD EN 1997-1
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM november 2004
ICS: 91.120.20 Nadomešča ENV 1997-1:1994
Slovenska izdaja
Evrokod 7: Geotehnično projektiranje –
1. del: Splošna pravila
Eurocode 7: Geotechnical Eurocode 7: Geotechnical
Eurocode 7: Geotechnical
design – Part 1: General rules design – Part 1: General rules
design – Part 1: General rules
Ta evropski standard je CEN sprejel 23. aprila 2004.

Člani CEN morajo izpolnjevati notranje predpise CEN/CENELEC, s katerim je predpisano, da mora biti

ta standard brez kakršnihkoli sprememb sprejet kot nacionalni standard. Najnovejši seznami teh

nacionalnih standardov z njihovimi bibliografskimi podatki se na zahtevo lahko dobijo pri Centralnem

sekretariatu ali katerikoli članici CEN.

Ta evropski standard obstaja v treh izvirnih izdajah (angleški, francoski in nemški). Izdaje v drugih

jezikih, ki jih člani CEN na lastno odgovornost prevedejo in izdajo ter prijavijo pri Upravnem centru CEN,

veljajo kot uradne izdaje.

Člani CEN so nacionalni organi za standarde Avstrije, Belgije, Cipra, Češke republike, Danske,

Estonije, Finske, Francije, Grčije, Irske, Islandije, Italije, Latvije, Litve, Luksemburga, Madžarske,

Malte, Nemčije, Nizozemske, Norveške, Poljske, Portugalske, Slovaške, Slovenije, Španije, Švedske,

Švice in Združenega kraljestva.
CEN
Evropski komite za standardizacijo
European Committee for Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation
Europäisches Komitee für Normung
Centralni sekretariat: Rue de Stassart 36, B-1050 Bruselj

© 2004 CEN. Lastnice avtorskih pravic so vse države članice CEN. Ref. oz. EN 1997-1:2004 E

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN 1997-1: 2005
VSEBINA Stran

Predgovor .................................................................................................................................................5

1 Splošno.................................................................................................................................................8

1.1 Področje uporabe ..............................................................................................................................8

1.2 Zveze z drugimi standardi .................................................................................................................9

1.3 Predpostavke.....................................................................................................................................9

1.4 Razlikovanje med načeli in pravili za uporabo ................................................................................10

1.5 Definicije ..........................................................................................................................................10

1.6 Simboli.............................................................................................................................................11

2 Osnove geotehničnega projektiranja..................................................................................................16

2.1 Projektne zahteve............................................................................................................................16

2.2 Projektna stanja...............................................................................................................................18

2.3 Trajnost............................................................................................................................................18

2.4 Geotehnično projektiranje na podlagi računskih analiz...................................................................19

2.5 Projektiranje s predpisovanjem ukrepov .........................................................................................30

2.6 Obremenilni preskusi in preskusi na eksperimentalnih modelih .....................................................30

2.7 Opazovalna metoda ........................................................................................................................30

2.8 Poročilo o geotehničnem projektu...................................................................................................31

3 Geotehnični podatki............................................................................................................................32

3.1 Splošno............................................................................................................................................32

3.2 Geotehnične preiskave....................................................................................................................32

3.3 Vrednotenje geotehničnih parametrov ............................................................................................33

3.4 Poročilo o preiskavah tal .................................................................................................................39

4 Nadzor gradnje, tehnično opazovanje in vzdrževanje........................................................................42

4.1 Splošno............................................................................................................................................42

4.2 Nadzor .............................................................................................................................................42

4.3 Preverjanje pogojev tal....................................................................................................................43

4.4 Kontrola gradnje ..............................................................................................................................45

4.5 Tehnično opazovanje ......................................................................................................................45

4.6 Vzdrževanje.....................................................................................................................................46

5 Nasutje, odvodnjavanje, poboljšanje in armiranje tal.........................................................................47

5.1 Splošno............................................................................................................................................47

5.2 Osnovne zahteve.............................................................................................................................47

5.3 Izvedba nasutja ...............................................................................................................................47

5.4 Odvodnjavanje.................................................................................................................................50

5.5 Izboljšanje in ojačitev tal..................................................................................................................51

6 Plitvo temeljenje .................................................................................................................................52

6.1 Splošno............................................................................................................................................52

6.2 Mejna stanja ....................................................................................................................................52

6.3 Vplivi in projektna stanja..................................................................................................................52

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SIST EN 1997-1: 2005

6.4 Projektne in konstrukcijske zahteve ................................................................................................52

6.5 Projektiranje na mejna stanja nosilnosti..........................................................................................53

6.6 Projektiranje na mejno stanje uporabnosti ......................................................................................56

6.7 Temeljenje na kamninah – dodatni projektni pogoji........................................................................57

6.8 Konstruiranje plitvih temeljev...........................................................................................................58

6.9 Priprava temeljnih tal.......................................................................................................................58

7 Temeljenje na pilotih...........................................................................................................................59

7.1 Splošno............................................................................................................................................59

7.2 Mejna stanja ....................................................................................................................................59

7.3 Vplivi in obtežna stanja....................................................................................................................59

7.4 Projektne metode in konstrukcijske zahteve ...................................................................................61

7.5 Obremenilni preskusi pilotov ...........................................................................................................62

7.6 Osno obremenjeni piloti...................................................................................................................64

7.7 Prečno obremenjeni piloti................................................................................................................73

7.8 Dimenzioniranje pilotov ...................................................................................................................74

7.9 Nadzor izgradnje .............................................................................................................................75

8 Sidra ...................................................................................................................................................77

8.1 Splošno............................................................................................................................................77

8.2 Mejna stanja ....................................................................................................................................78

8.3 Projektna stanja in vplivi..................................................................................................................78

8.4 Projektne in konstrukcijske zahteve ................................................................................................78

8.5 Projektiranje na mejno stanje nosilnosti..........................................................................................79

8.6 Projektiranje na mejno stanje uporabnosti ......................................................................................80

8.7 Ustreznostni preskusi ......................................................................................................................80

8.8 Odobritveni preskusi........................................................................................................................81

8.9 Nadzor in tehnično opazovanje.......................................................................................................81

9 Podporne konstrukcije........................................................................................................................82

9.1 Splošno............................................................................................................................................82

9.2 Mejna stanja ....................................................................................................................................82

9.3 Vplivi, geometrijski podatki in projektna stanja................................................................................83

9.4 Projektne in konstrukcijske zahteve ................................................................................................85

9.5 Določitev zemeljskih pritiskov..........................................................................................................86

9.6 Vodni pritiski ....................................................................................................................................88

9.7 Projektiranje na mejno stanje nosilnosti..........................................................................................89

9.8 Projektiranje na mejno stanje uporabnosti ......................................................................................93

10 Hidravlične porušitve ........................................................................................................................95

10.1 Splošno..........................................................................................................................................95

10.2 Porušitev zaradi vzgona ................................................................................................................96

10.3 Hidravlični lom tal ..........................................................................................................................98

10.4 Notranja erozija .............................................................................................................................98

10.5 Porušitev zaradi oblikovanja kanalov ............................................................................................99

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SIST EN 1997-1: 2005

11 Globalna stabilnost........................................................................................................................ 101

11.1 Splošno....................................................................................................................................... 101

11.2 Mejna stanja ............................................................................................................................... 101

11.3 Vplivi in projektna stanja............................................................................................................. 101

11.4 Projektne in konstrukcijske zahteve ........................................................................................... 102

11.5 Projektiranje na mejno stanje stabilnosti.................................................................................... 102

11.6 Projektiranje na mejno stanje uporabnosti ................................................................................. 104

11.7 Tehnično opazovanje ................................................................................................................. 105

12 Nasipi............................................................................................................................................. 106

12.1 Splošno....................................................................................................................................... 106

12.2 Mejna stanja ............................................................................................................................... 106

12.3 Vplivi in projektna stanja............................................................................................................. 106

12.4 Projektne in konstrukcijske zahteve ........................................................................................... 107

12.5 Projektiranje na mejno stanje nosilnosti..................................................................................... 108

12.6 Projektiranje na mejno stanje uporabnosti ................................................................................. 108

12.7 Nadzor in tehnično opazovanje.................................................................................................. 108

Dodatek A (normativni): Delni in korelacijski faktorji za mejna stanja nosilnosti ter priporočene

vrednosti......................................................................................................................................... 110

Dodatek B (informativni): Pojasnila k delnim faktorjem pri projektnih pristopih 1, 2 in 3 .................... 118

Dodatek C (informativni): Vzorčni postopki za določitev mejnih vrednosti zemeljskih pritiskov na

navpične stene ............................................................................................................................... 121

Dodatek D (informativni): Vzorčni primer analitične metode za izračun nosilnosti tal......................... 135

Dodatek E (informativni): Vzorčni primer polempirične metode izračuna nosilnosti ........................... 138

Dodatek F (informativni): Vzorčne metode za vrednotenje posedkov ................................................ 139

Dodatek G (informativni): Vzorčna metoda za oceno nosilnosti plitvega temeljenja na kamninah..... 141

Dodatek H (informativni): Mejne vrednosti deformacije konstrukcije in premika temelja.................... 143

Dodatek J (informativni): Kontrolni seznam za nadzor gradnje in tehnično opazovanje obnašanja.. 145

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SIST EN 1997-1: 2005
Predgovor

Ta dokument (EN 1997-1) je pripravil tehnični odbor CEN/TC 250 Konstrukcijski evrokodi, katerega

sekretariat je na BSI. CEN/TC 250 je odgovoren za vse konstrukcijske evrokode.

Ta evropski standard mora postati nacionalni standard z objavo istovetnega besedila ali z uradno

razglasitvijo najpozneje do maja 2005, nacionalni standardi, ki so z njim v nasprotju, pa morajo biti

umaknjeni najpozneje marca 2010.
Ta dokument nadomešča ENV 1997-1:1994.

Skladno z notranjimi predpisi CEN/CENELEC morajo ta evropski standard uveljaviti nacionalni organi za

standarde naslednjih držav: Avstrije, Belgije, Cipra, Češke republike, Danske, Estonije, Finske, Francije,

Nemčije, Grčije, Madžarske, Islandije, Irske, Italije, Latvije, Litve, Luksemburga, Malte, Nizozemske,

Norveške, Poljske, Portugalske, Slovaške, Slovenije, Španije, Švedske, Švice in Združenega kraljestva.

Ozadje programa evrokodov

Komisija Evropske skupnosti se je v letu 1975 na podlagi 95. člena Rimske pogodbe odločila, da

sprejme akcijski program na področju gradbeništva. Cilj programa je bil odstraniti tehnične ovire pri

trgovanju in uskladiti tehnične specifikacije.

Znotraj tega programa je Komisija spodbudila pripravo niza usklajenih tehničnih pravil za projektiranje

gradbenih objektov, ki bi se sprva uporabljala kot alternativa različnim pravilom, veljavnim v

posameznih državah članicah, končno pa bi jih nadomestila v celoti.

Komisija je s pomočjo upravnega odbora, v katerem so bili predstavniki držav članic, petnajst let vodila

razvoj programa evrokodov, katerega rezultat je bila prva generacija evrokodov v osemdesetih letih

20. stoletja.

Leta 1989 so se Komisija in države članice EU in EFTA odločile, da na podlagi dogovora med Komisijo in

CEN z več pooblastili prenesejo pripravo in objavljanje evrokodov na CEN, da bi evrokodi v prihodnje imeli

status evropskih standardov (EN). To je evrokode dejansko povezalo z določbami vseh direktiv Sveta in/ali

odločbami Komisije, ki se nanašajo na evropske standarde (npr. Direktiva Sveta 89/106/EGS o gradbenih

proizvodih (CPD) in direktive Sveta 93/37/EGS, 92/50/EGS ter 89/440/EGS o javnih delih in storitvah ter

ustrezne direktive EFTA, ki so bile sprejete za uveljavitev notranjega trga).

Program konstrukcijskih evrokodov obsega naslednje standarde, ki imajo na splošno več delov:

EN 1990 Evrokod: Osnove projektiranja konstrukcij
EN 1991 Evrokod 1: Vplivi na konstrukcije
EN 1992 Evrokod 2: Projektiranje betonskih konstrukcij
EN 1993 Evrokod 3: Projektiranje jeklenih konstrukcij
EN 1994 Evrokod 4: Projektiranje sovprežnih jeklenih in betonskih konstrukcij
EN 1995 Evrokod 5: Projektiranje lesenih konstrukcij
EN 1996 Evrokod 6: Projektiranje zidanih konstrukcij
EN 1997 Evrokod 7: Geotehnično projektiranje
EN 1998 Evrokod 8: Projektiranje potresnoodpornih konstrukcij
EN 1999 Evrokod 9: Projektiranje aluminijskih konstrukcij

Evrokodi priznavajo odgovornost pristojnih oblasti v vsaki državi članici in jim dopuščajo pravico, da

vrednosti, povezane z varnostjo, določajo na nacionalni ravni, od države do države različno.

Dogovor med Komisijo Evropskih skupnosti in Evropskim komitejem za standardizacijo (CEN) o pripravi evrokodov za

projektiranje stavb in gradbenih inženirskih objektov (BC/CEN/03/89).
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN 1997-1: 2005
Status in področje veljavnosti evrokodov

Članice EU in EFTA priznavajo evrokode kot referenčne dokumente za naslednje namene:

– kot način za dokazovanje ustreznosti stavb in gradbenih inženirskih objektov bistvenim zahtevam

Direktive Sveta 89/106/EGS, zlasti bistveni zahtevi št. 1 »Mehanska odpornost in stabilnost« in

bistveni zahtevi št. 2 »Varnost pri požaru«,

– kot podlago za specifikacijo pogodb za gradnjo gradbenih objektov in spremljajoče inženirske storitve,

– kot okvir za pripravo harmoniziranih tehničnih specifikacij za gradbene proizvode (EN in ETA).

Kjer se evrokodi nanašajo na gradbene objekte, so neposredno povezani z razlagalnimi dokumenti ,

navedenimi v 12. členu Direktive o gradbenih proizvodih (CPD), čeprav je njihova narava drugačna od

harmoniziranih standardov za proizvode . Zato morajo tehnični odbori CEN in/ali delovne skupine

EOTA, ki pripravljajo standarde za proizvode, upoštevati tehnične vidike evrokodov, da bi s tem

dosegli popolno usklajenost teh tehničnih specifikacij z evrokodi.

Evrokodi vsebujejo skupna pravila za vsakdanjo rabo pri projektiranju običajnih in inovativnih

konstrukcij kot celote ali posameznih konstrukcijskih delov. Evrokodi ne vsebujejo posebnih določil za

nenavadne oblike konstrukcij ali nenavadne projektne pogoje. V teh primerih je potrebno sodelovanje

z izvedenci.
Nacionalne izdaje evrokodov

Nacionalna izdaja evrokoda vsebuje poleg celotnega besedila evrokoda (z vsemi dodatki), kot ga je

objavil CEN, tudi morebitno nacionalno naslovnico, nacionalni predgovor in nacionalni dodatek.

Nacionalni dodatek lahko vsebuje le podatke o parametrih, ki so v evrokodu navedeni kot nacionalno

določeni parametri (NDP). Ti parametri veljajo za projektiranje konstrukcij stavb in gradbenih

inženirskih objektov v državi, v kateri bodo zgrajeni. To so:
– vrednosti in/ali razredi, kjer evrokodi dopuščajo alternative,
– vrednosti, kjer evrokodi navajajo le simbole,

– podatki, specifični za državo (geografski, podnebni itn.), kot je npr. karta snega,

– postopek, če jih evrokod dopušča več.
Nacionalni dodatek lahko vsebuje tudi:
– odločitev o uporabi informativnih dodatkov,

– napotke o dodatnih informacijah, ki niso v nasprotju z evrokodi, za pomoč uporabniku.

V skladu s 3.3 členom CPD je treba bistvene zahteve v razlagalnih dokumentih konkretizirati tako, da se pri tem vzpostavi zveza

med bistvenimi zahtevami in pooblastili za pripravo harmoniziranih EN in smernic ETA/ETA.

V skladu z 12. členom CPD morajo razlagalni dokumenti:

a) konkretizirati bistvene zahteve s poenotenjem izrazov in tehničnih podlag ter določitvijo razredov ali stopenj zahtevnosti za

vsako zahtevo, takrat ko je to potrebno;

b) nakazati metode za povezavo razredov ali stopenj zahtevnosti s tehničnimi specifikacijami, npr. metode računa in

dokazov, tehnična pravila za projektiranje ipd.;

c) biti uporabni kot podlaga za pripravo harmoniziranih standardov ali smernic za evropska tehnična soglasja.

Evrokodi imajo dejansko podobno vlogo pri bistveni zahtevi št. 1 in delno pri bistveni zahtevi št. 2.

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SIST EN 1997-1: 2005

Povezave med evrokodi in harmoniziranimi tehničnimi specifikacijami (EN in ETA) za

proizvode

Harmonizirane tehnične specifikacije za gradbene proizvode morajo biti usklajene s tehničnimi pravili

za objekte . Nadalje morajo navodila, povezana z označevanjem CE gradbenih proizvodov, ki se

sklicujejo na evrokode, natančno določiti, katere nacionalno predpisane parametre upoštevajo.

Dodatne informacije o EN 1997 (evrokod 7)

EN 1997-1 podaja usmeritve projektantom in vplive za geotehnično projektiranje stavb in gradbenih

inženirskih objektov.

EN 1997-1 je namenjen naročnikom, projektantom, izvajalcem in pristojnim organom.

EN 1997-1 se uporablja skupaj z EN 1990 in EN 1991 do EN 1999.

V praksi je treba pri uporabi EN 1997-1 še posebej upoštevati osnovne predpostavke, navedene v 1.3.

12 poglavjem v EN 1997-1 so dodani še 1 normativni dodatek in 8 informativnih dodatkov.

Nacionalni dodatek k EN 1997-1

Ta standard podaja alternativne postopke in priporočene vrednosti z opombami, ki kažejo, kje se lahko

uveljavi nacionalna izbira. Zato morajo imeti nacionalne izdaje EN 1997-1 nacionalni dodatek, ki

vsebuje vse nacionalno določene parametre, ki jih je treba uporabiti pri projektiranju stavb in

gradbenih inženirskih objektov, ki bodo zgrajeni v tej državi.
Nacionalna izbira je v EN 1997-1 dovoljena v podpoglavjih:

– 2.1(8)P, 2.4.6.1(4)P, 2.4.6.2(2)P, 2.4.7.1(2)P, 2.4.7.1(3), 2.4.7.2(2)P, 2.4.7.3.2(3)P,

2.4.7.3.3(2)P, 2.4.7.3.4.1(1)P, 2.4.7.4(3)P, 2.4.7.5(2)P, 2.4.8(2), 2.4.9(1)P, 2.5(1), 7.6.2.2(8)P,

7.6.2.2(14)P, 7.6.2.3(4)P, 7.6.2.3(5)P, 7.6.2.3(8), 7.6.2.4(4)P, 7.6.3.2(2)P, 7.6.3.2(5)P,

7.6.3.3(3)P, 7.6.3.3(4)P, 7.6.3.3(6), 8.5.2(2)P, 8.5.2(3), 8.6(4), 11.5.1(1)P;
ter v naslednjih podpoglavjih iz dodatka A:
– A.2,
– A.3.1, A.3.2, A.3.3.1, A.3.3.2, A.3.3.3, A.3.3.4, A.3.3.5, A.3.3.6,
– A.4,
– A.5.

Glej 3.3 člen in 12. člen CPD in tudi točke 4.2, 4.3.1, 4.3.2, in 5.2 v prvem razlagalnem dokumentu.

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