Cigarettes and filter rods - Determination of nominal diameter - Method using a non-contact optical measuring apparatus

This International Standard specifies a non contact, optical method of gauging for determination of the mean, minimum and maximum diameters and the ovality (or roundness) of rod-shaped objects with a nominally circular or oval cross section that is convex curvilinear. The method is applicable, in particular, to cigarettes and filter rods.

Cigarettes et bâtonnets-filtres - Détermination du diamètre nominal - Méthode utilisant un instrument de mesure optique sans contact

L'ISO 2971:2013 sp�cifie une m�thode optique de d�termination, par calibrage sans contact, des diam�tres moyen, minimal et maximal et de l'ovalisation (ou circularit�) des objets cylindriques de section droite circulaire ou ovale qui est curviligne convexe. La m�thode est applicable en particulier aux cigarettes et aux b�tonnets-filtres.

Cigarete in filtri - Določevanje nazivnega premera - Metoda uporabe nekontaktnih optičnih merilnih naprav

Ta mednarodni standard določa nekontaktno, optično merilno metodo za določevanje povprečnega, najmanjšega in največjega premera ter ovalnosti (ali okroglosti) predmetov v obliki valja z nominalno okroglim ali ovalnim prerezom, ki je konveksno ukrivljen. Ta metoda se uporablja zlasti za cigarete in filtre.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
02-Dec-2013
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
22-Nov-2013
Due Date
27-Jan-2014
Completion Date
03-Dec-2013

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 2971
Fourth edition
2013-04-01
Cigarettes and filter rods —
Determination of nominal diameter —
Method using a non-contact optical
measuring apparatus
Cigarettes et bâtonnets-filtres — Détermination du diamètre nominal —
Méthode utilisant un instrument de mesure optique sans contact
Reference number
ISO 2971:2013(E)
ISO 2013
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 2971:2013(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2013

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 2971:2013(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6 Sampling ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

7 Procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

7.1 Preparation of test pieces .............................................................................................................................................................. 3

7.2 Adjustment and calibration ......................................................................................................................................................... 4

7.3 Measurement ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

8 Expression of results ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

9 Repeatability and reproducibility ...................................................................................................................................................... 5

10 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

Annex A (normative) Calibration standards ................................................................................................................................................ 7

Annex B (informative) Measurement principle and required number of scans .....................................................8

Annex C (informative) Information on possible source of measurement error
...................................................10

Annex D (informative) Non-contact measurement techniques .............................................................................................12

Annex E (informative) Alternative measurement techniques for the determination of nominal

diameter of cigarettes and filter rods ..........................................................................................................................................15

Annex F (informative) Protocol for ISO/TC 126/SC 1/WG 2 interlaboratory diameter

measurement uncertainty study ......................................................................................................................................................17

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 2971:2013(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International

Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting.

Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies

casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 2971 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 126, Tobacco and tobacco products, Subcommittee

SC 1, Physical and dimensional tests.

This fourth edition cancels and replaces the third edition (ISO 2971:1998), which has been technically

revised.
iv © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 2971:2013(E)
Cigarettes and filter rods — Determination of nominal
diameter — Method using a non-contact optical
measuring apparatus
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies a non contact, optical method of gauging for determination of

the mean, minimum and maximum diameters and the ovality (or roundness) of rod-shaped objects

with a nominally circular or oval cross section that is convex curvilinear. The method is applicable, in

particular, to cigarettes and filter rods.
NOTE 1 Non-contact measurement techniques are discussed in Annex D.

NOTE 2 Alternative contact or pneumatic methods may be used but should be considered as secondary methods

and do not come within the scope of the standard. These alternative measurement techniques are discussed in Annex E.

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 3402, Tobacco and tobacco products — Atmosphere for conditioning and testing

ISO 5725-2:1994, Accuracy (trueness and precision) of measurement methods and results — Part 2: Basic

method for the determination of repeatability and reproducibility of a standard measurement method

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this International Standard, the following terms and definitions apply.

3.1
diameter

arithmetical mean value of n apparent diameters measured on a test piece following the method specified

in this International Standard, which represents the diameter of a circle with the same circumference as

the perimeter of the sample being measured, provided that the boundary of its cross section is convex

Note 1 to entry: The result of the measurement can be affected by n, the number of readings taken.

3.2
convex cross section

a cross section where the straight line between any two points from the section is also included

within the section
3.3
perimeter
length of the line that is the boundary of the cross section

Note 1 to entry: Errors will exist in the estimated value of the perimeter if the sample is not circular. The error

will increase as the ovality increases.
3.4
circumference
perimeter of a circular cross section
© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 2971:2013(E)
3.5
minimum diameter

minimum value obtained from the results of n individual readings performed on a test piece

3.6
maximum diameter

maximum value obtained from the results of n individual readings performed on a test piece

3.7
absolute ovality

expression of the out-of-roundness of a rod-like test piece, which is obtained from the arithmetic

difference between the maximum and minimum diameters obtained from n individual readings

3.8
relative ovality
ratio of the absolute ovality and the diameter, expressed as a percentage
3.9
relative roundness
100 minus relative ovality

Note 1 to entry: Caution should be exercised in interpreting maximum diameters, absolute ovality, relative ovality

and relative roundness as these can be affected by the quality of the gum line (raised laps) or other product

defects, generating erroneous individual readings.
4 Principle

The principle of measurement of the mean diameter of a shape having a convex cross section follows the

generalization of ‘Barbier’s Theorem’, which states that the mean diameter of a section is equal to the

arithmetic mean of the apparent (or projected) diameters of the section as it is rotated at equiangular

intervals in the field of view. It is required that the section is rotated by an integer multiple of 180°.

NOTE The principle is demonstrated in Annex B.1.
5 Apparatus

5.1 Sample conditioning enclosure, to be capable of maintaining the conditions given in ISO 3402.

5.2 Optical measuring apparatus, to consist of the following.
5.2.1 Optical measuring instrument

This must have an uncertainty of no more than 0,01 mm and be suitable for the determination of the

diameter of rod-like test pieces with a nearly circular cross section. A schematic diagram of such an

instrument is presented in Figure 1 and three different implementations are described in Annex D.

The scanning rate of the instrument shall be such that no eccentric motion of the test piece parallel to

the longitudinal axis, within the measurement area, shall affect the accuracy of the measurement of

mean diameter.

The ratio between the scanning rate of the apparatus and the rotational speed of the test piece shall be

constant and high enough to ensure that the measured diameter, as well as the minimum and maximum

values, shall be determined with sufficient accuracy, despite the possible ovality of the test piece.

The length of the scan path shall be sufficiently greater than the maximum diameter to be measured to

avoid errors due to test piece eccentricity. The test piece shall be scanned a minimum of 32 times during

a half-rotation (180°) or 64 times during a full (360°) rotation.
NOTE The rationale for the required number of scans is presented in Annex B.2.
2 © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 2971:2013(E)
5.2.2 Apparatus or fixture for rotating the test piece or scan path

This shall rotate the test piece within the measurement area or rotate the direction of view around the

test piece while maintaining the longitudinal axis of the test piece perpendicular to the measurement

area during a full 360° rotation.
Key
1 test piece
2 test piece longitudinal axis and axis of rotation
3 plane of the measurement
4 measurement centreline
5 measurement area
6 test piece cross section
7 projection plane

8 apparent diameter (orthogonal projection or image) of the test piece cross section

Figure 1 — Diagram of a generic non-contact optical gauging system
6 Sampling

Take a statistically representative sample of the population of test pieces to be characterized.

Samples shall be free of obvious visible defects which may affect the measurement.

7 Procedure
7.1 Preparation of test pieces

Condition the test pieces, prior to measurement, in a conditioning enclosure in accordance with ISO 3402.

Select at random, from the sample taken in accordance with Clause 6, the number of test pieces required

for the test.
© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 2971:2013(E)

The time required for the curing of filter rods and the duration of conditioning for both filter rods

and cigarettes are not specified in this International Standard and are to be determined by practical

experience. They shall be reported in the test report together with the results.
7.2 Adjustment and calibration

Working standards are routinely used to adjust calibrate or check the calibration of the measurement

system. Calibration shall be performed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

NOTE The essential properties of calibration standards are given in Annex A.
7.3 Measurement

In accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions, position the test piece within the measurement

area, as close as possible to the centre of the measurement area.

The test piece, or the measuring apparatus, shall be capable of being rotated around the rotation axis

such that any eccentric motion of the test piece, relative to the plane of the measurement, remains in

parallel with the plane of the measurement and perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the test piece.

Adjust the instrument and/or feeding and rotational apparatus for the plane of the measurement to

measure the required section of the test piece.

Operate the apparatus in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and accurately record the

mean, minimum and maximum diameters.

At least 10 test pieces from one sample shall be used to determine the mean value of the diameter

for the sample.

NOTE 1 In practice, laboratories often take a different number of measurements depending on the application

of the measurement.

NOTE 2 Possible sources of error in measurement of diameter are given in Annex C.

8 Expression of results

The value of the sample mean diameter shall be the mean value of the individual measurements. See 7.3.

The results shall be expressed as follows:

a) diameter, the arithmetic average of at least 64 individual scans per full revolution or 32 scans per

half revolution, is expressed in millimetres to the nearest 0,01 mm ;

b) sample mean diameter, the average of x diameter measurements (x is normally 10 but may vary; see

note 1 in 7.3) is expressed in millimetres to the nearest 0,001 mm ;

c) sample maximum diameter, the maximum diameter obtained from a sample of x test pieces, is

expressed in millimetres to the nearest 0,01 mm ;

d) sample minimum diameter, the minimum diameter obtained from a sample of x test pieces, is

expressed in millimetres to the nearest 0,01 mm ;
e) absolute ovality is expressed in millimetres to the nearest 0,01 mm ;
f) relative ovality is expressed as a percentage to the nearest 0,1 % ;
g) relative roundness is expressed as a percentage to the nearest 0,1 %.
4 © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 2971:2013(E)
9 Repeatability and reproducibility

An international collaborative study involving 14 laboratories was conducted according to

ISO 5725-2:1994 in 2009 on matched samples of both filter rods and cigarettes covering a range of

approximately 5 mm to 9 mm diameter.

Each measured sample was drawn randomly from a population of typically 3000 rods that, as far as

was possible, represented a consistent production process. Three samples of 10 rods, plus spares, were

distributed to each participant. Each sample of 10 rods was measured once only. The measurement

position for the cigarettes was specified to be on the tobacco column. The measurement position for the

filters was not specified.
NOTE 1 Specific details of the measurement protocol are given in Annex F.

The study gave the following values (see Table 1) for mean diameter, repeatability standard deviation

(s ), reproducibility standard deviation (s ), repeatability limit (r) and reproducibility limit (R). The

r R

values derived from this interlaboratory study may not be applicable to values and matrices other than

those given because the samples being used did not cover all available products.
Table 1 — Summary of results of collaborative study
Mean diameter s s r R
r R
Product type Comment
mm mm mm mm mm
5,335 0,0039 0,0157 0,011 0,044 Non porous
6,026 0,0031 0,0105 0,009 0,029 Non porous
Mono acetate filter rods, nom-
6,780 0,0055 0,0137 0,015 0,038 Porous
inally circular cross section
7,715 0,0035 0,0131 0,010 0,037 Non porous
8,511 0,0059 0,0110 0,017 0,031 High porosity
5,428 0,0104 0,0205 0,029 0,057 Unpacked
6,102 0,0072 0,0156 0,020 0,0
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 2971:2014
01-januar-2014
1DGRPHãþD
SIST ISO 2971:1998
&LJDUHWHLQILOWUL'RORþHYDQMHQD]LYQHJDSUHPHUD0HWRGDXSRUDEHQHNRQWDNWQLK
RSWLþQLKPHULOQLKQDSUDY

Cigarettes and filter rods - Determination of nominal diameter - Method using a non-

contact optical measuring apparatus

Cigarettes et bâtonnets-filtres - Détermination du diamètre nominal - Méthode utilisant un

instrument de mesure optique sans contact
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 2971:2013
ICS:
65.160 7REDNWREDþQLL]GHONLLQ Tobacco, tobacco products
RSUHPD and related equipment
SIST ISO 2971:2014 en,fr

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 2971:2014
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 2971:2014
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 2971
Fourth edition
2013-04-01
Cigarettes and filter rods —
Determination of nominal diameter —
Method using a non-contact optical
measuring apparatus
Cigarettes et bâtonnets-filtres — Détermination du diamètre nominal —
Méthode utilisant un instrument de mesure optique sans contact
Reference number
ISO 2971:2013(E)
ISO 2013
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 2971:2014
ISO 2971:2013(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2013

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 2971:2014
ISO 2971:2013(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6 Sampling ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

7 Procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

7.1 Preparation of test pieces .............................................................................................................................................................. 3

7.2 Adjustment and calibration ......................................................................................................................................................... 4

7.3 Measurement ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

8 Expression of results ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

9 Repeatability and reproducibility ...................................................................................................................................................... 5

10 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

Annex A (normative) Calibration standards ................................................................................................................................................ 7

Annex B (informative) Measurement principle and required number of scans .....................................................8

Annex C (informative) Information on possible source of measurement error
...................................................10

Annex D (informative) Non-contact measurement techniques .............................................................................................12

Annex E (informative) Alternative measurement techniques for the determination of nominal

diameter of cigarettes and filter rods ..........................................................................................................................................15

Annex F (informative) Protocol for ISO/TC 126/SC 1/WG 2 interlaboratory diameter

measurement uncertainty study ......................................................................................................................................................17

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST ISO 2971:2014
ISO 2971:2013(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International

Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting.

Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies

casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 2971 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 126, Tobacco and tobacco products, Subcommittee

SC 1, Physical and dimensional tests.

This fourth edition cancels and replaces the third edition (ISO 2971:1998), which has been technically

revised.
iv © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST ISO 2971:2014
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 2971:2013(E)
Cigarettes and filter rods — Determination of nominal
diameter — Method using a non-contact optical
measuring apparatus
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies a non contact, optical method of gauging for determination of

the mean, minimum and maximum diameters and the ovality (or roundness) of rod-shaped objects

with a nominally circular or oval cross section that is convex curvilinear. The method is applicable, in

particular, to cigarettes and filter rods.
NOTE 1 Non-contact measurement techniques are discussed in Annex D.

NOTE 2 Alternative contact or pneumatic methods may be used but should be considered as secondary methods

and do not come within the scope of the standard. These alternative measurement techniques are discussed in Annex E.

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 3402, Tobacco and tobacco products — Atmosphere for conditioning and testing

ISO 5725-2:1994, Accuracy (trueness and precision) of measurement methods and results — Part 2: Basic

method for the determination of repeatability and reproducibility of a standard measurement method

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this International Standard, the following terms and definitions apply.

3.1
diameter

arithmetical mean value of n apparent diameters measured on a test piece following the method specified

in this International Standard, which represents the diameter of a circle with the same circumference as

the perimeter of the sample being measured, provided that the boundary of its cross section is convex

Note 1 to entry: The result of the measurement can be affected by n, the number of readings taken.

3.2
convex cross section

a cross section where the straight line between any two points from the section is also included

within the section
3.3
perimeter
length of the line that is the boundary of the cross section

Note 1 to entry: Errors will exist in the estimated value of the perimeter if the sample is not circular. The error

will increase as the ovality increases.
3.4
circumference
perimeter of a circular cross section
© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST ISO 2971:2014
ISO 2971:2013(E)
3.5
minimum diameter

minimum value obtained from the results of n individual readings performed on a test piece

3.6
maximum diameter

maximum value obtained from the results of n individual readings performed on a test piece

3.7
absolute ovality

expression of the out-of-roundness of a rod-like test piece, which is obtained from the arithmetic

difference between the maximum and minimum diameters obtained from n individual readings

3.8
relative ovality
ratio of the absolute ovality and the diameter, expressed as a percentage
3.9
relative roundness
100 minus relative ovality

Note 1 to entry: Caution should be exercised in interpreting maximum diameters, absolute ovality, relative ovality

and relative roundness as these can be affected by the quality of the gum line (raised laps) or other product

defects, generating erroneous individual readings.
4 Principle

The principle of measurement of the mean diameter of a shape having a convex cross section follows the

generalization of ‘Barbier’s Theorem’, which states that the mean diameter of a section is equal to the

arithmetic mean of the apparent (or projected) diameters of the section as it is rotated at equiangular

intervals in the field of view. It is required that the section is rotated by an integer multiple of 180°.

NOTE The principle is demonstrated in Annex B.1.
5 Apparatus

5.1 Sample conditioning enclosure, to be capable of maintaining the conditions given in ISO 3402.

5.2 Optical measuring apparatus, to consist of the following.
5.2.1 Optical measuring instrument

This must have an uncertainty of no more than 0,01 mm and be suitable for the determination of the

diameter of rod-like test pieces with a nearly circular cross section. A schematic diagram of such an

instrument is presented in Figure 1 and three different implementations are described in Annex D.

The scanning rate of the instrument shall be such that no eccentric motion of the test piece parallel to

the longitudinal axis, within the measurement area, shall affect the accuracy of the measurement of

mean diameter.

The ratio between the scanning rate of the apparatus and the rotational speed of the test piece shall be

constant and high enough to ensure that the measured diameter, as well as the minimum and maximum

values, shall be determined with sufficient accuracy, despite the possible ovality of the test piece.

The length of the scan path shall be sufficiently greater than the maximum diameter to be measured to

avoid errors due to test piece eccentricity. The test piece shall be scanned a minimum of 32 times during

a half-rotation (180°) or 64 times during a full (360°) rotation.
NOTE The rationale for the required number of scans is presented in Annex B.2.
2 © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST ISO 2971:2014
ISO 2971:2013(E)
5.2.2 Apparatus or fixture for rotating the test piece or scan path

This shall rotate the test piece within the measurement area or rotate the direction of view around the

test piece while maintaining the longitudinal axis of the test piece perpendicular to the measurement

area during a full 360° rotation.
Key
1 test piece
2 test piece longitudinal axis and axis of rotation
3 plane of the measurement
4 measurement centreline
5 measurement area
6 test piece cross section
7 projection plane

8 apparent diameter (orthogonal projection or image) of the test piece cross section

Figure 1 — Diagram of a generic non-contact optical gauging system
6 Sampling

Take a statistically representative sample of the population of test pieces to be characterized.

Samples shall be free of obvious visible defects which may affect the measurement.

7 Procedure
7.1 Preparation of test pieces

Condition the test pieces, prior to measurement, in a conditioning enclosure in accordance with ISO 3402.

Select at random, from the sample taken in accordance with Clause 6, the number of test pieces required

for the test.
© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST ISO 2971:2014
ISO 2971:2013(E)

The time required for the curing of filter rods and the duration of conditioning for both filter rods

and cigarettes are not specified in this International Standard and are to be determined by practical

experience. They shall be reported in the test report together with the results.
7.2 Adjustment and calibration

Working standards are routinely used to adjust calibrate or check the calibration of the measurement

system. Calibration shall be performed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

NOTE The essential properties of calibration standards are given in Annex A.
7.3 Measurement

In accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions, position the test piece within the measurement

area, as close as possible to the centre of the measurement area.

The test piece, or the measuring apparatus, shall be capable of being rotated around the rotation axis

such that any eccentric motion of the test piece, relative to the plane of the measurement, remains in

parallel with the plane of the measurement and perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the test piece.

Adjust the instrument and/or feeding and rotational apparatus for the plane of the measurement to

measure the required section of the test piece.

Operate the apparatus in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and accurately record the

mean, minimum and maximum diameters.

At least 10 test pieces from one sample shall be used to determine the mean value of the diameter

for the sample.

NOTE 1 In practice, laboratories often take a different number of measurements depending on the application

of the measurement.

NOTE 2 Possible sources of error in measurement of diameter are given in Annex C.

8 Expression of results

The value of the sample mean diameter shall be the mean value of the individual measurements. See 7.3.

The results shall be expressed as follows:

a) diameter, the arithmetic average of at least 64 individual scans per full revolution or 32 scans per

half revolution, is expressed in millimetres to the nearest 0,01 mm ;

b) sample mean diameter, the average of x diameter measurements (x is normally 10 but may vary; see

note 1 in 7.3) is expressed in millimetres to the nearest 0,001 mm ;

c) sample maximum diameter, the maximum diameter obtained from a sample of x test pieces, is

expressed in millimetres to the nearest 0,01 mm ;

d) sample minimum diameter, the minimum diameter obtained from a sample of x test pieces, is

expressed in millimetres to the nearest 0,01 mm ;
e) absolute ovality is expressed in millimetres to the nearest 0,01 mm ;
f) relative ovality is expressed as a percentage to the nearest 0,1 % ;
g) relative roundness is expressed as a percentage to the nearest 0,1 %.
4 © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST ISO 2971:2014
ISO 2971:2013(E)
9 Repeatability and reproducibility

An international collaborative study involving 14 laboratories was conducted according to

ISO 5725-2:1994 in 2009 on matched samples of both filter rods and cigarettes covering a range of

approximately 5 mm to 9 mm diameter.

Each measured sample was drawn randomly from a population of typically 3000 rods that, as far as

was possible, represented a consistent production process. Three samples of 10 rods, plus spares, were

distributed to each participant. Each sample of 10 rods was measured once only. The measurement

position for the cigarettes was specified to be on the tobacco column. The measurement position for the

filters was not specified.
NOTE 1 Specific details of the measurement protocol are given in Annex F.

The study gave the following values (see Table 1) for mean diameter, repeatability standard deviation

(s ), reproducibility standard deviation (s ), repeatability limit (r) and reproducibility limit (R). The

r R

values derived from this interlaboratory study may not be applicable to values and matrices other than

those given because the samples being used did not cover all available products.
...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 2971
Quatrième édition
2013-04-01
Cigarettes et bâtonnets-filtres —
Détermination du diamètre nominal —
Méthode utilisant un instrument de
mesure optique sans contact
Cigarettes and filter rods — Determination of nominal diameter —
Method using a non-contact optical measuring apparatus
Numéro de référence
ISO 2971:2013(F)
ISO 2013
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ISO 2971:2013(F)
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ISO 2971:2013(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Domaine d’application ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Références normatives ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Termes et définitions ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principe .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Appareillage .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

6 Échantillonnage ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

7 Mode opératoire.................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7.1 Préparation des éprouvettes ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

7.2 Réglage et étalonnage ....................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7.3 Mesurage ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

8 Expression des résultats............................................................................................................................................................................... 4

9 Répétabilité et reproductibilité ............................................................................................................................................................ 5

10 Rapport d’essai ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

Annexe A (normative) Piges étalons ..................................................................................................................................................................... 7

Annexe B (informative) Principe de mesure et nombre de balayages requis ............................................................8

Annexe C (informative) Informations sur les éventuelles sources d’erreur de mesure

..............................10

Annexe D (informative) Techniques de mesure sans contact ..................................................................................................12

Annexe E (informative) Variantes de technique de mesure pour la détermination du diamètre

nominal des cigarettes et bâtonnets-filtres...........................................................................................................................15

Annexe F (informative) Protocole pour l’essai interlaboratoires de l’ISO/TC 126/SC 1/WG 2

portant sur l’incertitude de mesure du diamètre ...........................................................................................................17

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ISO 2971:2013(F)
Avant-propos

L’ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d’organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l’ISO). L’élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l’ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l’ISO participent également aux travaux.

L’ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (CEI) en ce qui concerne

la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les Normes internationales sont rédigées conformément aux règles données dans les Directives

ISO/CEI, Partie 2.

La tâche principale des comités techniques est d’élaborer les Normes internationales. Les projets de

Normes internationales adoptés par les comités techniques sont soumis aux comités membres pour vote.

Leur publication comme Normes internationales requiert l’approbation de 75 % au moins des comités

membres votants.

L’attention est appelée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l’objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L’ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable de

ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence.

L’ISO 2971 a été élaborée par le comité technique ISO/TC 126, Tabac et produits du tabac, sous-comité

SC 1, Essais physiques et dimensionnels.

Cette quatrième édition annule et remplace la troisième édition (ISO 2971:1998), qui a fait l’objet d’une

révision technique.
iv © ISO 2013 – Tous droits réservés
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NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 2971:2013(F)
Cigarettes et bâtonnets-filtres — Détermination du
diamètre nominal — Méthode utilisant un instrument de
mesure optique sans contact
1 Domaine d’application

La présente Norme internationale spécifie une méthode optique de détermination, par calibrage

sans contact, des diamètres moyen, minimal et maximal et de l’ovalisation (ou circularité) des objets

cylindriques de section droite circulaire ou ovale qui est curviligne convexe. La méthode est applicable

en particulier aux cigarettes et aux bâtonnets-filtres.
NOTE 1 L’Annexe D décrit des techniques de mesure sans contact.

NOTE 2 D’autres méthodes avec contact ou pneumatiques peuvent être utilisées mais il convient de les

considérer comme des méthodes secondaires. Elles ne font pas partie du domaine d’application de la présente

Norme internationale. Ces techniques alternatives sont décrites dans l’Annexe E.
2 Références normatives

Les documents suivants, en totalité ou en partie, sont référencés de manière normative dans le présent

document et sont indispensables pour son application. Pour les références datées, seule l’édition citée

s’applique. Pour les références non datées, la dernière édition du document de référence s’applique (y

compris les éventuels amendements).
ISO 3402, Tabac et produits du tabac — Atmosphère de conditionnement et d’essai

ISO 5725-2:1994, Exactitude (justesse et fidélité) des résultats et méthodes de mesure — Partie 2: Méthode

de base pour la détermination de la répétabilité et de la reproductibilité d’une méthode de mesure normalisée

3 Termes et définitions

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et définitions suivants s’appliquent.

3.1
diamètre

moyenne arithmétique de n diamètres apparents mesurés sur une éprouvette en suivant la méthode

spécifiée dans la présente Norme internationale, dont la valeur représente le diamètre d’un cercle de

circonférence identique au périmètre de l’échantillon mesuré, à condition que la bordure de sa section

droite soit convexe

Note 1 à l’article: Le résultat de la mesure peut être affecté par n, le nombre de lectures effectuées.

3.2
section droite convexe

section droite dont le segment entre deux points quelconques de la section est également inclus

dans la section
3.3
périmètre
longueur qui constitue la bordure de la section droite

Note 1 à l’article: Des erreurs se produiront pour la valeur estimée du périmètre si l’échantillon n’est pas circulaire.

L’erreur augmentera en fonction de la hausse de l’ovalisation.
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ISO 2971:2013(F)
3.4
circonférence
périmètre d’une section droite circulaire
3.5
diamètre minimal

valeur minimale des résultats obtenus sur les n lectures individuelles, effectuées sur une éprouvette

3.6
diamètre maximal

valeur maximale des résultats obtenus sur les n lectures individuelles, effectuées sur une éprouvette

3.7
ovalisation absolue

expression de l’écart de circularité de forme d’une éprouvette cylindrique obtenue d’après la différence

arithmétique entre les diamètres maximal et minimal obtenue sur les n lectures individuelles

3.8
ovalisation relative
quotient de l’ovalisation absolue et du diamètre, exprimé en pourcentage
3.9
circularité relative
100 moins l’ovalisation relative

Note 1 à l’article: Il convient d’interpréter avec précaution les valeurs de diamètre maximal, d’ovalisation absolue,

d’ovalisation relative et de circularité relative, car elles peuvent être affectées par la qualité de la couture

(surépaisseur de chevauchement) ou d’autres défauts de produits qui donnent des lectures individuelles erronées.

4 Principe

Le principe de mesure du diamètre moyen d’une forme ayant une section droite convexe suit la

généralisation du ‘Théorème de Barbier’, qui énonce que le diamètre moyen d’une section est égal

à la moyenne arithmétique des diamètres apparents (ou projetés) de la section en cas de rotation à

intervalles équiangulaires dans le champ de vision. Il est nécessaire que la section soit mise en rotation

selon un multiple entier de 180°.
NOTE Le principe est démontré en B.1.
5 Appareillage

5.1 Enceinte de conditionnement de l’échantillon, capable de maintenir les conditions données

dans l’ISO 3402.
5.2 Appareil de mesurage optique, constitué des éléments suivants:
5.2.1 Instrument de mesurage optique.

Cet instrument doit avoir une incertitude ne dépassant pas 0,01 mm et être approprié pour déterminer

le diamètre d’éprouvettes cylindriques de section droite approximativement circulaire. Un schéma

d’un instrument de ce type est donné à la Figure 1 et trois différentes installations sont décrites dans

l’Annexe D.

La vitesse de balayage de l’instrument doit être telle qu’à l’intérieur de la zone de mesure, aucun

mouvement excentrique de l’éprouvette parallèlement à l’axe longitudinal n’affecte l’exactitude de

mesure du diamètre moyen.
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ISO 2971:2013(F)

Le rapport entre la vitesse de balayage de l’instrument et la vitesse de rotation de l’éprouvette doit

être constant et suffisamment grand pour permettre de déterminer avec une exactitude suffisante, non

seulement le diamètre mesuré, mais aussi les valeurs minimale et maximale de diamètres en dépit de la

possible ovalisation de l’éprouvette.

La longueur de la trajectoire de balayage doit être suffisamment supérieure au diamètre maximal à

mesurer pour éviter les erreurs dues à l’excentricité de l’éprouvette. L’éprouvette doit être balayée au

moins 32 fois pendant une demi-rotation (180°) ou 64 fois pendant une rotation complète (360°).

NOTE La justification du nombre de balayages requis est indiquée en B.2.

5.2.2 Appareil ou montage permettant de faire tourner l’éprouvette ou la trajectoire de balayage.

Cet appareil doit faire tourner l’éprouvette dans la zone de mesure ou faire tourner la direction de

visualisation autour de l’éprouvette tout en maintenant l’axe longitudinal de l’éprouvette perpendiculaire

à la zone de mesure pendant une rotation complète de 360°.
Légende
1 éprouvette
2 axe longitudinal de l’éprouvette et axe de rotation
3 plan de mesure
4 axe de mesure
5 zone de mesure
6 section droite de l’éprouvette
7 plan de projection

8 diamètre apparent (projection ou image orthogonale) de la section droite de l’éprouvette

Figure 1 — Schéma d’un système générique de calibrage optique sans contact
6 Échantillonnage

Prélever un échantillon représentatif sur le plan statistique de la population d’éprouvettes à caractériser.

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ISO 2971:2013(F)

Les échantillons doivent être exempts de défauts visibles évidents pouvant affecter le mesurage.

7 Mode opératoire
7.1 Préparation des éprouvettes

Conditionner les éprouvettes avant le mesurage dans une enceinte de conditionnement conformément

à l’ISO 3402.

Sur l’échantillon sélectionné conformément à l’Article 6, prélever au hasard le nombre d’éprouvettes

requis pour l’essai.

Le temps de séchage des bâtonnets-filtres et le temps de conditionnement des cigarettes et des bâtonnets-

filtres ne sont pas spécifiés dans la présente Norme internationale et sont déterminés par l’expérience

pratique acquise. Ils doivent être consignés dans le rapport d’essai avec les résultats.

7.2 Réglage et étalonnage

Des piges de travail sont communément utilisées pour le réglage, l’étalonnage ou la vérification de

l’étalonnage du système de mesurage. L’étalonnage doit être effectué conformément aux instructions

du fabricant.
NOTE Les propriétés essentielles des piges étalons sont données à l’Annexe A.
7.3 Mesurage

Conformément aux instructions du fabricant, placer l’éprouvette à l’intérieur de la zone de mesure, aussi

près que possible du centre de la zone de mesure.

Faire tourner l’éprouvette ou l’appareil de mesure autour de l’axe de rotation de sorte que tout mouvement

excentrique de l’éprouvette par rapport au plan de mesure soit parallèle à ce dernier tout en restant

perpendiculaire à l’axe longitudinal de l’éprouvette.

Régler l’instrument et/ou le dispositif d’avance ou de rotation de manière à mesurer la section requise

de l’éprouvette.

Faire fonctionner l’appareil selon les instructions du fabricant et enregistrer avec exactitude les

diamètres moyen, minimal et maximal.

Au moins 10 éprouvettes d’un même échantillon doivent être utilisées pour déterminer la valeur

moyenne du diamètre de l’échantillon.

NOTE 1 Dans la pratique, les laboratoires utilisent souvent un nombre de mesures différent en fonction de

l’application du mesurage.

NOTE 2 Les sources possibles d’erreur de mesure des diamètres sont indiquées dans l’Annexe C.

8 Expression des résultats

La valeur du diamètre moyen de l’échantillon doit être la moyenne des mesurages individuels. Voir 7.3.

Les résultats doivent être exprimés comme suit:

a) Diamètre: moyenne arithmétique d’au moins 64 balayages individuels par rotation complète ou

32 balayages par demi-rotation; elle est exprimée en millimètres à 0,01 mm près.

b) Diamètre moyen de l’échantillon: moyenne de x valeurs mesurées de diamètre; x est normalement

égal à 10 mais peut varier (voir NOTE 1, en 7.3); elle est exprimée en millimètres à 0,001 mm près.

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ISO 2971:2013(F)

c) Diamètre maximal de l’échantillon: diamètre maximal obtenu sur un échantillon de x éprouvettes;

il est exprimé en millimètres à 0,01 mm près.

d) Diamètre minimal de l’échantillon: diamètre minimal obtenu sur un échantillon de x éprouvettes; il

est exprimé en millimètres à 0,01 mm près.
e) Ovalisation absolue: exprimée en millimètres à 0,01 mm près.
f) Ovalisation relative: exprimée en pourcentage à 0,1 % près.
g) Circularité relative: exprimée en pourcentage à 0,1 % près.
9 Répétabilité et reproductibilité

Un essai interlaboratoires international impliquant 14 laboratoires a été organisé conformément à

l’ISO 5725-2:1994 en 2009 sur des échantillons appariés de bâtonnets-filtres et de cigarettes couvrant

une gamme d’environ 5 mm à 9 mm de diamètre.

Chaque échantillon mesuré a été prélevé au hasard d’une population d’en général 3 000 bâtonnets qui,

dans la mesure du possible, représentaient un procédé de production conforme. Trois échantillons de

10 bâtonnets, plus des bâtonnets de rechange, ont été distribués à chaque participant. Chaque échantillon

de 10 bâtonnets n’a été mesuré qu’une seule fois. La position de mesure pour les cigarettes était spécifiée

sur le boudin de tabac. La position de mesure pour les filtres n’était pas précisée.

NOTE 1 L’Annexe F donne des détails spécifiques sur le protocole de mesure.

L’essai a permis d’obtenir les valeurs suivantes pour le diamètre moyen, l’écart-type de répétabilité,

s , l’écart-type de reproductibilité, s , la limite de répétabilité, r, et la limite de reproductibilité, R. Les

r R

valeurs issues de cet essai interlaboratoires peuvent ne pas être applicables à des valeurs et des matrices

autres que celles données car les échantillons utilisés ne couvraient pas tous les produits disponibles.

Tableau 1 — Récapitulatif des résultats de l’essai interlaboratoires
Diamètre
s s r R
r R
moyen
Type de produit Commentaire
mm mm mm mm mm
5,335 0,0039 0,0157 0,011 0,044 Non poreux
Bâtonnets-filtres 6,026 0,0031 0,0105 0,009 0,029 Non poreux
monoacétate, section
6,780 0,0055 0,0137 0,015 0,038 Poreux
droite nominalement
7,715 0,0035 0,0131 0,010 0,037 Non poreux
circulaire
8,511 0,0059 0,0110 0,017 0,031 Hautement poreux
5,428 0,0104 0,0205 0,029 0,057 Non paquetées
Cigarettes à papier 6,102 0,0072 0,0156 0,020 0,044 Non paquetées
blanc, section droite
6,826 0,0035 0,0066 0,010 0,018 Paquetées
nominalement circu-
laire 7,828 0,0047 0,0105 0,013 0,029 Non paquetées
8,612 0,0060 0,0111 0,017 0,031 Non paquetées

NOTE 2 Le commentaire pour les filtres désigne la porosité des gainages pour filtres, qui se situait dans

les gammes suivantes: non poreux: < 10 unités CORESTA; poreux: < 10 000 unités CORESTA; hautement

poreux: > 10 000 unités CORESTA.
10 Rapport d’essai

Le rapport d’essai doit indiquer la méthode utilisée ainsi que les résultats obtenus. Il doit, en outre,

mentionner tous les détails opératoires non prévus da
...

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