Equipment for commercial kitchens - Components for ventilation of commercial kitchens - Part 1: General requirements including calculation method

This standard applies to kitchen ventilation systems in kitchens and other companies processing foodstuffs intended for commercial use from their nature and finish. It does not apply to household kitchens. This standard stipulates the general requirements, such as ergonomic aspects of the Kitchen room (temperature, wind aspects, moisture, noise, etc.), including the method for calculation for the airflows and their testing.

Großküchengeräte - Einrichtungen zur Be- und Entlüftung von gewerblichen Küchen - Teil 1: Allgemeine Anforderungen einschließlich Berechnungsmethoden

Diese Norm gilt für Verteilerküchen, Lüftungsanlagen in gewerblichen Küchen und die damit verbundenen Bereiche und anderen Anlagen und anderen lebensmittelverarbeitenden Betrieben in gewerblichen Küchen. Küchen und zugehörige Bereiche sind Sonderräume, in denen Speisen zubereitet, ausgegeben und verteilt werden, Geschirr und Geräte gespült und Nahrungsmittel gelagert werden. Diese Norm gilt nicht für Küchen im Haushaltsbereich.
Diese Norm legt die allgemeinen Anforderungen wie ergonomische Aspekte in Bezug auf die Belüftung der Küche (Temperatur, Luftaspekte, Feuchtigkeit, Lärm usw.) inklusive der Berechnung des Luftstroms und des Prüfung fest

Équipement pour grande cuisine - Installation pour la ventilation de cuisines professionnelles - Partie 1: Exigences générales et méthode de calcul

La présente norme concerne les systèmes de ventilation répartis dans les cuisines professionnelles, les surfaces associées et les autres installations de transformation des produits alimentaires destinées à un usage professionnel. Les cuisines et les zones associées sont des salles spéciales dans lesquelles les repas sont préparés et divisés, la vaisselle et les ustensiles sont lavés et nettoyés et les denrées alimentaires sont stockées.
La présente norme ne s'applique pas aux cuisines domestiques.
La présente norme spécifie les exigences générales, telles que les aspects ergonomiques en rapport avec la ventilation de la cuisine (température, aspects liés à l'air, humidité, bruit, etc.), ainsi que la méthode de calcul des débits d'air et les essais.

Oprema za komercialne kuhinje - Sestavni deli za prezračevanje v komercialnih kuhinjah - 1. del: Splošne zahteve, vključno z računskimi metodami

General Information

Status
Not Published
Public Enquiry End Date
29-Sep-2011
Technical Committee
Current Stage
98 - Abandoned project (Adopted Project)
Start Date
07-Oct-2013
Due Date
12-Oct-2013
Completion Date
11-Oct-2013

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN 16282-1:2011
01-september-2011
2SUHPD]DNRPHUFLDOQHNXKLQMH6HVWDYQLGHOL]DSUH]UDþHYDQMHYNRPHUFLDOQLK
NXKLQMDKGHO6SORãQH]DKWHYHYNOMXþQR]UDþXQVNLPLPHWRGDPL

Equipment for commercial kitchens - Components for ventilation of commercial kitchens -

Part 1: General requirements including calculation method

Großküchengeräte - Einrichtungen zur Be- und Entlüftung von gewerblichen Küchen -

Teil 1: Allgemeine Anforderungen einschließlich Berechnungsmethoden
Équipement pour grande cuisine - Installation pour la ventilation de cuisines
professionnelles - Partie 1: Exigences générales et méthode de calcul
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN 16282-1
ICS:
91.140.30 3UH]UDþHYDOQLLQNOLPDWVNL Ventilation and air-
VLVWHPL conditioning
97.040.99 Druga kuhinjska oprema Other kitchen equipment
oSIST prEN 16282-1:2011 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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oSIST prEN 16282-1:2011
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oSIST prEN 16282-1:2011
EUROPEAN STANDARD
DRAFT
prEN 16282-1
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
July 2011
ICS 97.040.99
English Version
Equipment for commercial kitchens - Components for ventilation
of commercial kitchens - Part 1: General requirements including
calculation method

Équipement pour grande cuisine - Installation pour la Großküchengeräte - Einrichtungen zur Be- und Entlüftung

ventilation de cuisines professionnelles - Partie 1: von gewerblichen Küchen - Teil 1: Allgemeine

Exigences générales et méthode de calcul Anforderungen einschließlich Berechnungsmethoden

This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for enquiry. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC 156.

If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which

stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

This draft European Standard was established by CEN in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language

made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland,

Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are aware and to

provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without notice and

shall not be referred to as a European Standard.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2011 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. prEN 16282-1:2011: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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oSIST prEN 16282-1:2011
prEN 16282-1:2011 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................4

1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................5

2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................5

3 Terms, definitions and classification ..................................................................................................5

3.1 capture velocity......................................................................................................................................5

4 Symbols and abbreviations ..................................................................................................................5

5 Objectives of kitchen ventilation ..........................................................................................................6

6 Classification of kitchens .....................................................................................................................7

7 Basic design principles .........................................................................................................................7

7.1 General ....................................................................................................................................................7

7.2 Heat and substance loads ....................................................................................................................9

7.3 Further notes ..........................................................................................................................................9

8 Ergonomic and hygiene requirements ................................................................................................9

8.1 Thermal comfort, tolerance ..................................................................................................................9

8.2 Temperature of room air .................................................................................................................... 10

8.3 Humidity of room air ........................................................................................................................... 11

8.4 Air velocity in the room ...................................................................................................................... 11

8.5 Noise control ....................................................................................................................................... 12

8.6 Hygiene requirements ........................................................................................................................ 12

9 Air circulation within the room .......................................................................................................... 13

9.1 Basic types of airflow ......................................................................................................................... 13

9.2 Mixed flow ............................................................................................................................................ 13

9.3 Laminar flow (displacement) ............................................................................................................. 13

10 Design principles ................................................................................................................................ 14

10.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 14

10.2 Pre-dimensioning................................................................................................................................ 15

10.2.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 15

10.2.2 Hourly air replacement method based on the kitchen size ............................................................ 15

10.2.3 Method based on the capture velocity ............................................................................................. 15

10.2.4 Guide values for ancillary rooms ...................................................................................................... 16

10.3 Dimensioning - detailed method ....................................................................................................... 16

10.3.1 Thermally induced airflow ................................................................................................................. 16

10.3.2 Extraction airflows for kitchen extraction hoods ............................................................................ 17

10.3.3 Exhaust airflows in connection with kitchen extraction hoods ..................................................... 19

10.3.4 Exhaust airflows in connection with kitchen air extraction ceilings ............................................. 19

10.3.5 Check calculation ............................................................................................................................... 20

10.3.6 Supply airflows ................................................................................................................................... 20

11 Ventilation and air conditioning systems ........................................................................................ 20

11.1 Exhaust air systems ........................................................................................................................... 20

11.2 Supply air systems ............................................................................................................................. 21

11.3 Air handling units ............................................................................................................................... 21

11.4 System components ........................................................................................................................... 21

11.4.1 System cleaning.................................................................................................................................. 21

11.4.2 Supply and exhaust air component .................................................................................................. 21

11.4.3 Filters ................................................................................................................................................... 22

11.4.4 Air openings for outside and outgoing air ....................................................................................... 22

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12 Gas-heated catering kitchen appliances ........................................................................................... 22

Annex A (normative) Tables for dimensioning ............................................................................................. 23

Annex B (normative) Calculation examples ................................................................................................... 29

Bibliography ...................................................................................................................................................... 37

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oSIST prEN 16282-1:2011
prEN 16282-1:2011 (E)
Foreword

This document (prEN 16282-1:2011) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 156 “Ventilation for

buildings”, the secretariat of which is held by BSI.
This document is currently submitted to the CEN Enquiry.
The structure of the standard series is as follows:

prEN 16282 Equipment for commercial kitchens – Components for ventilation in commercial kitchens

 Part 1: General requirements including calculation method
 Part 2: Kitchen ventilation hoods – Design and safety requirements
 Part 3: Kitchen ventilation ceilings – Design and safety requirements
 Part 4: Air inlets and outlets – Design and safety requirements
 Part 5: Air duct – Design and dimensioning
 Part 6: Aerosol separators – Design and safety requirements
 Part 7: Installation and use of fixed fire suppression systems
 Part 8: Installation for treatment of cooking fumes – Requirements and tests

 Part 9: Capture and containment performance of extraction systems for commercial kitchen – test

methods
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oSIST prEN 16282-1:2011
prEN 16282-1:2011 (E)
1 Scope

This standard is intended for dispatched kitchen ventilation systems in commercial kitchens, associated areas

and other installations processing foodstuffs intended for commercial use. Kitchens and associated areas are

special rooms in which meals are prepared and detached, and where tableware and equipment is washed and

cleaned and food is stored.
This standard does not apply to household kitchens.

This standard stipulates the general requirements, such as ergonomic aspects in relation to ventilation of the

kitchen (temperature, air aspects, moisture, noise, etc.), including the method for calculating the airflows and

testing.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

prEN 16282-5, Equipment for commercial kitchens – Components for ventilation in commercial kitchens –

Part 5: Air duct – Design and dimensioning

EN ISO 7730, Ergonomics of the thermal environment - Analytical determination and interpretation of thermal

comfort using calculation of the PMV and PPD indices and local thermal comfort criteria (ISO 7730:2005)

EN 12792, Ventilation for buildings – Symbols, terminology and graphical symbols

EN 13779, Ventilation for non-residential buildings – Performance requirements for ventilation and room-

conditioning systems

EN 15251, Indoor environmental input parameters for design and assessment of energy performance of

buildings addressing indoor air quality, thermal environment, lighting and acoustics

3 Terms, definitions and classification

For the purposes of this European Standard, the terms and definitions given in EN 12792 together with the

following apply.
3.1 capture velocity

Airflow velocity in the free space between the lower part of the hood and the cooking appliance

4 Symbols and abbreviations

For the purposes of this European Standard, the symbols and abbreviations given in EN 12792, together with

the following, apply:
ACH air changes per hour
q airflow in the extraction hood in m /h
v-ext
v capture air velocity in m/s
P perimeter of the hoods in m
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oSIST prEN 16282-1:2011
prEN 16282-1:2011 (E)
z height above the heat source in m
h appliance height in m
V volumetric airflow in m /h
Q convectively-transmitted proportion of the direct heat load in W
S,K
Q sensitive thermal output in W
convective
b degree of pollution -
thermic flow in m /h
4/3 -1/3 -1
k empirically-determined coefficient in m W h
ϕ simultaneity factor -
r reduction factor for thermal flow -
d hydraulic diameter in m
hydr
L Length in m
B Width in m
V Extraction airflows for extraction hoods in m /h
Erf
a allowance factor -
e capture and containment efficiency in %
eff
V total airflow in m /h
th,ne
V exhaust airflows in m /h
ABL
V compensation airflow in m /h
Ausgl
m& mess flow In kg/h
x absolute water content of air, exhaust air in kg/kg
ABL dry air
x absolute water content of air, exhaust air in kg/kg
ZUL dry air
ρ density in kg/m
∆V difference in air volume flows in m /h
AHU Air handling units
5 Objectives of kitchen ventilation

Ventilation and air conditioning systems are necessary in commercial kitchens because

 the air is polluted by odours, particles of fat and gaseous products of combustion;

 indoor air quality requirements shall be met with regard to peoples health, hygiene and comfort;

 heat is created to a considerable extent due to convection and radiation;
 moisture is created by the preparation of meals and by washing;

 it is necessary to renew the air in the rooms by an exchange with outside air and maintain comfortable or

specified room air temperatures.
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oSIST prEN 16282-1:2011
prEN 16282-1:2011 (E)

To meet these tasks, supply and exhaust air systems shall be installed in the kitchen areas. They should

ensure that odours, air pollutants and moisture are drawn off, impairment of rooms not forming part of the

kitchen area are avoided and no air which could be considered unhygienic is either supplied or can flow back.

Particular attention is to be paid to separate odours, particles of fat and gaseous products from the exhaust

air.
6 Classification of kitchens
Kitchens are classified according to the following features:
 spatial arrangement of appliances;
 types of meal preparation;
 number of portions to be prepared within the time limit;
 variety of meals to be prepared;
 work sequence;

 assignment of individual rooms with the kitchen area and the kitchen area itself to the meal dispatched

point.
Table A2 in Annex A shows the classification of kitchens.

The following are possible ways of connecting the kitchen to the meal dispatched point:

 kitchens with a directly-connected meal dispatched point to the dining room;

 kitchens with a separately-arranged meal dispatched point or with a distribution kitchen;

 kitchens within dining areas without a spatial separation, e.g. snack bars etc.

There are zones within kitchens which may be subject to special hygiene requirements. These are for

example.
 cold areas;
 hot areas;
 meat preparation areas;
 fish preparation areas;
 meal dispatched areas.
7 Basic design principles
7.1 General
Typical kitchen equipment emitting critical air pollution
 table top deep fat fryer;
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oSIST prEN 16282-1:2011
prEN 16282-1:2011 (E)
 standard deep fat fryers;
 double deep fat fryers;
 large deep fat fryers;
 fat baking devices;
 conveyer fryer;
 tilting frying pans;
 automatic units for grilling;
 wok;
 tilting frying pans;
 frying and grilling appliance;
 griddle plate;
 lava stone-grill;
 gas heated range;
 rotisserie, gas heated;
 dishwashing machines.

Kitchens with kitchen equipment as well as kitchens with a nominal power supply in excess of 25 KW shall

have exhaust and supply air. All other kitchens shall have at least an exhaust air system.

The following data and facts must be known for the design and operation of ventilation and air conditioning

systems for kitchens:
 type of kitchen;
 number of portions to be prepared per time unit;
 operating time;
 room geometry;
 physical data for the individual building components;
 type and intensity of lighting.
Details of the following are also necessary:
 type of appliances and connected loads;
 installation and dimensions of appliances;
 duty times;
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oSIST prEN 16282-1:2011
prEN 16282-1:2011 (E)
 simultaneity of appliance utilisation.

To minimise the necessary airflows, it is useful to install heat-emitting appliances in continuous blocks or

along surfaces forming room boundaries.

If the exhaust air comes into direct contact with the structure of the building, it is need to ensure that this does

not damage the building structure and that no persistent condensation occurs.
7.2 Heat and substance loads

Areas with different pollution loads may well within kitchens. The total heat emission takes place directly due

to convection radiation and latently is due to the generation of steam and other gaseous components.

Radiation-intensive areas are characterised by high surface temperatures. These include preparation areas

with grills and salamanders, grill plates, tipping frying pans, stoves, etc.

The direct and latent heat relative to the connected load of the appliances as well as the emission of steam

are given for individual appliances in table A1 of Annex A for normal operation and limited operation. The

values given in Annex A, table A3 and table A4, apply to dishwashers.

Pollution levels due to foreign substances in the air and micro-organisms may be given in national regulation

or guidelines.

Foreign substances in the air occur almost any time food is heated. The type and amount are influenced

particularly by the amount of fat and the temperature, with the ensuing pyrolyzates being possibly damaging to

health. These particularly include short-chain aldehydes, such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, tr-2 hexenal

and acrolein as well as highly-volatile nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

(e.g. benzo-a-pyrene).
7.3 Further notes

To achieve a cost-effective design of the ventilation and air conditioning systems, the values in Annex A,

table A1, shall be used.

It may be necessary to cool the inlet air where there are high heat loads or for reasons of hygiene. Partitions

between individual preparation areas in kitchens may be necessary particularly for areas requiring different

levels of temperature or hygiene.
8 Ergonomic and hygiene requirements
8.1 Thermal comfort, tolerance

For the following it is assumed that kitchen personnel wear clothing with an average clothing insulation

corresponding to 0,6 clo. This value is used for the relevant comfort parameters according to EN ISO 7730

(humidity, air movement, radiation, temperature) given in figure 1.
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oSIST prEN 16282-1:2011
prEN 16282-1:2011 (E)
Legend
X Wet bulb temperature in °C
Y Air temperature in °C
a Relative humidity in %
1 Workplace Range
Figure 1 — Air quality range in kitchens according to EN ISO 7730

Air temperature and humidity are measured at a height of 1,10 m above the floor at a distance of 0,50 m from

the appliances.

It is not always possible to maintain thermal comfort in kitchens. This applies particularly to work areas close

to kitchen appliances which are strong heat emitters (latent and direct heat), e.g. within a distance of

approximately 1 m of stoves with heat-radiating surfaces, tilting frying pans, large fryers or dishwashers. In

these areas, tolerable climatic conditions according to EN ISO 7730 should be guaranteed as a minimum.

NOTE If too many heat-emitting cooking appliances are installed in a room which is not sufficiently large enough for

the purpose, it may not be possible to meet the ergonomic requirements for ventilating and air conditioning systems.

Draughts due to higher airflow velocities may occur, particularly where there are supply airflows in excess of

3 2
90 m /(m h).
8.2 Temperature of room air

The temperature of the room air in kitchens and sculleries should be at least 18 °C and should not exceed

26 °C unless unavoidable due to the processes. This does not include brief, seasonal, excess temperatures or

areas in which higher temperatures are unavoidable due to their function.

Cooling of the room air is recommended for good thermal comfort and is required by some national

regulations or guidelines.
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prEN 16282-1:2011 (E)
8.3 Humidity of room air

The relative humidity in the occupied zone shall not exceed the values given in table 1.

Table 1 — Relative humidity in the occupied zone
Room air temperature Room humidity
in °C in %
20 80
22 70
24 62
26 55

In comfort areas, the upper limit of the moisture content of the air is 11,5 g of water per kg of dry air and 65 %

relative humidity.

Because comfortable climatic conditions may not always be achieved in kitchens, the design of a ventilation

and air conditioning system may be based on a maximum moisture content x of the air of 16,5 g of water per

kg of dry air.

No reliable data is available regarding the lower limit of the relative humidity of the room air. 30 % relative

humidity of the room air may be taken as the comfort limit – as independent as possible from the temperature

of the room air – with occasional undershoots being acceptable.
8.4 Air velocity in the room

The limits of the air velocity in the comfort area depend on the temperature of the room air, the turbulence of

the flow, the degree of activity and the thermal resistance of the clothing according to EN ISO 7730.

The limiting values given in EN ISO 7730, example curve shown in figure 2 for 0,6 clo should not be

exceeded. Measurements are generally carried out at the workstation at a height of 1,7 m.

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oSIST prEN 16282-1:2011
prEN 16282-1:2011 (E)
Legend
X Temperature of room air in °C
Y Permissible mean air velocity in m/s
1 Degree of activity 2

Figure 2 — Example of permissible mean room air velocity as a function of the room air temperature

for 0,6 clo
8.5 Noise control

If no national requirements are given, the A-weighted sound pressure level emitted by a ventilation and air-

conditioning system, may be limited to 50 dB(A) to 60 dB(A). Where the meals are handed out from an open

counter, the A-weighted sound pressure level may not exceed 50 dB(A). Exceeding this value by 5 dB(A) is

permissible in areas where tableware and utensils are washed.

Sound levels and flows should be optimised when designing ventilation and air conditioning systems,

particularly with a view to minimising the use of sound absorbing measures in the exhaust air. This also

means that the sound power level of the extraction fan will be minimised. Sound-absorbing surfaces can also

be used in the room as additional sound insulation, but this must be consistent with other requirements e.g.

hygiene. The ventilation and air conditioning system should not lead to sound pressure levels in other parts of

the building which would not respect national regulation or guidance or EN 15251.

8.6 Hygiene requirements

From the point of view of hygiene, the task of a ventilation and air conditioning system for kitchens is also to

prevent the contamination of food by the airflow during preparation, storage and distribution and to prevent an

undefined spread of odours, pollutants and other gaseous substances by the airflow.

National hygiene regulations shall always be fulfilled.

To meet these tasks, hygiene requirements may be set for individual components, system concepts and

maintenance. If different levels of hygiene requirements are required for different areas of the kitchen, this can

be done by appropriate airflows transfer in the room.

All airflows (supply and exhaust air) from all kitchen zones should be balanced over the entire kitchen area.

A slight underpressure should be maintained in the kitchen in order to avoid odours spreading from the

kitchen. When this is done, however, the recirculation of air from rooms where the hygiene is questionable

shall be precluded.
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oSIST prEN 16282-1:2011
prEN 16282-1:2011 (E)

Ventilation and air conditioning systems may be operated using external air only. Recirculated air should not

be used.

Hygiene requirements shall be jointly agreed with the kitchen designer, the operator and, where necessary,

the supervisory authorities.
9 Air circulation within the room
9.1 Basic types of airflow

The supply air of ventilation and air conditioning systems may be distributed within the room so that flow

patterns are controlled. A distinction is made, depending on the type of load reduction, in air conditioning

between two basic flow patterns, i.e. mixed flow and laminar flow which is also frequently referred to as source

ventilation.
9.2 Mixed flow

The clean supply air and the air around the cooking appliances enriched by foreign substances mix

completely. The polluted room air is diluted by external air and therefore the same temperatures and

substance concentrations are reached almost throughout the kitchen. The intensive mixing is achieved by

supply airstreams with a relatively high impulse which, to meet the climatic-physiological requirements, should

settle down above the human occupation zone.
Different possible designs:
Horizontal air supply

Where air is supplied horizontally underneath the ceiling of the room, with radial jet. These can deflect

thermal plumes at cooking appliances into the work area and extraction flows for extraction devices

mounted above the kitchen appliances may be disturbed. Ventilation grids or air nozzles are used as air

inlets.
Vertical air supply

A mixed flow can also be achieved by several conical airstreams from the ceiling of the room, whereby

the inlets are distributed on the ceiling. A mixing and induction area forms around each air inlet.

By arranging the outlets above the cooking and work areas, the disturbance of thermal plumes can be

reduced.

Jet, swirl, circular/square ceiling diffusers and linear air inlets are used for these forms of flow.

9.3 Laminar flow (displacement)

Laminar flows reduce the pollution in the area occupied by people both with regard to thermal and substance

pollution.

With this type of air supply, the room airflow is characterised by the thermal plumes generated at the cooking

appliances, which conveys the heated air, enriched by foreign substances, from the cooking area upwards

from where it is drawn off by suitable extraction devices. Care should be taken to ensure that pulsing of the air

supply is minimised so that the thermal plumes remains undisturbed.

By studies it is shown, that laminar flow (displacement) is the better system of kitchen ventilation. Therefore

this system is to be preferred for significan
...

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