Paper and board - Determination of thickness, density and specific volume (ISO 534:2011)

This International Standard specifies two methods for measuring the thickness of paper and board: a) the measurement of a single sheet of paper or board as a single sheet thickness; b) the measurement of a pack of sheets of paper as a bulking thickness. This International Standard also specifies calculation methods - for the apparent sheet density and for the apparent bulk density, and - for the apparent specific sheet volume and for the apparent specific bulk volume from the thickness determinations.

Papier und Pappe - Bestimmung der Dicke, der Dichte und des spezifischen Volumens (ISO 534:2011)

Diese Internationale Norm legt zwei Verfahren zur Messung der Dicke von Papier und Pappe fest:
a)   Messung eines Einzelblattes von Papier oder Pappe als Einzelblattdicke;
b)   Messung eines Stapels von Papierblättern mit der mittleren Dicke eines Einzelblattes.
Papiere mit einer Dicke < 100 µm müssen als Papierstapel gemessen werden. Abgeleitet aus der Bestimmung der Dicke legt sie ferner Berechnungsverfahren fest für:
-   die scheinbare Blattdichte und die scheinbare Stapeldichte, und
-   das scheinbare spezifische Volumen des Blattes und das scheinbare spezifische Volumen des Stapels.
Diese Internationale Norm ist nicht anwendbar auf Wellpappe. Die Messung der mittleren Dicke eines Einzelblattes (Verfahren b) ist nicht für Pappe ) geeignet.
ANMERKUNG   Im Allgemeinen führen diese beiden Verfahren zu unterschiedlichen Ergebnissen. Diese Verfahren sind nicht für Tissue-Papier und Tissue-Produkte anwendbar.
Für Tissue-Papier und Tissue-Produkte sollte ISO 12625-3 angewendet werden.

Papier et carton - Détermination de l'épaisseur, de la masse volumique et du volume spécifique (ISO 534:2011)

La présente Norme internationale spécifie deux méthodes de mesurage de l'épaisseur du papier et du carton:
a) le mesurage d'une feuille unique de papier ou de carton, exprimé par l'épaisseur d'une feuille unique;
b) le mesurage d'une liasse de feuilles de papier, exprimé par l'épaisseur moyenne d'une feuille en liasse.
La présente Norme internationale spécifie également les méthodes de calcul
— de la masse volumique apparente d'une feuille unique et de la masse volumique moyenne, et
— du volume apparent spécifique d'une feuille et du volume apparent spécifique moyen
à partir des déterminations de l'épaisseur.
La présente Norme internationale n'est pas applicable au carton ondulé. En outre, le mesurage de l'épaisseur
moyenne d'une feuille en liasse, méthode b) ci-dessus ne convient pas pour le carton1).
NOTE Les deux méthodes conduisent généralement à des résultats différents. Ces méthodes ne s'appliquent pas au
papier tissue et aux produits tissues. Il convient d'utiliser l'ISO 12625-3 pour le papier tissue et les produits tissues.

Papir, karton in lepenka - Ugotavljanje debeline, gostote in specifičnega volumna (ISO 534:2011)

Ta mednarodni standard določa dve metodi za merjenje debeline papirja, kartona in lepenke: a) merjenje posameznega lista papirja, kartona ali lepenke kot debeline posameznega lista; b) merjenje več listov papirja kot skupne debeline. Ta mednarodni standard določa tudi metode izračuna za navidezno gostoto listov in navidezno skupno gostoto ter za navidezni specifični volumen lista in navidezni skupni specifični volumen na podlagi ugotavljanja debeline.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
14-Oct-2010
Publication Date
11-Apr-2012
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
29-Mar-2012
Due Date
03-Jun-2012
Completion Date
12-Apr-2012

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 534:2012
01-maj-2012
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN ISO 534:2005

3DSLUNDUWRQLQOHSHQND8JRWDYOMDQMHGHEHOLQHJRVWRWHLQVSHFLILþQHJDYROXPQD

,62
Paper and board - Determination of thickness, density and specific volume (ISO
534:2011)

Papier und Pappe - Bestimmung der Dicke, der Dichte und des spezifischen Volumens

(ISO 534:2011)

Papier et carton - Détermination de l'épaisseur, de la masse volumique et du volume

spécifique (ISO 534:2011)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 534:2011
ICS:
85.060 Papir, karton in lepenka Paper and board
SIST EN ISO 534:2012 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 534:2012
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SIST EN ISO 534:2012
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN ISO 534
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
November 2011
ICS 85.060 Supersedes EN ISO 534:2005
English Version
Paper and board - Determination of thickness, density and
specific volume (ISO 534:2011)

Papier et carton - Détermination de l'épaisseur, de la Papier und Pappe - Bestimmung der Dicke, der Dichte und

masse volumique et du volume spécifique (ISO 534:2011) des spezifischen Volumens (ISO 534:2011)

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 2 December 2011.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same

status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland,

Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2011 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 534:2011: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 534:2012
EN ISO 534:2011 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3

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SIST EN ISO 534:2012
EN ISO 534:2011 (E)
Foreword

This document (EN ISO 534:2011) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 6 "Paper, board and

pulps" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 172 “Pulp, paper and board” the secretariat of

which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical

text or by endorsement, at the latest by May 2012, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the

latest by May 2012.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 534:2005.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following

countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech

Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain,

Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 534:2011 has been approved by CEN as a EN ISO 534:2011 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 534:2012
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SIST EN ISO 534:2012
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 534
Fourth edition
2011-11-15
Paper and board — Determination of
thickness, density and specific volume
Papier et carton — Détermination de l’épaisseur, de la masse
volumique et du volume spécifique
Reference number
ISO 534:2011(E)
ISO 2011
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SIST EN ISO 534:2012
ISO 534:2011(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2011

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s

member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2011 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 534:2012
ISO 534:2011(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ......................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ......................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5 Apparatus .............................................................................................................................................................. 2

6 Sampling ................................................................................................................................................................ 3

7 Conditioning ......................................................................................................................................................... 3

8 Preparation of test pieces ................................................................................................................................. 3

8.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................... 3

8.2 Single sheet thickness ....................................................................................................................................... 3

8.3 Bulking thickness ................................................................................................................................................ 3

9 Procedure .............................................................................................................................................................. 4

9.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................... 4

9.2 Verification and calibration of micrometer ................................................................................................... 4

9.3 Determinations ..................................................................................................................................................... 4

10 Calculation and expression of results ........................................................................................................... 5

10.1 Single sheet thickness ....................................................................................................................................... 5

10.2 Bulking thickness ................................................................................................................................................ 5

10.3 Apparent density ................................................................................................................................................. 6

10.4 Apparent specific volume ................................................................................................................................. 6

11 Test report ............................................................................................................................................................. 7

Annex A (normative) Verification of micrometer performance and calibration ................................................. 8

Annex B (informative) Precision ...................................................................................................................................10

Bibliography .....................................................................................................................................................................13

© ISO 2011 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 534:2012
ISO 534:2011(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International

Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 534 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 6, Paper, board and pulps, Subcommittee SC 2, Test

methods and quality specifications for paper and board.

This fourth edition cancels and replaces the third edition (ISO 534:2005), which has been technically revised.

The essential changes in this International Standard are the reduction of the field of application, because now

it is clearly stated that the measurement of bulking thickness is not intended for board, and the deletion of the

alternative pressure [(50 ± 5) kPa] for the thickness measurement. In some countries, particularly in North

America, the 50 kPa pressure is still widely used and different results will be obtained depending on which

pressure is used. At the same time, new precision data have been inserted.
iv © ISO 2011 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 534:2012
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 534:2011(E)
Paper and board — Determination of thickness, density and
specific volume
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies two methods for measuring the thickness of paper and board:

a) the measurement of a single sheet of paper or board as a single sheet thickness;

b) the measurement of a pack of sheets of paper as a bulking thickness.
This International Standard also specifies calculation methods
— for the apparent sheet density and for the apparent bulk density, and

— for the apparent specific sheet volume and for the apparent specific bulk volume

from the thickness determinations.

This International Standard is not applicable to corrugated fibreboard. In addition, the measurement of bulking

thickness, method b) above, is not suitable for board .

NOTE The two methods generally lead to different results. These methods are not applicable to tissue paper and

tissue products. For tissue paper and tissue products, ISO 12625-3 should be used.

2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document

(including any amendments) applies.
ISO 186, Paper and board — Sampling to determine average quality

ISO 187, Paper, board and pulps — Standard atmosphere for conditioning and testing and procedure for

monitoring the atmosphere and conditioning of samples
ISO 536, Paper and board — Determination of grammage
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
single sheet thickness

distance between one surface of a paper or board and the other, measured under an applied static load, using

this test method
3.2
bulking thickness

thickness of a single sheet of paper, calculated from the thickness of several superimposed sheets in a pack,

and measured under an applied static load, using this test method
1) For the definition of ‟board”, see ISO 4046-3:2002, definition 3.16.
© ISO 2011 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 534:2012
ISO 534:2011(E)
3.3
apparent sheet density

mass per unit volume, expressed in grams per cubic centimetre, and calculated from the single sheet

thickness (3.1)
NOTE This term is normally applicable to paper or board.
3.4
apparent bulk density

mass per unit volume, expressed in grams per cubic centimetre, and calculated from the bulking thickness

(3.2)
NOTE This term is normally applicable to paper.
3.5
apparent specific sheet volume

volume per unit mass, expressed in cubic centimetres per gram, and calculated from the single sheet

thickness (3.1)
NOTE This term is normally applicable to paper or board.
3.6
apparent specific bulk volume

volume per unit mass, expressed in cubic centimetres per gram, and calculated from the bulking thickness

(3.2)
NOTE This term is normally applicable to paper.
4 Principle

4.1 Measurement of the single sheet thickness (3.1) or of the bulking thickness (3.2), according to the test

requirements, by means of a precision micrometer.

4.2 Calculation of the apparent sheet density (3.3) or apparent bulk density (3.4) of the paper or board,

from a knowledge of its grammage and thickness.

4.3 Calculation of the apparent specific sheet volume (3.5) or apparent specific bulk volume (3.6) of the

paper or board, from a knowledge of its grammage and thickness.
5 Apparatus

5.1 Dead-weight micrometer, incorporating two plane, parallel, circular pressure faces, between which the

paper or board is placed for measurement.

The pressure exerted between the pressure faces during the thickness measurement shall be (100 ± 10) kPa.

The two pressure faces shall form an integral part of the micrometer, such that one face is fixed (the anvil) and

the other is movable in a direction perpendicular to the plane of the fixed face.

One face shall be (16,0 ± 0,5) mm in diameter and the second face shall be of such a size that it is in contact

with the whole area of the other face when the micrometer reads zero. Thus, a circular region of a test piece,

nominally 200 mm

in area, is subjected during the thickness measurement to the pressure exerted by the

faces.

The performance requirements of the micrometer shall be such that, when calibrated according to the method

given in Annex A, the micrometer complies with the required pressure of (100 ± 10) kPa and the performance

requirements shown in Table 1 (see also 9.1).
2 © ISO 2011 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 534:2012
ISO 534:2011(E)
Table 1 — Micrometer-performance requirements
Micrometer characteristics Maximum permitted value
Indication error ±2,5 µm or ±0,5 % of the reading
Error of parallelism between pressure faces 5 µm or 1 %
Repeatability of measurement (as standard 1,2 µm or 0,5 %
deviation)

The maximum permitted value of a micrometer characteristic is the greater of the two values.

5.2 Thickness gauges, corresponding to approximately 10 %, 30 %, 50 %, 70 % and 90 % of the full-scale

reading of the micrometer. The thickness of each gauge shall be known to an accuracy of 0,3 µm.

6 Sampling

If the tests are made to evaluate a lot, select the sample in accordance with ISO 186. If the tests are made on

another type of sample, make sure that the test pieces taken are representative of the sample received.

7 Conditioning
Condition the sample in accordance with ISO 187.
8 Preparation of test pieces
8.1 General

Prepare the test pieces in the same standard atmospheric conditions as those used to condition the sample.

Avoid areas with folds, creases, cracks or other defects which could influence the results.

8.2 Single sheet thickness

Cut not more than two test pieces from each specimen taken at random from the sample available, with minimum

dimensions 60 mm × 60 mm. Ensure that the test piece dimensions are not so large that the micrometer reading

is affected by the test piece mass that overhangs the lower pressure face while a measurement is being made.

When measuring board, do not use test pieces with dimensions exceeding 100 mm × 100 mm. These test

piece dimensions are usually satisfactory for making measurements on paper.
Prepare at least 20 test pieces.
8.3 Bulking thickness

Cut sheets at random from the sample available, preferably having dimensions 200 mm × 250 mm, the 200 mm

dimension being in the machine direction (see Figure 1). If this is not possible, prepare smaller sheets of at

least 150 mm × 150 mm.

Make up a pack of ten sheets to form the test piece; each sheet shall be oriented in the same direction and with

the same side up and the same dimensions. Each sheet shall be independent of the rest. For example, it is not

permitted to fold one sheet and insert it folded into the test piece to form two or more sheets. The number of

sheets in a test piece shall normally be ten.

Prepare at least four test pieces, and make sure that the number of sheets and their sizes in each test piece

is the same.

In special circumstances, such as for thick or very thin sheets or when agreed between the parties concerned,

a smaller or larger number of sheets, or a smaller or larger sheet, may be used.
© ISO 2011 – All rights reserved 3
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