Space engineering - Spacecraft charging

This activity will be the update of EN16603-20-06 (published 2014).
This activity was started in ECSS to implement as urgent classified Change Requests.

Raumfahrttechnik - Aufladung von Raumfahrzeugen

Ingéniérie spatiale - Charges électrostatique des vehicules spatiales

La présente norme s'inscrit dans la hiérarchie des normes ECSS. Elle est rattachée à la discipline « génie électrique et électronique » (ECSS-E-ST-20) de la branche ingénierie du système ECSS (ECSS-E). Elle contient des dispositions claires et cohérentes relatives à l'application de mesures visant à prévenir et minimiser les effets dangereux associés à la charge électrostatique des engins spatiaux, ainsi que les autres effets environnementaux sur le comportement électrique d'un engin spatial.
Cette norme s'applique à tout type d'engin spatial, y compris les lanceurs, au-dessus de l'atmosphère terrestre.
Bien que les systèmes d'engins spatiaux soient clairement soumis à des interactions électriques lorsqu'ils sont au sol (par exemple, éclair et électricité statique pendant la manutention), ces aspects ne sont pas couverts par la présente norme puisqu'ils sont communs aux systèmes terrestres et font l'objet d'autres publications. La présente norme s'attache plus particulièrement aux effets électriques survenant dans l'espace (c'est-à-dire au-delà de l'ionosphère).
La présente norme peut être adaptée aux caractéristiques et contraintes spécifiques d’un projet spatial, conformément à l’ECSS-S-ST-00.

Vesoljska tehnika - Napajanje vesoljskih plovil

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
31-Jul-2019
Publication Date
20-Sep-2020
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
17-Sep-2020
Due Date
22-Nov-2020
Completion Date
21-Sep-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 16603-20-06:2020
01-november-2020
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 16603-20-06:2014
Vesoljska tehnika - Napajanje vesoljskih plovil
Space engineering - Spacecraft charging
Raumfahrttechnik - Aufladung von Raumfahrzeugen
Ingéniérie spatiale - Charges électrostatique des vehicules spatiales
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 16603-20-06:2020
ICS:
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
SIST EN 16603-20-06:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 16603-20-06:2020
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SIST EN 16603-20-06:2020
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 16603-20-06
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
September 2020
ICS 49.140
Supersedes EN 16603-20-06:2014
English version
Space engineering - Spacecraft charging

Ingéniérie spatiale - Charges électrostatiques des Raumfahrttechnik - Teil 20-06: Aufladung von

engins spatiaux Raumfahrzeugen
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 3 May 2020.

CEN and CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for

giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical

references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to

any CEN and CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN and CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. EN 16603-20-06:2020 E

reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
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SIST EN 16603-20-06:2020
EN 16603-20-06:2020 (E)
Table of contents

European Forword ..................................................................................................... 9

Introduction .............................................................................................................. 11

1 Scope ..................................................................................................................... 13

2 Normative references ........................................................................................... 14

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms .......................................................... 15

3.1 Terms defined in other standards ........................................................................... 15

3.2 Terms specific to the present standard ................................................................... 15

3.3 Abbreviated terms................................................................................................... 18

3.4 Nomenclature ......................................................................................................... 19

4 Overview ................................................................................................................ 21

4.1 Plasma interaction effects ....................................................................................... 21

4.1.1 Presentation .............................................................................................. 21

4.1.2 Most common engineering concerns ......................................................... 21

4.1.3 Overview of physical mechanisms ............................................................ 22

4.2 Relationship with other standards ........................................................................... 24

5 Protection programme ......................................................................................... 26

6 Surface material requirements ............................................................................ 27

6.1 Overview ................................................................................................................ 27

6.1.1 Description and applicability ...................................................................... 27

6.1.2 Purpose common to all spacecraft ............................................................ 28

6.1.3 A special case: scientific spacecraft with plasma measurement

instruments ............................................................................................... 28

6.2 General requirements ............................................................................................. 28

6.2.1 Maximum permitted voltage ...................................................................... 28

6.2.2 Maximum resistivity ................................................................................... 29

6.3 Electrical continuity, including surfaces and structural and mechanical parts .......... 29

6.3.1 Grounding of surface metallic parts ........................................................... 29

6.3.2 Exceptions ................................................................................................ 30

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6.3.3 Electrical continuity for surface materials .................................................. 31

6.4 Surface charging analysis ....................................................................................... 35

6.5 Deliberate potentials ............................................................................................... 35

6.6 Testing of materials and assemblies ....................................................................... 35

6.6.1 General ..................................................................................................... 35

6.6.2 Material characterization tests ................................................................... 37

6.6.3 Material and assembly qualification ........................................................... 37

6.7 Scientific spacecraft with plasma measurement instruments .................................. 38

6.8 Verification .............................................................................................................. 38

6.8.1 Grounding ................................................................................................. 38

6.8.2 Material selection ...................................................................................... 39

6.8.3 Environmental effects ................................................................................ 39

6.8.4 Computer modelling .................................................................................. 39

6.9 Triggering of ESD ................................................................................................... 40

7 Secondary arc requirements ............................................................................... 41

7.1 Description and applicability ................................................................................... 41

7.2 Solar arrays ............................................................................................................ 42

7.2.1 Overview ................................................................................................... 42

7.2.2 General requirement ................................................................................. 42

7.2.3 Testing of solar arrays ............................................................................... 43

7.3 Other exposed parts of the power system including solar array drive

mechanisms ........................................................................................................... 47

8 High voltage system requirements ..................................................................... 48

8.1 Description ............................................................................................................. 48

8.2 Requirements ......................................................................................................... 48

8.3 Validation ................................................................................................................ 48

9 Internal parts and materials requirements ......................................................... 49

9.1 Description ............................................................................................................. 49

9.2 General ................................................................................................................... 49

9.2.1 Internal charging and discharge effects ..................................................... 49

9.2.2 Grounding and connectivity ....................................................................... 49

9.2.3 Dielectric electric fields and voltages ......................................................... 50

9.3 Validation ................................................................................................................ 51

10 Tether requirements ........................................................................................... 55

10.1 Description ............................................................................................................. 55

10.2 General ................................................................................................................... 55

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10.2.1 Hazards arising on tethered spacecraft due to voltages generated by

conductive tethers ..................................................................................... 55

10.2.2 Current collection and resulting problems ................................................. 55

10.2.3 Hazards arising from high currents flowing through the tether and

spacecraft structures ................................................................................. 56

10.2.4 Continuity of insulation. ............................................................................. 56

10.2.5 Hazards from undesired conductive paths ................................................ 56

10.2.6 Hazards from electro-dynamic tether oscillations ...................................... 56

10.2.7 Other effects ............................................................................................. 56

10.3 Validation ................................................................................................................ 57

11 Electric propulsion requirements ..................................................................... 58

11.1 Overview ................................................................................................................ 58

11.1.1 Description ................................................................................................ 58

11.1.2 Coverage of the requirements ................................................................... 58

11.2 General ................................................................................................................... 60

11.2.1 Spacecraft neutralization ........................................................................... 60

11.2.2 Beam neutralization .................................................................................. 61

11.2.3 Contamination ........................................................................................... 62

11.2.4 Sputtering ................................................................................................. 62

11.2.5 Neutral gas effects .................................................................................... 62

11.3 Validation ................................................................................................................ 63

11.3.1 Ground testing .......................................................................................... 63

11.3.2 Computer modelling characteristics .......................................................... 63

11.3.3 In-flight monitoring..................................................................................... 63

11.3.4 Sputtering ................................................................................................. 63

11.3.5 Neutral gas effects .................................................................................... 64

Annex A (normative) Electrical hazard mitigation plan - DRD ............................. 65

A.1 DRD identification ................................................................................................... 65

A.1.1 Requirement identification and source document ...................................... 65

A.1.2 Purpose and objective ............................................................................... 65

A.2 Expected response ................................................................................................. 65

A.2.1 Scope and content .................................................................................... 65

A.2.2 Special remarks ........................................................................................ 66

Annex B (informative) Tailoring guidelines ........................................................... 67

B.1 Overview ................................................................................................................ 67

B.2 LEO ........................................................................................................................ 67

B.2.1 General ..................................................................................................... 67

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B.2.2 LEO orbits with high inclination ................................................................. 68

B.3 MEO and GEO orbits .............................................................................................. 68

B.4 Spacecraft with onboard plasma detectors ............................................................. 68

B.5 Tethered spacecraft ................................................................................................ 69

B.6 Active spacecraft .................................................................................................... 69

B.7 Solar Wind .............................................................................................................. 69

B.8 Other planetary magnetospheres ............................................................................ 69

Annex C (informative) Physical background to the requirements .................... 70

C.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 70

C.2 Definition of symbols ............................................................................................... 70

C.3 Electrostatic sheaths ............................................................................................... 70

C.3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 70

C.3.2 The electrostatic potential ......................................................................... 71

C.3.3 The Debye length ...................................................................................... 71

C.3.4 Presheath ................................................................................................. 72

C.3.5 Models of current through the sheath ........................................................ 73

C.3.6 Thin sheath – space-charge-limited model ................................................ 73

C.3.7 Thick sheath – orbit motion limited (OML) model ...................................... 74

C.3.8 General case ............................................................................................. 75

C.3.9 Magnetic field modification of charging currents ........................................ 75

C.4 Current collection and grounding to the plasma ...................................................... 75

C.5 External surface charging ....................................................................................... 76

C.5.1 Definition ................................................................................................... 76

C.5.2 Processes ................................................................................................. 76

C.5.3 Effects ....................................................................................................... 77

C.5.4 Surface emission processes ..................................................................... 77

C.5.5 Floating potential ....................................................................................... 78

C.5.6 Conductivity and resistivity ........................................................................ 79

C.5.7 Time scales ............................................................................................... 81

C.6 Spacecraft motion effects ....................................................................................... 81

C.6.1 Wakes ....................................................................................................... 81

C.6.2 Motion across the magnetic field ............................................................... 84

C.7 Induced plasmas .................................................................................................... 85

C.7.1 Definition ................................................................................................... 85

C.7.2 Electric propulsion thrusters ...................................................................... 86

C.7.3 Induced plasma characteristics ................................................................. 86

C.7.4 Charge-exchange effects .......................................................................... 87

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C.7.5 Neutral particle effects .............................................................................. 88

C.7.6 Effect on floating potential ......................................................................... 88

C.8 Internal and deep-dielectric charging ...................................................................... 88

C.8.1 Definition ................................................................................................... 88

C.8.2 Relationship to surface charging ............................................................... 89

C.8.3 Charge deposition ..................................................................................... 90

C.8.4 Material conductivity .................................................................................. 90

C.8.5 Time dependence ..................................................................................... 93

C.8.6 Geometric considerations.......................................................................... 93

C.8.7 Isolated internal conductors ...................................................................... 94

C.8.8 Electric field sensitive systems .................................................................. 94

C.9 Discharges and transients ...................................................................................... 95

C.9.1 General definition ...................................................................................... 95

C.9.2 Review of the process ............................................................................... 95

C.9.3 Dielectric material discharge ..................................................................... 96

C.9.4 Metallic discharge ..................................................................................... 98

C.9.5 Internal dielectric discharge ....................................................................... 99

C.9.6 Secondary powered discharge ................................................................ 100

C.9.7 Discharge thresholds .............................................................................. 100

Annex D (informative) Charging simulation ....................................................... 102

D.1 Surface charging codes ........................................................................................ 102

D.1.1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 102

D.2 Internal charging codes ........................................................................................ 104

D.2.1 DICTAT ................................................................................................... 104

D.2.2 ESADDC ................................................................................................. 104

D.2.3 GEANT-4 ................................................................................................ 105

D.2.4 NOVICE .................................................................................................. 105

D.3 Environment model for internal charging ............................................................... 105

D.3.1 FLUMIC .................................................................................................. 105

D.3.2 Worst case GEO spectrum ...................................................................... 105

Annex E (informative) Testing and measurement. ............................................. 106

E.1 Definition of symbols ............................................................................................. 106

E.2 Solar array testing................................................................................................. 106

E.2.1 Solar cell sample ..................................................................................... 106

E.2.2 Pre-testing of the solar array simulator (SAS) ......................................... 107

E.2.3 Solar array test procedure ....................................................................... 109

E.2.4 Other elements ....................................................................................... 113

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E.2.5 The solar panel simulation device ........................................................... 114

E.3 Measurement of conductivity and resistivity .......................................................... 116

E.3.1 Determination of intrinsic bulk conductivity by direct measurement ......... 116

E.3.2 Determination of radiation-induced conductivity coefficients by direct

measurement .......................................................................................... 117

E.3.3 Determination of conductivity and radiation-induced conductivity by

electron irradiation................................................................................... 118

E.3.4 The ASTM method for measurement of surface resistivity and its

adaptation for space used materials ........................................................ 118

References ............................................................................................................. 120

Bibliography ........................................................................................................... 124

Figures

Figure 6-1: Applicability of electrical continuity requirements ................................................ 32

Figure 7-1: Solar array test set-up ........................................................................................ 45

Figure C-1 : Schematic diagram of potential variation through sheath and pre-sheath. ........ 72

Figure C-2 : Example secondary yield curve ........................................................................ 78

Figure C-3 : Schematic diagram of wake structure around an object at relative motion

with respect to a plasma ..................................................................................... 82

Figure C-4 : Schematic diagram of void region ..................................................................... 83

Figure C-5 : Schematic diagram of internal charging in a planar dielectric ............................ 89

Figure C-6 : Dielectric discharge mechanism. ...................................................................... 97

Figure C-7 :Shape of the current in relation to discharge starting point. ................................ 97

Figure C-8 : Example of discharge on pierced aluminized Teflon® irradiated by

electrons with energies ranging from 0 to 220 keV. ............................................ 98

Figure C-9 : Schematic diagram of discharge at a triple point in the inverted voltage

gradient configuration with potential contours indicated by colour scale. ............ 99

Figure E-1 : Photograph of solar cells sample – Front face & Rear face

(Stentor Sample. Picture from Denis Payan - CNES®)..................................... 107

Figure E-2 : Schematic diagram of power supply test circuit ............................................... 108

Figure E-3 : Example of a measured power source switch response .................................. 108

Figure E-4 : Example solar array simulator ......................................................................... 109

Figure E-5 : Absolute capacitance of the satellite ............................................................... 110

Figure E-6 : Junction capacitance of a cell versus to voltage .............................................. 112

Figure E-7 : The shortened solar array sample and the missing capacitances ................... 113

Figure E-8 : Discharging circuit oscillations ........................................................................ 114

Figure E-9 : Effect of an added resistance in the discharging circuit (SAS + resistance) .... 114

Figure E-10 : Setup simulating the satellite including flashover current .............................. 115

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Figure E-11 : Basic arrangement of apparatus for measuring dielectric conductivity in

planar samples ................................................................................................. 116

Figure E-12 : Arrangement for measuring cable dielectric conductivity and cross-

section through co-axial cable .......................................................................... 116

Figure E-13 : Arrangement for carrying out conductivity tests on planar samples under

irradiation ......................................................................................................... 118

Figure E-14 : Basic experimental set up for surface conductivity ........................................ 119

Tables

Table 4-1: List of electrostatic and other plasma interaction effects on space systems ......... 23

Table 7-1: Tested voltage-current combinations ................................................................... 42

Table 7-2: Typical inductance per unit length for cables ....................................................... 46

Table C-1 : Parameters in different regions in space ............................................................ 72

Table C-2 : Typical plasma parameters for LEO and GEO ................................................... 83

Table C-3 : Plasma conditions on exit plane of several electric propulsion thrusters ............ 87

Table C-4 : Emission versus backflow current magnitudes for several electric

propulsion thrusters ............................................................................................ 87

Table C-5 : Value of Ea for several materials ....................................................................... 91

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SIST EN 16603-20-06:2020
EN 16603-20-06:2020 (E)
European Forword
This document (EN 16603-20-06:2020) has been prepared by Technical
Committee CEN-CENELEC/TC 5 “Space”, the secretariat of which is held by
DIN.
This document (EN 16603-20-06:2020) originates from ECSS-E-ST-20-06C Rev.1.
This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either
by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by March
2021, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by
March 2021.
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document
may be the subject of patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held
responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.
This document supersedes 16603-20-06:2004.
The main changes with respect to 16603-20-06:2004 are listed below:
 Addition of definition for the term "flashover current"
 Addition of abbreviated terms "RIC" and "SPIS"
...

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