Soil quality - Sampling - Part 203: Investigation of potentially contaminated sites

This document gives guidance on the:
— investigation of sites, where either it is known that soil contamination is present, or the presence of
soil contamination is suspected;
— investigation of sites where no soil contamination is expected, but the soil quality is to be determined
(e.g. to make sure that there is no contamination present);
— investigation in anticipation of a need to manage re-use or disposal of excavated soil which might be
contaminated;
— collection of information that is necessary for risk assessment and/or the development of remedial
action plans (e.g. whether remediation is required and suggestions as to how this might be best
achieved).
Although the information on soil quality for the risk assessment and/or the development of remedial
action plans is gathered by applying this document, it does not give guidance on the decisions and
actions that follow from a site investigation, for example, risk assessment and decisions about the
requirements for remediation (if any).

Qualité du sol - Échantillonnage - Partie 203: Investigation des sites potentiellement contaminés

Le pr�sent document fournit des recommandations concernant:
— l'investigation de sites au niveau desquels la pr�sence d'une contamination du sol est connue ou suspect�e;
— l'investigation de sites au niveau desquels aucune contamination du sol n'est attendue, mais dont la qualit� du sol doit �tre d�termin�e (par exemple pour s'assurer qu'aucune contamination n'est pr�sente);
— l'investigation en pr�vision de la n�cessit� de g�rer la r�utilisation ou l'extraction de terre excav�e susceptible d'�tre contamin�e;
— la collecte des informations n�cessaires � l'appr�ciation du risque et/ou � l'�laboration de plans d'assainissement (par exemple, pour d�terminer si une rem�diation est n�cessaire et proposer le meilleur moyen d'y parvenir).
Bien que les informations sur la qualit� du sol en vue de l'appr�ciation du risque et/ou de l'�laboration de plans d'assainissement soient collect�es en appliquant le pr�sent document, il ne fournit pas de recommandations concernant les d�cisions et les actions qui suivent l'investigation d'un site, par exemple l'appr�ciation du risque et les d�cisions concernant les exigences de rem�diation (le cas �ch�ant).

Kakovost tal - Vzorčenje - 203. del: Preiskava domnevno onesnaženih območij

Ta dokument podaja smernice glede:
– preiskav območij, za katera se ve, da so tla onesnažena ali
obstaja sum, da so tla onesnažena;
– preiskav območij, kjer onesnaženost tal ni pričakovana, vendar je treba določiti kakovost tal (npr. da se potrdi, da tla niso onesnažena);
– preiskav, če se pričakuje, da bo potrebno upravljati, znova uporabiti ali zavreči izkopano zemljino, ki bi lahko bila onesnažena;
– zbiranja informacij, ki so potrebne za oceno tveganja in/ali razvoj načrtov sanacijskih ukrepov (npr. ali je potrebna sanacija in predlogi, kako jo najbolje izvesti).
Čeprav se informacije o kakovosti tal za oceno tveganja in/ali načrte sanacijskih ukrepov zbirajo z uporabo tega dokumenta, ta ne podaja smernic glede odločitev in ukrepov, ki izhajajo iz preiskav območja, na primer ocene tveganja in odločitve o zahtevah za sanacijo (če obstajajo).

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
14-Mar-2018
Publication Date
29-Jan-2019
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
22-Jan-2019
Due Date
29-Mar-2019
Completion Date
30-Jan-2019

RELATIONS

Buy Standard

Standard
ISO 18400-203:2018 - Soil quality -- Sampling
English language
32 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview
Standard
SIST ISO 18400-203:2019
English language
39 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview

e-Library read for
1 day
Standard
ISO 18400-203:2018 - Qualité du sol -- Échantillonnage
French language
34 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview

Standards Content (sample)

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18400-203
First edition
2018-10
Soil quality — Sampling —
Part 203:
Investigation of potentially
contaminated sites
Qualité du sol — Échantillonnage —
Partie 203: Investigation des sites potentiellement contaminés
Reference number
ISO 18400-203:2018(E)
ISO 2018
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 18400-203:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 18400-203:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Objectives ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Definitions of objectives .................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5 General strategy of site investigation ............................................................................................................................................. 3

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Scope of preliminary investigation ........................................................................................................................................ 6

5.3 Scope of exploratory investigation ........................................................................................................................................ 6

5.4 Scope of detailed site investigation ....................................................................................................................................... 7

6 Preliminary investigation ........................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2 Development of the conceptual site model .................................................................................................................... 8

6.2.1 Overall conceptual site model .............................................................................................................................. 8

6.2.2 Formulation of contamination-related hypotheses ........................................................................... 8

6.3 Reporting the preliminary investigation and the conceptual site model ............................................. 8

7 Design of intrusive investigations ...................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.1 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2 General aspects of field work ..................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3 Overall design aspects ...................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3.2 Design of site works ...................................................................................................................................................10

7.4 Sampling patterns and spacing for sampling soils ................................................................................................11

7.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................11

7.4.2 Judgemental sampling ........................................................................................................................................... ...12

7.4.3 Systematic sampling ..................................................................................................................................................12

7.4.4 Detection of hotspots ................................................................................................................................................13

7.4.5 Depth of sampling and the strata to be sampled .................. .............................................................13

7.4.6 Sample sizes ......................................................................................................................................................................13

7.4.7 Sample types ....................................................................................................................................................................13

7.4.8 Number of samples .....................................................................................................................................................13

7.5 Analytical and testing strategies ...........................................................................................................................................13

7.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................13

7.5.2 Analysis of soil samples ..........................................................................................................................................14

7.6 Quality assurance and quality control .............................................................................................................................15

8 Exploratory investigation .........................................................................................................................................................................15

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................15

8.1.1 Basis of the exploratory investigation ........................................................................................................15

8.1.2 Steps to be incorporated ........................................................................................................................................15

8.1.3 Aspects to be considered when drawing up a strategy ...............................................................15

8.2 Sampling strategy ..............................................................................................................................................................................16

8.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................16

8.2.2 Sampling locations ......................................................................................................................................................16

8.2.3 Depth of sampling ........................................................................................................................................................17

8.2.4 Selection of soil samples for analysis ..........................................................................................................17

8.2.5 Selecting parameters for testing and analysis .....................................................................................17

8.3 Evaluation of the exploratory investigation ................................................................................................................18

8.3.1 Testing the hypotheses formulated during the preliminary investigation .................18

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 18400-203:2018(E)

8.3.2 Risk assessment ...................................................................... .......................................................................................18

8.3.3 Considering hypotheses by zone ....................................................................................................................18

8.3.4 Obtaining information on soil quality ........................................................................................................18

8.3.5 Checking if investigation strategy is adequate ....................................................................................19

8.3.6 Re-examining the hypotheses ............................................................................................................................19

8.3.7 Examples indicating if the hypothesis should be revised or rejected .............................19

8.3.8 Possible actions if a hypothesis is not valid ...........................................................................................20

8.4 Reporting the exploratory investigation ........................................................................................................................20

8.5 Determination of the need for a detailed site investigation..........................................................................21

9 Detailed site investigation .......................................................................................................................................................................21

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................21

9.2 Objectives and scope .......................................................................................................................................................................22

9.2.1 Objectives ............................................................................................................................................................................22

9.2.2 Major aspects to be considered in setting the scope and determining the

objectives .............................................................................................................................................................................22

9.3 Investigation design.........................................................................................................................................................................22

9.4 Sampling strategy ..............................................................................................................................................................................23

9.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................23

9.4.2 Sampling locations ......................................................................................................................................................23

9.4.3 Depth of sampling ........................................................................................................................................................23

9.4.4 Selecting parameters for testing and analysis .....................................................................................23

9.5 Evaluation of the detailed site investigation ..............................................................................................................24

9.6 Reporting ..................................................................................................................................................................................................25

Annex A (informative) Contamination hypotheses ............................................................................................................................27

Annex B (informative) Methods of non-intrusive investigation ............................................................................................30

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................32

iv © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 18400-203:2018(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see

www .iso .org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 190, Soil quality, Subcommittee SC 2,

Sampling.

This first edition of ISO 18400-203, together with ISO 18400-104 and ISO 18400-202, cancels and

replaces ISO 10381-5:2005, which has been technically and structurally revised.

The new ISO 18400 series is based on a modular structure and cannot be compared to ISO 10381-5

clause by clause.
A list of all parts in the ISO 18400 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 18400-203:2018(E)
Introduction

This document is one of a series of standards dealing with various aspects of site investigation and

sampling. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the other parts of the ISO 18400 series. The role/

position of the individual standards within the total investigation programme is shown in Figure 1.

While serious cases of soil contamination mostly occur on urban and industrial sites, serious

contamination of agricultural land can also occur (for example, due to pesticides usage, long-term

irrigation and application of organic wastes). In addition, it is important to recognize that agricultural,

near-natural and wooded sites, etc. are sometimes developed on deposited wastes or suffer severe

aerial deposition when close to industrial sites. In such cases, a combination of the methodologies

described in ISO 18400-205 and in this document would be appropriate.

An understanding of the surface water, groundwater and soil gas regimes is essential to the assessment

of the potential risks to human health and safety and to other potential receptors including, for

example, groundwater resources. However, the provision of detailed guidance on the investigation of

groundwater, surface water and soil gas falls outside the scope of this document. For more information

on groundwater and surface water sampling, see ISO 5667. Guidance on the sampling of soil gas is

provided in ISO 18400-204.
vi © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 18400-203:2018(E)

NOTE 1 The numbers in circles in this figure define the key elements (1 to 7) of the investigation programme.

NOTE 2 This figure displays a generic process which can be amended when necessary.

Figure 1 — Links between the essential elements of an investigation programme
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved vii
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 18400-203:2018(E)
Soil quality — Sampling —
Part 203:
Investigation of potentially contaminated sites
1 Scope
This document gives guidance on the:

— investigation of sites, where either it is known that soil contamination is present, or the presence of

soil contamination is suspected;

— investigation of sites where no soil contamination is expected, but the soil quality is to be determined

(e.g. to make sure that there is no contamination present);

— investigation in anticipation of a need to manage re-use or disposal of excavated soil which might be

contaminated;

— collection of information that is necessary for risk assessment and/or the development of remedial

action plans (e.g. whether remediation is required and suggestions as to how this might be best

achieved).

Although the information on soil quality for the risk assessment and/or the development of remedial

action plans is gathered by applying this document, it does not give guidance on the decisions and

actions that follow from a site investigation, for example, risk assessment and decisions about the

requirements for remediation (if any).
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 11074, Soil quality — Vocabulary
ISO 18400-104, Soil quality — Sampling — Part 104: Strategies
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 11074 and ISO 18400-104 apply.

NOTE When the definitions in these two standards differ, those in ISO 18400-104 take precedence.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 18400-203:2018(E)
4 Objectives
4.1 General

This document provides a framework for the various phases and stages in the investigation of

potentially contaminated sites. The resulting determination of the contamination status can then

lead to risk assessment and, where necessary, facilitate the selection and application of appropriate

remedial actions. Guidance on data and information requirements for particular purposes is provided

in a number of International Standards including ISO 11504, ISO 15175, ISO 15176, ISO 15799 and

ISO 15800.
Investigations for contamination could be required:

— when the purpose is to identify and deal with contamination (e.g. site where it is known or believed

there might be unacceptable risks to humans or other receptors – sometimes called “problem” sites);

— incidental to plans for the redevelopment of sites (e.g. of an industrial site for housing); or

— especially in urban areas, because it is known that possibly contaminated soils will have to be

excavated and removed from the site (e.g. because basements are to be formed, utilities installed or

underground infrastructure built).

The guidance provided in this document should be adapted as appropriate for these and any other

circumstances where potential contamination is an issue.

NOTE 1 Contamination is defined in ISO 11074 as a result of human influences; however, the methods

described for investigation are also applicable where there are naturally high concentrations of potentially

harmful substances.

NOTE 2 With respect to remediation, this document only provides guidance on the information required in

general. Specific remediation methods could need additional information.

NOTE 3 This document deals only with the investigation of the ground. On old urban and industrial sites,

there could be derelict buildings and/or industrial plants awaiting demolition, dismantling or refurbishment.

Failure to investigate these buildings before demolition could put the safety of workers at risk or lead to the

spread of contamination on and around the site. The investigation of derelict buildings or remnant foundations

falls outside the scope of this document.

NOTE 4 In many situations, there is a close relation between the contamination of the soil, groundwater, soil

gas and, to a lesser extent, surface water. Consequently, an understanding of the surface water, groundwater

and soil gas regimes is essential to the assessment of the potential risks to human health and safety and to other

potential receptors including, for example, groundwater resources. However, the provision of detailed guidance

on the investigation of groundwater, surface water and soil gas falls outside the scope of this document. For more

information on groundwater and surface water sampling, see ISO 5667. Guidance on the sampling of soil gas is

provided in ISO 18400-204.
4.2 Definitions of objectives

The reasons for an investigation and hence the objectives can vary widely but are generally to:

— identify and assess the risks to those using the site, and in the event of redevelopment, to subsequent

users and occupiers of the site;

— identify and assess the risks presented to the environment including adjacent land, surface and

groundwater, ecosystems and public health;

— identify and assess the risks which could be presented to workers who are involved in investigation,

remediation, redevelopment or maintenance of the site;
— enable proper management of excavated materials especially on urban sites;
— identify and assess the potential for adverse effects on building materials;
2 © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 18400-203:2018(E)

so that decisions can be made about the importance of the risks and whether it is necessary to take any

form of action to deal with them.

From the principal objectives of the investigation, a number of subsidiary objectives can be derived.

These might include the following:
a) determine if any immediate action is required to protect exposed receptors;

b) identify compounds that are, or might be, present that might represent a risk to one or more actual

or potential receptors;

c) identify receptors (e.g. human, ecosystems, groundwater) that are or might in the future be at risk;

d) identify pathways by which particular receptors might be exposed to the contaminants;

e) provide the data and other information to use in a risk assessment;
f) provide information to aid the design of protective or remedial measures;

g) provide information to aid the management of excavated soil and other materials;

h) enable characterization of contaminated soil and other materials to ensure safe and suitable

handling and disposal;

i) provide reference data against which the achievement of remediation performance can be judged;

j) enable judgements to be made about the likely impact of continued use of the site on the environment

including soil quality;

k) provide information to assess the risk of (legal) environmental liabilities and the effect on the value

of the property.

These generalized objectives will be formulated into specific requirements depending upon the purpose

of the investigation.

EXAMPLE A site investigation prior to the purchase of a site for redevelopment could have one or more of

the following objectives:

— establish the history of the site and the potential for the presence of contamination;

— establish the nature, extent and distribution of contamination within the site boundaries;

— identify the potential for migration of contamination beyond the site boundaries including surface and

groundwater (this could indicate there are potential legal environmental liabilities);

— identify any immediate dangers to public health, safety, and the environment;

— identify contamination-related constraints in relation to a proposed development (e.g. human and

environmental risks) and any remedial works necessary and provide data from which to develop cost

estimates;

— provide information to facilitate the formulation of a full interpretative report with conclusions,

recommendations and budget costing for remedial actions, if required;

— provide information to facilitate the advice to the client about how to address the issues raised by any off-site

migration of contamination.
5 General strategy of site investigation
5.1 General

Determination of the extent of a contaminated area and, particularly, the assessment of human and

environmental risks caused by contamination can be complex. Because of this complexity, the process

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 18400-203:2018(E)

of identifying, quantifying and evaluating the risks associated with contaminated land should be an

iterative process with several phases of investigation (each with specific objectives to be achieved),

in order to obtain sufficient relevant data to characterize the potential risks, pathways and receptors

of concern. The objectives should be reconsidered at each stage, and the requirements for further

investigation reviewed as the investigatory and assessment processes are developed.

NOTE 1 General guidance on the development of site investigation strategies and sampling strategies is

provided in ISO 18400-104. Guidance on the preparation of a sampling plan is provided in ISO 18400-101.

The principal phases are
— preliminary investigation (see 5.2 and Clause 6),
— exploratory investigation (see 5.3, Clause 7 and Clause 8), and
— detailed (main) site investigation (see 5.4, Clause 7 and Clause 9).
The relationship between these phases is illustrated in Figure 2.

Supplementary investigations could be required subsequent to the detailed site investigation in order

to provide information relevant to the selection of remedial methods, or design of remediation or

construction works.

On completion of the on-site work during any phase or stage of investigation, a sampling report should

be prepared in accordance with ISO 18400-107.
Following completion of any
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 18400-203:2019
01-marec-2019
1DGRPHãþD
SIST ISO 10381-5:2006
.DNRYRVWWDO9]RUþHQMHGHO3UHLVNDYDGRPQHYQRRQHVQDåHQLKREPRþLM

Soil quality - Sampling - Part 203: Investigation of potentially contaminated sites

Qualité du sol - Échantillonnage - Partie 203: Investigation des sites potentiellement

contaminés
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 18400-203:2018
ICS:
13.080.05 Preiskava tal na splošno Examination of soils in
general
SIST ISO 18400-203:2019 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18400-203:2019
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18400-203:2019
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18400-203
First edition
2018-10
Soil quality — Sampling —
Part 203:
Investigation of potentially
contaminated sites
Qualité du sol — Échantillonnage —
Partie 203: Investigation des sites potentiellement contaminés
Reference number
ISO 18400-203:2018(E)
ISO 2018
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18400-203:2019
ISO 18400-203:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18400-203:2019
ISO 18400-203:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Objectives ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Definitions of objectives .................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5 General strategy of site investigation ............................................................................................................................................. 3

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Scope of preliminary investigation ........................................................................................................................................ 6

5.3 Scope of exploratory investigation ........................................................................................................................................ 6

5.4 Scope of detailed site investigation ....................................................................................................................................... 7

6 Preliminary investigation ........................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2 Development of the conceptual site model .................................................................................................................... 8

6.2.1 Overall conceptual site model .............................................................................................................................. 8

6.2.2 Formulation of contamination-related hypotheses ........................................................................... 8

6.3 Reporting the preliminary investigation and the conceptual site model ............................................. 8

7 Design of intrusive investigations ...................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.1 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2 General aspects of field work ..................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3 Overall design aspects ...................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3.2 Design of site works ...................................................................................................................................................10

7.4 Sampling patterns and spacing for sampling soils ................................................................................................11

7.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................11

7.4.2 Judgemental sampling ........................................................................................................................................... ...12

7.4.3 Systematic sampling ..................................................................................................................................................12

7.4.4 Detection of hotspots ................................................................................................................................................13

7.4.5 Depth of sampling and the strata to be sampled .................. .............................................................13

7.4.6 Sample sizes ......................................................................................................................................................................13

7.4.7 Sample types ....................................................................................................................................................................13

7.4.8 Number of samples .....................................................................................................................................................13

7.5 Analytical and testing strategies ...........................................................................................................................................13

7.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................13

7.5.2 Analysis of soil samples ..........................................................................................................................................14

7.6 Quality assurance and quality control .............................................................................................................................15

8 Exploratory investigation .........................................................................................................................................................................15

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................15

8.1.1 Basis of the exploratory investigation ........................................................................................................15

8.1.2 Steps to be incorporated ........................................................................................................................................15

8.1.3 Aspects to be considered when drawing up a strategy ...............................................................15

8.2 Sampling strategy ..............................................................................................................................................................................16

8.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................16

8.2.2 Sampling locations ......................................................................................................................................................16

8.2.3 Depth of sampling ........................................................................................................................................................17

8.2.4 Selection of soil samples for analysis ..........................................................................................................17

8.2.5 Selecting parameters for testing and analysis .....................................................................................17

8.3 Evaluation of the exploratory investigation ................................................................................................................18

8.3.1 Testing the hypotheses formulated during the preliminary investigation .................18

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18400-203:2019
ISO 18400-203:2018(E)

8.3.2 Risk assessment ...................................................................... .......................................................................................18

8.3.3 Considering hypotheses by zone ....................................................................................................................18

8.3.4 Obtaining information on soil quality ........................................................................................................18

8.3.5 Checking if investigation strategy is adequate ....................................................................................19

8.3.6 Re-examining the hypotheses ............................................................................................................................19

8.3.7 Examples indicating if the hypothesis should be revised or rejected .............................19

8.3.8 Possible actions if a hypothesis is not valid ...........................................................................................20

8.4 Reporting the exploratory investigation ........................................................................................................................20

8.5 Determination of the need for a detailed site investigation..........................................................................21

9 Detailed site investigation .......................................................................................................................................................................21

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................21

9.2 Objectives and scope .......................................................................................................................................................................22

9.2.1 Objectives ............................................................................................................................................................................22

9.2.2 Major aspects to be considered in setting the scope and determining the

objectives .............................................................................................................................................................................22

9.3 Investigation design.........................................................................................................................................................................22

9.4 Sampling strategy ..............................................................................................................................................................................23

9.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................23

9.4.2 Sampling locations ......................................................................................................................................................23

9.4.3 Depth of sampling ........................................................................................................................................................23

9.4.4 Selecting parameters for testing and analysis .....................................................................................23

9.5 Evaluation of the detailed site investigation ..............................................................................................................24

9.6 Reporting ..................................................................................................................................................................................................25

Annex A (informative) Contamination hypotheses ............................................................................................................................27

Annex B (informative) Methods of non-intrusive investigation ............................................................................................30

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................32

iv © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18400-203:2019
ISO 18400-203:2018(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see

www .iso .org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 190, Soil quality, Subcommittee SC 2,

Sampling.

This first edition of ISO 18400-203, together with ISO 18400-104 and ISO 18400-202, cancels and

replaces ISO 10381-5:2005, which has been technically and structurally revised.

The new ISO 18400 series is based on a modular structure and cannot be compared to ISO 10381-5

clause by clause.
A list of all parts in the ISO 18400 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18400-203:2019
ISO 18400-203:2018(E)
Introduction

This document is one of a series of standards dealing with various aspects of site investigation and

sampling. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the other parts of the ISO 18400 series. The role/

position of the individual standards within the total investigation programme is shown in Figure 1.

While serious cases of soil contamination mostly occur on urban and industrial sites, serious

contamination of agricultural land can also occur (for example, due to pesticides usage, long-term

irrigation and application of organic wastes). In addition, it is important to recognize that agricultural,

near-natural and wooded sites, etc. are sometimes developed on deposited wastes or suffer severe

aerial deposition when close to industrial sites. In such cases, a combination of the methodologies

described in ISO 18400-205 and in this document would be appropriate.

An understanding of the surface water, groundwater and soil gas regimes is essential to the assessment

of the potential risks to human health and safety and to other potential receptors including, for

example, groundwater resources. However, the provision of detailed guidance on the investigation of

groundwater, surface water and soil gas falls outside the scope of this document. For more information

on groundwater and surface water sampling, see ISO 5667. Guidance on the sampling of soil gas is

provided in ISO 18400-204.
vi © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18400-203:2019
ISO 18400-203:2018(E)

NOTE 1 The numbers in circles in this figure define the key elements (1 to 7) of the investigation programme.

NOTE 2 This figure displays a generic process which can be amended when necessary.

Figure 1 — Links between the essential elements of an investigation programme
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved vii
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18400-203:2019
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18400-203:2019
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 18400-203:2018(E)
Soil quality — Sampling —
Part 203:
Investigation of potentially contaminated sites
1 Scope
This document gives guidance on the:

— investigation of sites, where either it is known that soil contamination is present, or the presence of

soil contamination is suspected;

— investigation of sites where no soil contamination is expected, but the soil quality is to be determined

(e.g. to make sure that there is no contamination present);

— investigation in anticipation of a need to manage re-use or disposal of excavated soil which might be

contaminated;

— collection of information that is necessary for risk assessment and/or the development of remedial

action plans (e.g. whether remediation is required and suggestions as to how this might be best

achieved).

Although the information on soil quality for the risk assessment and/or the development of remedial

action plans is gathered by applying this document, it does not give guidance on the decisions and

actions that follow from a site investigation, for example, risk assessment and decisions about the

requirements for remediation (if any).
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 11074, Soil quality — Vocabulary
ISO 18400-104, Soil quality — Sampling — Part 104: Strategies
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 11074 and ISO 18400-104 apply.

NOTE When the definitions in these two standards differ, those in ISO 18400-104 take precedence.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18400-203:2019
ISO 18400-203:2018(E)
4 Objectives
4.1 General

This document provides a framework for the various phases and stages in the investigation of

potentially contaminated sites. The resulting determination of the contamination status can then

lead to risk assessment and, where necessary, facilitate the selection and application of appropriate

remedial actions. Guidance on data and information requirements for particular purposes is provided

in a number of International Standards including ISO 11504, ISO 15175, ISO 15176, ISO 15799 and

ISO 15800.
Investigations for contamination could be required:

— when the purpose is to identify and deal with contamination (e.g. site where it is known or believed

there might be unacceptable risks to humans or other receptors – sometimes called “problem” sites);

— incidental to plans for the redevelopment of sites (e.g. of an industrial site for housing); or

— especially in urban areas, because it is known that possibly contaminated soils will have to be

excavated and removed from the site (e.g. because basements are to be formed, utilities installed or

underground infrastructure built).

The guidance provided in this document should be adapted as appropriate for these and any other

circumstances where potential contamination is an issue.

NOTE 1 Contamination is defined in ISO 11074 as a result of human influences; however, the methods

described for investigation are also applicable where there are naturally high concentrations of potentially

harmful substances.

NOTE 2 With respect to remediation, this document only provides guidance on the information required in

general. Specific remediation methods could need additional information.

NOTE 3 This document deals only with the investigation of the ground. On old urban and industrial sites,

there could be derelict buildings and/or industrial plants awaiting demolition, dismantling or refurbishment.

Failure to investigate these buildings before demolition could put the safety of workers at risk or lead to the

spread of contamination on and around the site. The investigation of derelict buildings or remnant foundations

falls outside the scope of this document.

NOTE 4 In many situations, there is a close relation between the contamination of the soil, groundwater, soil

gas and, to a lesser extent, surface water. Consequently, an understanding of the surface water, groundwater

and soil gas regimes is essential to the assessment of the potential risks to human health and safety and to other

potential receptors including, for example, groundwater resources. However, the provision of detailed guidance

on the investigation of groundwater, surface water and soil gas falls outside the scope of this document. For more

information on groundwater and surface water sampling, see ISO 5667. Guidance on the sampling of soil gas is

provided in ISO 18400-204.
4.2 Definitions of objectives

The reasons for an investigation and hence the objectives can vary widely but are generally to:

— identify and assess the risks to those using the site, and in the event of redevelopment, to subsequent

users and occupiers of the site;

— identify and assess the risks presented to the environment including adjacent land, surface and

groundwater, ecosystems and public health;

— identify and assess the risks which could be presented to workers who are involved in investigation,

remediation, redevelopment or maintenance of the site;
— enable proper management of excavated materials especially on urban sites;
— identify and assess the potential for adverse effects on building materials;
2 © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18400-203:2019
ISO 18400-203:2018(E)

so that decisions can be made about the importance of the risks and whether it is necessary to take any

form of action to deal with them.

From the principal objectives of the investigation, a number of subsidiary objectives can be derived.

These might include the following:
a) determine if any immediate action is required to protect exposed receptors;

b) identify compounds that are, or might be, present that might represent a risk to one or more actual

or potential receptors;

c) identify receptors (e.g. human, ecosystems, groundwater) that are or might in the future be at risk;

d) identify pathways by which particular receptors might be exposed to the contaminants;

e) provide the data and other information to use in a risk assessment;
f) provide information to aid the design of protective or remedial measures;

g) provide information to aid the management of excavated soil and other materials;

h) enable characterization of contaminated soil and other materials to ensure safe and suitable

handling and disposal;

i) provide reference data against which the achievement of remediation performance can be judged;

j) enable judgements to be made about the likely impact of continued use of the site on the environment

including soil quality;

k) provide information to assess the risk of (legal) environmental liabilities and the effect on the value

of the property.

These generalized objectives will be formulated into specific requirements depending upon the purpose

of the investigation.

EXAMPLE A site investigation prior to the purchase of a site for redevelopment could have one or more of

the following objectives:

— establish the history of the site and the potential for the presence of contamination;

— establish the nature, extent and distribution of contamination within the site boundaries;

— identify the potential for migration of contamination beyond the site boundaries including surface and

groundwater (this could indicate there are potential legal environmental liabilities);

— identify any immediate dangers to public health, safety, and the environment;

— identify contamination-related constraints in relation to a proposed development (e.g. human and

environmental risks) and any remedial works necessary and provide data from which to develop cost

estimates;

— provide information to facilitate the formulation of a full interpretative report with conclusions,

recommendations and budget costing for remedial actions, if required;

— provide information to facilitate the advice to the client about how to address the issues raised by any off-site

migration of contamination.
5 General strategy of site investigation
5.1 General

Determination of the extent of a contaminated area and, particularly, the assessment of human and

environmental risks caused by contamination can be complex. Because of this complexity, the process

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18400-203:2019
ISO 18400-203:2018(E)

of identifying, quantifying and evaluating the risks associated with contaminated land should be an

iterative process with several phases of investigation (each with specific objectives to be achieved),

in order to obtain sufficient relevant data to
...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 18400-203
Première édition
2018-10
Qualité du sol — Échantillonnage —
Partie 203:
Investigation des sites potentiellement
contaminés
Soil quality — Sampling —
Part 203: Investigation of potentially contaminated sites
Numéro de référence
ISO 18400-203:2018(F)
ISO 2018
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 18400-203:2018(F)
DOCUMENT PROTÉGÉ PAR COPYRIGHT
© ISO 2018

Tous droits réservés. Sauf prescription différente ou nécessité dans le contexte de sa mise en œuvre, aucune partie de cette

publication ne peut être reproduite ni utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, électronique ou mécanique,

y compris la photocopie, ou la diffusion sur l’internet ou sur un intranet, sans autorisation écrite préalable. Une autorisation peut

être demandée à l’ISO à l’adresse ci-après ou au comité membre de l’ISO dans le pays du demandeur.

ISO copyright office
Case postale 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Genève
Tél.: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
E-mail: copyright@iso.org
Web: www.iso.org
Publié en Suisse
ii © ISO 2018 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 18400-203:2018(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Domaine d’application ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Références normatives ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Termes et définitions ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Objectifs ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 Généralités .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

4.2 Définitions des objectifs .................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5 Stratégie générale d’investigation d’un site ............................................................................................................................. 4

5.1 Généralités .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.2 Périmètre de l’investigation préliminaire ........................................................................................................................ 6

5.3 Périmètre de l’investigation exploratoire ........................................................................................................................ 6

5.4 Périmètre de l’investigation détaillée du site ............................................................................................................... 7

6 Investigation préliminaire ......................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.1 Généralités .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

6.2 Élaboration du schéma conceptuel du site ..................................................................................................................... 8

6.2.1 Schéma conceptuel global du site ..................................................................................................................... 8

6.2.2 Formulation d’hypothèses liées à la contamination ......................................................................... 8

6.3 Rapport sur l’investigation préliminaire et le schéma conceptuel du site .......................................... 8

7 Conception des investigations intrusives ................................................................................................................................... 8

7.1 Vue d’ensemble ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2 Aspects généraux du travail sur le terrain ...................................................................................................................... 9

7.3 Aspects relatifs à la conception globale ............................................................................................................................. 9

7.3.1 Généralités ............................................................................................................................................................................ 9

7.3.2 Conception des travaux sur site .......................................................................................................................10

7.4 Schémas d’échantillonnage et espacement pour l’échantillonnage des sols .................................11

7.4.1 Généralités .........................................................................................................................................................................11

7.4.2 Échantillonnage sur avis d’expert ..................................................................................................................12

7.4.3 Échantillonnage systématique ..........................................................................................................................13

7.4.4 Détection des zones concentrées .................. ..................................................................................................13

7.4.5 Profondeur d’échantillonnage et strates à échantillonner .......................................................13

7.4.6 Taille des échantillons ..............................................................................................................................................14

7.4.7 Types d’échantillons ..................................................................................................................................................14

7.4.8 Nombre d’échantillons.............................................................................................................................................14

7.5 Stratégies d’analyse et d’essais ..............................................................................................................................................14

7.5.1 Généralités .........................................................................................................................................................................14

7.5.2 Analyse des échantillons de sol ........................................................................................................................14

7.6 Assurance et contrôle de la qualité ....................................................................................................................................15

8 Investigation exploratoire .......................................................................................................................................................................15

8.1 Généralités ...............................................................................................................................................................................................15

8.1.1 Base de l’inventaire exploratoire ....................................................................................................................15

8.1.2 Étapes à intégrer ...........................................................................................................................................................16

8.1.3 Aspects à prendre en compte lors de l’élaboration d’une stratégie .................................16

8.2 Stratégie d’échantillonnage .......................................................................................................................................................17

8.2.1 Généralités .........................................................................................................................................................................17

8.2.2 Emplacements d’échantillonnage ..................................................................................................................17

8.2.3 Profondeur d’échantillonnage ...........................................................................................................................18

8.2.4 Sélection des échantillons de sol en vue de l’analyse....................................................................18

8.2.5 Sélection des paramètres pour les essais et l’analyse ..................................................................18

8.3 Évaluation de l’investigation exploratoire....................................................................................................................19

8.3.1 Vérification des hypothèses formulées lors de l’investigation préliminaire .............19

© ISO 2018 – Tous droits réservés iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 18400-203:2018(F)

8.3.2 Appréciation du risque ............................................................................................................................................19

8.3.3 Étude des hypothèses par zone .................. ......................................................................................................19

8.3.4 Obtention d’informations sur la qualité du sol ...................................................................................19

8.3.5 Vérification de l’adéquation de la stratégie d’investigation .....................................................19

8.3.6 Réexamen des hypothèses ....................................................................................................................................20

8.3.7 Exemples indiquant s’il convient de réviser ou rejeter l’hypothèse .................................20

8.3.8 Actions possibles si une hypothèse n’est pas valable ...................................................................21

8.4 Rapport de l’investigation exploratoire ..........................................................................................................................21

8.5 Détermination de la nécessité d’une investigation détaillée du site .....................................................22

9 Investigation détaillée du site..............................................................................................................................................................22

9.1 Généralités ...............................................................................................................................................................................................22

9.2 Objectifs et périmètre d’investigation ..............................................................................................................................23

9.2.1 Objectifs ................................................................................................................................................................................23

9.2.2 Principaux aspects à prendre en compte lors de la détermination du

périmètre et des objectifs......................................................................................................................................23

9.3 Conception de l’investigation ..................................................................................................................................................23

9.4 Stratégie d’échantillonnage .......................................................................................................................................................24

9.4.1 Généralités .........................................................................................................................................................................24

9.4.2 Emplacements d’échantillonnage ..................................................................................................................24

9.4.3 Profondeur d’échantillonnage ...........................................................................................................................25

9.4.4 Sélection des paramètres pour les essais et l’analyse ..................................................................25

9.5 Évaluation de l’investigation détaillée du site...........................................................................................................25

9.6 Rapport .......................................................................................................................................................................................................26

Annexe A (informative) Hypothèses relatives à la contamination .....................................................................................28

Annexe B (informative) Méthodes d’investigation non intrusive ........................................................................................31

Bibliographie ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................34

iv © ISO 2018 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 18400-203:2018(F)
Avant-propos

L’ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d’organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l’ISO). L’élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l’ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l’ISO participent également aux travaux.

L’ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (IEC) en ce qui

concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 1. Il convient, en particulier de prendre note des différents

critères d’approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document a été

rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 2 (voir www

.iso .org/directives).

L’attention est attirée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l’objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L’ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable

de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant

les références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de

l’élaboration du document sont indiqués dans l’Introduction et/ou dans la liste des déclarations de

brevets reçues par l’ISO (voir www .iso .org/brevets).

Les appellations commerciales éventuellement mentionnées dans le présent document sont données

pour information, par souci de commodité, à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne sauraient constituer un

engagement.

Pour une explication de la nature volontaire des normes, la signification des termes et expressions

spécifiques de l’ISO liés à l’évaluation de la conformité, ou pour toute information au sujet de l’adhésion

de l’ISO aux principes de l’Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) concernant les obstacles

techniques au commerce (OTC), voir le lien suivant: www .iso .org/iso/fr/avant -propos.

Le présent document a été élaboré par le comité technique ISO/TC 190, Qualité du sol, sous-comité SC 2,

Échantillonnage.

Cette première édition de l’ISO 18400-203, associée à l’ISO 18400-104 et à l’ISO 18400-202, annule et

remplace l’ISO 10381-5:2005, qui a fait l’objet d’une révision technique et structurelle.

La nouvelle série ISO 18400 est fondée sur une structure modulaire et ne peut être comparée, article

par article, à l’ISO 10381-5.

Une liste de toutes les parties de la série ISO 18400 se trouve sur le site web de l’ISO.

Il convient que l’utilisateur adresse tout retour d’information ou toute question concernant le présent

document à l’organisme national de normalisation de son pays. Une liste exhaustive desdits organismes

se trouve à l’adresse www .iso .org/fr/members .html.
© ISO 2018 – Tous droits réservés v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 18400-203:2018(F)
Introduction

Le présent document est l’une des normes d’une série traitant de divers aspects de l’investigation et de

l’échantillonnage de sites. Il est destiné à être utilisé conjointement avec les autres parties de la série

ISO 18400. Le rôle/la fonction de chaque norme au sein de l’ensemble du programme d’investigation est

illustré(e) à la Figure 1.

Bien que les cas graves de contamination des sols se produisent essentiellement au niveau de sites

urbains et industriels, une contamination importante des terrains agricoles peut également se produire

(par exemple en raison de l’usage de pesticides, d’une irrigation à long terme et de l’épandage de déchets

organiques). En outre, il est important de reconnaître que des sites agricoles, quasi naturels et boisés,

etc. sont parfois aménagés sur des décharges ou subissent d’importantes retombées atmosphériques

lorsqu’ils se situent à proximité de sites industriels. Dans ce cas, une combinaison des méthodologies

décrites dans l’ISO 18400-205 et dans le présent document serait appropriée.

Il est essentiel de comprendre le fonctionnement des eaux de surface, des eaux souterraines et des

gaz du sol pour évaluer les risques potentiels pour la santé et la sécurité humaines ainsi que pour

d’autres récepteurs potentiels tels que, par exemple, les ressources en eaux souterraines. Cependant, la

fourniture de recommandations détaillées concernant l’investigation des eaux souterraines, des eaux

de surface et des gaz du sol ne relève pas du domaine d’application du présent document. Pour de plus

amples informations sur l’échantillonnage des eaux souterraines et des eaux de surface, voir l’ISO 5667.

Des recommandations sur l’échantillonnage des gaz du sol sont fournies dans l’ISO 18400-204.

vi © ISO 2018 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 18400-203:2018(F)

NOTE 1 Les chiffres encerclés de cette figure définissent les éléments clés (1 à 7) du programme d’investigation.

NOTE 2 Cette figure présente un processus générique qui peut être modifié si nécessaire.

Figure 1 — Liens entre les éléments essentiels d’un programme d’investigation
© ISO 2018 – Tous droits réservés vii
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 18400-203:2018(F)
Qualité du sol — Échantillonnage —
Partie 203:
Investigation des sites potentiellement contaminés
1 Domaine d’application
Le présent document fournit des recommandations concernant:

— l’investigation de sites au niveau desquels la présence d’une contamination du sol est connue ou

suspectée;

— l’investigation de sites au niveau desquels aucune contamination du sol n’est attendue, mais dont

la qualité du sol doit être déterminée (par exemple pour s’assurer qu’aucune contamination n’est

présente);

— l’investigation en prévision de la nécessité de gérer la réutilisation ou l’extraction de terre excavée

susceptible d’être contaminée;

— la collecte des informations nécessaires à l’appréciation du risque et/ou à l’élaboration de plans

d’assainissement (par exemple, pour déterminer si une remédiation est nécessaire et proposer le

meilleur moyen d’y parvenir).

Bien que les informations sur la qualité du sol en vue de l’appréciation du risque et/ou de l’élaboration

de plans d’assainissement soient collectées en appliquant le présent document, il ne fournit pas de

recommandations concernant les décisions et les actions qui suivent l’investigation d’un site, par

exemple l’appréciation du risque et les décisions concernant les exigences de remédiation (le cas

échéant).
2 Références normatives

Les documents suivants cités dans le texte constituent, pour tout ou partie de leur contenu, des

exigences du présent document. Pour les références datées, seule l’édition citée s’applique. Pour les

références non datées, la dernière édition du document de référence s’applique (y compris les éventuels

amendements).
ISO 11074, Qualité du sol — Vocabulaire
ISO 18400-104, Qualité du sol — Échantillonnage — Partie 104: Stratégies
3 Termes et définitions

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et définitions donnés dans l’ISO 11074 et

l’ISO 18400-104 s’appliquent.

NOTE Lorsque les définitions de ces deux normes diffèrent, celles de l’ISO 18400-104 prévalent.

L’ISO et l’IEC tiennent à jour des bases de données terminologiques destinées à être utilisées en

normalisation, consultables aux adresses suivantes:

— ISO Online browsing platform: disponible à l’adresse http: //www .iso .org/obp;

— IEC Electropedia: disponible à l’adresse http: //www .electropedia .org/.
© ISO 2018 – Tous droits réservés 1
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 18400-203:2018(F)
4 Objectifs
4.1 Généralités

Le présent document fournit un cadre pour les différentes phases et étapes de l’investigation de sites

potentiellement contaminés. La détermination de l’état de contamination qui en résulte peut ensuite

conduire à une appréciation du risque et, si nécessaire, faciliter la sélection et la mise en œuvre des

mesures de remédiation appropriées. Des recommandations sur les données et informations exigées

à des fins particulières sont données dans de nombreuses Normes internationales, notamment

l’ISO 11504, l’ISO 15175, l’ISO 15176, l’ISO 15799 et l’ISO 15800.
Des investigations en matière de contamination peuvent être exigées:

— lorsque le but est d’identifier et de traiter une contamination (par exemple sur un site connu ou

suspecté de présenter des risques inacceptables pour l’homme ou d’autres récepteurs – parfois

appelés sites «problématiques»);

— en raison de plans de réaménagement de sites (par exemple d’un site industriel en logements); ou

— en particulier dans les zones urbaines, car il est connu que des sols potentiellement contaminés

doivent être excavés et éliminés du site (par exemple pour réaliser des fondations, installer des

réseaux ou construire des infrastructures souterraines).

Il convient d’adapter les recommandations données dans le présent document en fonction de ces

situations, ainsi que lorsque la contamination potentielle pose problème.

NOTE 1 Bien que la contamination soit définie dans l’ISO 11074 comme le résultat de l’activité humaine, les

méthodes d’investigation décrites sont également applicables en présence de concentrations naturellement

élevées de substances potentiellement dangereuses.

NOTE 2 En ce qui concerne la remédiation, le présent document ne fournit que des recommandations

concernant les informations exigées en général. Des méthodes de remédiation spécifiques peuvent nécessiter des

informations supplémentaires.

NOTE 3 Le présent document traite uniquement de l’investigation du sol. D’anciens sites urbains et industriels

peuvent contenir des bâtiments et/ou des installations industrielles abandonnés en attente de démolition, de

démantèlement ou de remise en état. L’absence d’investigation de ces bâtiments avant leur démolition peut

menacer la sécurité des travailleurs ou conduire à une dispersion de la contamination sur et autour du site.

L’investigation des bâtiments dégradés ou des vestiges de fondations n’entre pas dans le domaine d’application

du présent document.

NOTE 4 Dans de nombreuses situations, il existe une relation étroite entre la contamination du sol, des eaux

souterraines, des gaz du sol et, dans une moindre mesure, des eaux de surface. Par conséquent, il est essentiel

de comprendre le fonctionnement des eaux de surface, des eaux souterraines et des gaz du sol pour évaluer

les risques potentiels pour la santé et la sécurité humaines ainsi que pour d’autres récepteurs potentiels tels

que, par exemple, les ressources en eaux souterraines. Cependant, la fourniture de recommandations détaillées

concernant l’investigation des eaux souterraines, des eaux de surface et des gaz du sol ne relève pas du domaine

d’application du présent document. Pour de plus amples informations sur l’échantillonnage des eaux souterraines

et des eaux de surface, voir l’ISO 5667. Des recommandations sur l’échantillonnage des gaz du sol sont fournies

dans l’ISO 18400-204.
4.2 Définitions des objectifs

Bien que les raisons d’une investigation et, par conséquent, les objectifs, puissent considérablement

varier, ils visent généralement à:

— identifier et évaluer les risques pour les personnes utilisant le site et, en cas de réaménagement,

pour les futurs utilisateurs et occupants du site;

— identifier et évaluer les risques pour l’environnement, y compris les terrains adjacents, les eaux de

surface, les eaux souterraines, les écosystèmes et la santé publique;
2 © ISO 2018 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 18400-203:2018(F)

— identifier et évaluer les risques potentiels pour les travailleurs impliqués dans les investigations, la

remédiation, le réaménagement ou l’entretien du site;

— permettre une gestion appropriée des matériaux excavés, notamment sur les sites urbains;

— identifier et évaluer la possibilité d’effets préjudiciables sur les matériaux de construction;

de manière à pouvoir déterminer l’importance des risques et décider s’il est nécessaire de prendre toute

forme de mesure pour les traiter.

À partir des principaux objectifs de l’investigation, il est possible de déduire de nombreux objectifs

secondaires. qui peuvent notamment comprendre de:

a) déterminer si une action immédiate est exigée pour protéger les récepteurs exposés;

b) identifier des composés qui sont, ou peuvent être, présents et qui sont susceptibles de représenter

un risque pour un ou plusieurs récepteurs réels ou potentiels;

c) identifier les récepteurs (par exemple humains, écosystèmes, eaux souterraines) qui sont en danger

ou peuvent l’être dans le futur;

d) identifier les voies par lesquelles des récepteurs particuliers peuvent être exposés aux

contaminants;

e) fournir des données et d’autres informations à utiliser lors de l’appréciation du risque;

f) fournir des informations aidant à concevoir des mesures de protection ou de remédiation;

g) fournir des informations facilitant la gestion des terres excavées et autres matériaux;

h) permettre la caractérisation du sol contaminé et d’autres matériaux pour assurer leur manipulation

et leur élimination de façon sûre et appropriée;

i) fournir des données de référence permettant d’évaluer les résultats de la remédiation entreprise;

j) permettre d’évaluer l’impact probable de la poursuite de l’utilisation du site sur l’environnement, y

compris la qualité du sol;

k) fournir des informations permettant d’évaluer le risque de la responsabilité environnementale

(légale) et l’effet sur la valeur du bien.

Ces objectifs généralisés seront formulés en exigences spécifiques selon l’objectif de l’investigation.

EXEMPLE L’investigation d’un site avant l’achat du site en vue de son réaménagement peut avoir un ou

plusieurs des objectifs suivants:
— établir l’historique du site et l’éventuelle présence d’une contamination;

— établir la nature, l’étendue et la répartition de la contamination dans les limites du site;

— identifier la possibilité de migration de la contamination au-delà des limites du site, y compris dans les eaux

de surface et les eaux souterraines (ce qui pourrait indiquer qu’il existe des passifs environnementaux légaux

potentiels);

— identifier tout danger immédiat pour la santé publique, la sécurité et l’environnement;

— identifier les contraintes liées à la contamination en rapport avec l’aménagement proposé (par exemple

risques pour l’homme et l’environnement) et tous les travaux de remédiation nécessaires, et fournir des

données permettant d’estimer les coûts;

— fournir des informations facilitant la formulation d’un rapport d’interprétation complet avec des conclusions,

des recommandations et un chiffrage budgétaire des mesures de remédiation, si nécessaire;

— fournir des informations permettant de conseiller le commanditaire sur la manière de traiter les problèmes

soulevés par toute migration de la contamination hors du site.
© ISO 2018 – Tous droits réservés 3
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 18400-203:2018(F)
5 Stratégie générale d’investigation
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.