Railway applications - Track - Acceptance of works - Part 5: Procedures for rail reprofiling in plain line, switches, crossings and expansion devices

This European Standard specifies the procedure for inspection, planning and execution of rail reprofiling work including description of rail surface defects. It concerns work in both plain lines and switches and crossings generally done with machines according to the EN 14033 series and EN 15746 series.
It applies to vignole railway rails of 46 kg/m and above according to EN 13674-1.

Bahnanwendungen - Oberbau - Abnahme von Arbeiten - Teil 5: Procedere zur Reprofilierung von Schienen in Gleisen, Weichen, Kreuzungen und Schienenauszügen

Diese Europäische Norm legt das Vorgehen für die Untersuchung, Planung und Durchführung von Reprofilierungsarbeiten fest, einschließlich der Beschreibung von Schienenoberflächenfehlern. Betroffen sind sowohl Arbeiten auf freier Strecke, als auch an Weichen und Kreuzungen, üblicherweise ausgeführt mit Maschinen nach den Normenreihen EN 14033 und EN 15746.
Die Norm gilt für Vignole-Schienen von 46 kg/m oder mehr nach EN 13674-1.

Applications ferroviaires - Voie - Réception des travaux - Partie 5 : Procédure pour le reprofilage de rails en voie courante, en appareil de voie et en appareil de dilatation

La présente Norme européenne spécifie les procédures d'inspection, de planification et de réalisation des travaux de reprofilage de rail, description des défauts de surface du rail comprise. Elle concerne à la fois les travaux en voie courante et dans les appareils de voie, généralement réalisés à l'aide de machines conformes à la série EN 14033 et à la série EN 15746.
Elle s'applique aux rails Vignole de masse supérieure ou égale à 46 kg/m conformes à l'EN 13674-1.

Železniške naprave - Zgornji ustroj - Prevzem del - 5. del: Postopki za reprofiliranje tirov na odprti progi, stikal, prehodov in razširjevalnih naprav

Ta evropski standard opisuje postopek za pregled, načrtovanje in izvedbo del reprofiliranja tirov, vključno z opisom površinskih napak na progi. To zadeva dela na odprtih progah, stikalih in prehodih, ki jih običajno izvajajo naprave v skladu s skupinama standardov EN 14033 in EN 15746.
Uporablja se za Vignolove tirnice z maso 46 kg/m in večjo v skladu s standardom EN 13674-1.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
21-Dec-2016
Publication Date
20-Aug-2018
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
26-Jul-2018
Due Date
30-Sep-2018
Completion Date
21-Aug-2018

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Železniške naprave - Zgornji ustroj - Prevzem del - 5. del: Postopki za reprofiliranje tirov na odprti progi, stikal, prehodov in razširjevalnih napravBahnanwendungen - Oberbau - Abnahme von Arbeiten - Teil 5: Procedere zur Reprofilierung von Schienen in Gleisen, Weichen, Kreuzungen und SchienenauszügenApplications ferroviaires - Voie - Réception des travaux - Partie 5 : Procédure pour le reprofilage de rails en voie courante, en appareil de voie et en appareil de dilatationRailway applications - Track - Acceptance of works - Part 5: Procedures for rail reprofiling in plain line, switches, crossings and expansion devices93.100Gradnja železnicConstruction of railways45.080Rails and railway componentsICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 13231-5:2018SIST EN 13231-5:2018en,fr,de01-september-2018SIST EN 13231-5:2018SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST EN 13231-5:2018
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 13231-5
June
t r s z ICS
{ uä s r r English Version
Railway applications æ Track æ Acceptance of works æ Part

wã Procedures for rail reprofiling in plain lineá switchesá crossings and expansion devices Applications ferroviaires æ Voie æ Réception des travaux æ Partie

w ã Procédures pour le reprofilage de rails en voie couranteá en appareil de voie et en appareil de dilatation

Bahnanwendungen æ Oberbau æ Abnahme von Arbeiten æ Teil

wã Prozedere zur SchienenæReprofilierung in Gleisená Weichená Kreuzungen und SchienenauszügenThis European Standard was approved by CEN on

z February
t r s zä

egulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alterationä Upætoædate lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN memberä

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versionsä

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austriaá Belgiumá Bulgariaá Croatiaá Cyprusá Czech Republicá Denmarká Estoniaá Finlandá Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedoniaá Franceá Germanyá Greeceá Hungaryá Icelandá Irelandá Italyá Latviaá Lithuaniaá Luxembourgá Maltaá Netherlandsá Norwayá Polandá Portugalá Romaniaá Serbiaá Slovakiaá Sloveniaá Spainá Swedená Switzerlandá Turkey and United Kingdomä

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23,
B-1040 Brussels

t r s z CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Membersä Refä Noä EN

s u t u sæ wã t r s z ESIST EN 13231-5:2018

EN 13231-5:2018 (E) 2 Contents Page European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4 1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 5 2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 5 3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 5 4 Basics ................................................................................................................................................................... 7 4.1 Technical Introduction .................................................................................................................................. 7 4.2 Background of rail reprofiling ................................................................................................................... 7 4.3 Specific reprofiling strategy ........................................................................................................................ 8 5 Rail surface defects ......................................................................................................................................... 8 5.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 8 5.2 Rolling contact fatigue ................................................................................................................................... 8 5.2.1 Head check ......................................................................................................................................................... 8 5.2.2 Belgrospi ............................................................................................................................................................ 9 5.2.3 Squats ............................................................................................................................................................... 10 5.2.4 Flaking (Gauge corner cracking) ............................................................................................................ 10 5.2.5 Spalling ............................................................................................................................................................ 11 5.3 Transverse profile deformation ............................................................................................................. 12 5.3.1 Flattened transverse profile .................................................................................................................... 12 5.3.2 Side cutting ..................................................................................................................................................... 12 5.3.3 Lipping ............................................................................................................................................................. 13 5.4 Periodical defects in longitudinal profiles .......................................................................................... 13 5.4.1 Short pitch corrugation .............................................................................................................................. 13 5.4.2 Short wave corrugation ............................................................................................................................. 14 5.4.3 Long wave corrugation ............................................................................................................................... 16 5.5 Surface damage ............................................................................................................................................. 17 5.5.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 17 5.5.2 Imprints ........................................................................................................................................................... 17 5.5.3 Wheel burns ................................................................................................................................................... 17 6 Reprofiling procedure ................................................................................................................................ 18 6.1 Inspection ....................................................................................................................................................... 18 6.2 Intervention thresholds ............................................................................................................................. 18 6.2.1 Longitudinal profile .................................................................................................................................... 18 6.2.2 Transverse profile ....................................................................................................................................... 19 6.2.3 Rolling Contact Fatigue (RCF) .................................................................................................................. 19 6.3 Specification of work .................................................................................................................................. 20 6.3.1 Metal removal ................................................................................................................................................ 20 6.3.2 Target profile ................................................................................................................................................. 20 6.4 Execution of work ........................................................................................................................................ 22 6.5 Documentation of work ............................................................................................................................. 23 Annex A (informative)

Programming of reprofiling work ........................................................................... 24 A.1 General reprofiling programme ............................................................................................................. 24 A.1.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 24 A.1.2 Reprofiling applications ............................................................................................................................ 24 A.1.3 Selection of machine type ......................................................................................................................... 25 SIST EN 13231-5:2018

EN 13231-5:2018 (E) 3 A.1.4 Combination of reprofiling activities with other track maintenance work ............................ 25 A.2 Detailed reprofiling plan ........................................................................................................................... 26 Annex B (informative)

Reprofile methods .......................................................................................................... 27 B.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 27 B.2 Rotating grinding .......................................................................................................................................... 27 B.2.1 Principle of work .......................................................................................................................................... 27 B.2.2 Performance ................................................................................................................................................... 28 B.2.3 Results .............................................................................................................................................................. 28 B.2.4 Application ...................................................................................................................................................... 28 B.3 Milling ............................................................................................................................................................... 29 B.3.1 Principle of work .......................................................................................................................................... 29 B.3.2 Performance ................................................................................................................................................... 29 B.3.3 Results .............................................................................................................................................................. 30 B.3.4 Application ...................................................................................................................................................... 30 B.4 Oscillating grinding ...................................................................................................................................... 30 B.4.1 Principle of work .......................................................................................................................................... 30 B.4.2 Performance ................................................................................................................................................... 31 B.4.3 Results .............................................................................................................................................................. 31 B.4.4 Application ...................................................................................................................................................... 31 B.5 Planing .............................................................................................................................................................. 31 B.5.1 Principle of work .......................................................................................................................................... 31 B.5.2 Performance ................................................................................................................................................... 32 B.5.3 Results .............................................................................................................................................................. 32 B.5.4 Application ...................................................................................................................................................... 32 B.6 High speed grinding ..................................................................................................................................... 32 B.6.1 Principle of work .......................................................................................................................................... 32 B.6.2 Performance ................................................................................................................................................... 33 B.6.3 Results .............................................................................................................................................................. 33 B.6.4 Application ...................................................................................................................................................... 34 Annex C (informative)

A reprofiling strategy .................................................................................................... 35 C.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 35 C.2 Specific reprofiling strategy...................................................................................................................... 35 C.3 Moving from corrective to preventive reprofiling ........................................................................... 35 Annex ZA (informative)

Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential Requirements of EU Directive 2008/57/EC aimed to be covered............................................... 37 Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 39

SIST EN 13231-5:2018

EN 13231-5:2018 (E) 4 European foreword This document (EN 13231-5:2018) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 256 “Railway applications”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by December 2018, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by December 2018. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive 2008/57/EC. For relationship with EU Directive 2008/57/EC, see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part of this document. This document is one of the series EN 13231, Railway applications — Track — Acceptance of works as listed below: — Part 1: Works on ballasted track - Plain line, switches and crossings; — Part 3: Acceptance of reprofiling rails in track; — Part 4: Acceptance of reprofiling rails in switches and crossings; — Part 5: Procedures for rail reprofiling in plain line, switches, crossings and expansion devices (the present document). According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. SIST EN 13231-5:2018

EN 13231-5:2018 (E) 5 1 Scope This document specifies the procedure for planning and execution of rail reprofiling work including description of rail surface defects. It concerns work in both plain lines and switches and crossings generally done with machines according to the EN 14033 series and EN 15746 series. It applies to vignole railway rails of 46 kg/m and above according to EN 13674-1. 2 Normative references The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN 13231-3:2012, Railway applications — Track — Acceptance of works — Part 3: Acceptance of reprofiling rails in track EN 13231-4:2013, Railway applications — Track — Acceptance of works — Part 4: Acceptance of reprofiling rails in switches and crossings 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document the terms and definitions given in EN 13231-3:2012 and EN 13231-4:2013 and the following apply. ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp

3.1 anti–head check profile AHC Profile rail head profile with a geometry to prevent and reduce head checking 3.2 rolling contact fatigue RCF rail damage caused by the complex stresses that are characteristic of rail wheel contact 3.3 head checking HC small parallel cracks on the rail head near or on the gauge corner 3.4 Belgrospi network of cracks developing on the rail head of track with speed greater than 160 km/h affected by short pitch corrugation 3.5 squat rolling contact fatigue defect whose main characteristics are a blackish patch on rail head, a lateral flow of steel and a collapsed and widened rolling band SIST EN 13231-5:2018

EN 13231-5:2018 (E) 6 3.6 flaking surface condition consisting of the gouging of metal on the rail head 3.7 spalling cracking and chipping on the top of the rail Note 1 to entry: Occurs commonly on low rails. 3.8 transverse profile deformation plastic metal flow on the rail head 3.9 side cutting wear occurring on high rails in small radius curves where wheel flanges contact the rail 3.10 lipping plastic metal flow occurring on the rail head under conditions of high axle load and high gross tonnage 3.11 short pitch corrugation quasi-periodic irregularities on the running surface Note 1 to entry: The wavelength usually is 10 mm to 100 mm. Covering hereby two jointed wavelength according to the EN 13231 series. 3.12 short wave corrugation depressions in the running surface which are pronounced Note 1 to entry: The wavelength usually is 30 mm to 300 mm. Covering hereby two jointed wavelength according to the EN 13231 series. 3.13 long wave corrugation irregular unevenness on the running surface Note 1 to entry: The wavelength usually is 300 mm to 1 000 mm. 3.14 imprint damage resulting from a small object which has been pressed into the rail by the wheel 3.15 wheel burn abrasive, plastic and thermal damage occurring in zones where trains start to move Note 1 to entry: Occurs e.g. at signals. SIST EN 13231-5:2018

EN 13231-5:2018 (E) 7 4 Basics 4.1 Technical Introduction The complexity of vehicle-track interaction generates high stresses at the rail-wheel contact, the severity of which is governed by local track characteristics, vehicle type and other operational conditions. The repeated application of these stresses results in the development of fatigue cracks usually referred to as RCF manifested as head checks, gauge corner cracking, or squats. Although rail metallurgy offers a key mitigation measure against such fatigue degradation, there are no rail steels currently in use that could fully withstand the repeated application of such contact stresses. Furthermore the majority of rails in track today, despite their adequate but lower fatigue resistance, have an appreciable residual life span, which makes it more economic to maintain them in an appropriate manner to extend their life rather than to change them. Management of rail profile and condition is therefore a prerequisite for safe and cost effective operation of railways. Predictable work – at least in a medium time horizon – organized in a strategic way needs to be defined to extract the maximum benefit from existing technologies and to guide the industry for future development. However, it is essential to ensure that the chosen approach provides enough flexibility to adapt to changing situations in both senses: increased requirements for maintenance due to higher loads and dynamic forces, reduced requirements for maintenance due to lower loads (improved vehicle characteristics) and better performing rails (reduced fatigue development). The life expectancy of a rail is influenced by its interactions with the other parts of the train-track system. The faster and more frequent train services, higher axle loads and new generations of vehicles with greater primary yaw stiffness have significantly increased the critical track forces that promote more rapid degradation of the rail (and wheel) leading to more frequent and costly maintenance interventions and even rail renewal. Significant research into rail metallurgy has resulted in the development of rail steels with much higher resistance to wear and RCF. Nevertheless rail maintenance by reprofiling is an essential requirement for efficient and safe functioning of railway track. The combination of rail grade selection and maintenance strategy considering local track and traffic characteristics ensures effective control of any kind of rail surface defects. 4.2 Background of rail reprofiling Reprofiling strategy is a planned maintenance activity usually defined by the infrastructure maintainer. In theory it is independent of available technologies, but in practice it is often influenced by the equipment that is easily accessible to or proposed by the contractors. Work is programmed depending on damage having reached predetermined intervention thresholds such as corrugation depth, deviation from the transverse profile and depth of cracks. Alternatively work is executed in cycles which are derived from experience and influenced by availability of machines, track possession times and similar factors such as traffic, usually expressed in mega gross tonnes (MGT), months, seasons, etc. Often work is combined with other maintenance activities (e.g. after rail replacement, after tamping or when the line is closed for other work, etc.). Before the execution of rail maintenance work, specifications (i.e. the results that need to be achieved) shall be defined for: — defect repair (metal removal); — longitudinal profile (tolerance); — transversal profile (target and tolerance); — surface condition (roughness, facet widths, etc.). SIST EN 13231-5:2018

EN 13231-5:2018 (E) 8 Rail reprofiling as described in this document refers to rail rectification using currently available technologies such as grinding, milling, planing, etc. 4.3 Specific reprofiling strategy In addition to the use of the appropriate rail steel grade the consecutive reprofiling cycles are also dependent on other important parameters, such as existing reprofiling capacity (e.g. maximum/minimum metal removal rates, sections lengths, etc.) and available working intervals (possession times, route reprofiling capabilities, etc.). For the development of an optimized reprofiling strategy these parameters shall also be taken into account. Shorter reprofiling intervals result in smaller metal removal requirements, consequently in such short periods the development of RCF and irregularities such as corrugation and resulting track deterioration is limited. NOTE For some Infrastructure Managers in Europe, the preferable strategy is preventive cyclic reprofiling with small metal removal requirements applying profiles with moderate gauge corner relief. If the interval between reprofiling cycles is appropriately matched with the initiation and subsequent growth of cracks, metal removal can be adjusted for a one-pass regime which is operationally the best option. In order to maintain RCF-sensitive sections economically, a certain damage level can be accepted (as intervention threshold or as remaining depth after treatment). However, this damage needs to be kept low enough to be removed pre-emptively and thereby avoiding safety issues. A rail reprofiling strategy requiring metal removal rates of up to 0,6 mm at the critical gauge area and a maximum of 0,2 mm in the centre of the rail head shall be programmed. Several Infrastructure Managers (IMs) utilize these metal removal specifications to control HC in standard carbon rail (R260) based on reprofiling cycles at 15 MGT for curves and 45 MGT for tangent track. For harder heat treated rails (e.g. R350HT) the intervals may be doubled depending on track and traffic characteristics. If squats need to be controlled in tangent track due to traffic and vehicle characteristics (stiffness, traction and braking) shorter cycles may be required. The reprofiling interval and the related average metal removal should depend on actual HC measurements which need to be checked again during reprofiling work. Such a policy optimizes the magnitude of artificial wear by reprofiling and hence prolongs rail life. 5 Rail surface defects 5.1 General Each irregularity causes a higher dynamic load on the surface of the rail and consequently an impact occurs at each wheel passage. Consequently the rail is subjected to high stresses and the damage often progresses at a significant rate. Not only is the rail affected but also the whole track system. As the rail cannot always absorb the energy from the impact, the shock load continues further into the track. Local damage to fastenings, pads and sleepers may result. Ultimately the ballast becomes locally overloaded and disturbed and the stability of the track can no longer be ensured. 5.2 Rolling contact fatigue 5.2.1 Head check Head checking is characterized by small parallel cracks on the rail head near the gauge corner or on the gauge corner (see Figure 1). The exact localization of the head check depends on the contact conditions. It appears mainly on the high rail on large radius curves but can occur on small radius curves or tangent SIST EN 13231-5:2018

EN 13231-5:2018 (E) 9 track. The orientation and periodicity of the cracks depends on rail grade and track geometry. However the cracks are generally oriented from the top of the rail to the gauge in the direction of traffic. In the vertical section through the cracks their orientation is from the top of the rail to the bottom of the rail in the direction of traffic.

Figure 1 — Head check 5.2.2 Belgrospi A network of cracks may develop on rail of track speed greater than 160 km/h affected by short pitch corrugation (see Figure 2). The cracks appear at short pitch corrugation with a depth of 0,03 mm. If not removed in time they may grow and develop into squats (see 5.2.3).

Figure 2 — Belgrospi SIST EN 13231-5:2018

EN 13231-5:2018 (E) 10 5.2.3 Squats Squat defects (see Figure 3) are rolling contact fatigue defects whose main characteristics are: — a blackish patch on rail head; — a lateral flow of steel; — a collapsed and widened rolling band. Under this defect a network of cracks grows from two main horizontal cracks and may lead to a severe and unexpected rail breakdown. This network of cracks makes it difficult to analyse the defect.

Figure 3 — Squat 5.2.4 Flaking (Gauge corner cracking) Flaking is a surface condition consisting of the gouging of metal on the rail head. It is indicated by small chipping and cavities (see Figure 4). It is a progressive horizontal separation on the running surface of rail near the gauge corner with scaling or chipping of small slivers. Flaking should not be confused with shelling as the flaking takes place only on the runni

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