Information technology - Data centre facilities and infrastructures - Part 4-9: Water Usage Effectiveness

This document specifies the Water Usage Effectiveness (WUE) as a KPI to qualify the water consumption of a data centre during use phase of the data centre life cycle. By reporting water consumption, it is possible to present the data centres resource efficiency.

Informationstechnik - Einrichtungen und Infrastrukturen von Rechenzentren - Teil 4-9: Effektivität der Wasserverwendung

Technologie de l’information - Installation et infrastructures de centres de traitement de données - Partie 4-9: Efficacité de l’utilisation de l’eau

Le présent document spécifie l’efficacité de l’utilisation de l’eau (WUE) comme un KPI permettant de quantifier la consommation d’eau d’un centre de traitement de données pendant la phase d’utilisation du cycle de vie du centre de traitement de données.
Le présent document:
a) définit l’efficacité de l’utilisation de l’eau (WUE) d’un centre de traitement de données;
b) introduit les catégories de mesure du WUE;
c) décrit la relation de ce KPI avec une infrastructure de centre de traitement de données, des équipements de traitement de l’information et des opérations de traitement de l’information;
d) définit le mesurage, le calcul et les rapports du paramètre;
e) fournit des informations sur l’interprétation correcte du WUE.

Informacijska tehnologija - Naprave in infrastruktura podatkovnega centra - 4-9. del: Učinkovitost porabe vode

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
10-Jan-2023
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
10-Jan-2023
Due Date
17-Mar-2023
Completion Date
11-Jan-2023

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 50600-4-9:2023
01-marec-2023
Informacijska tehnologija - Naprave in infrastruktura podatkovnega centra - 4-9.
del: Učinkovitost porabe vode

Information technology - Data centre facilities and infrastructures - Part 4-9: Water

Usage Effectiveness

Informationstechnik - Einrichtungen und Infrastrukturen von Rechenzentren - Teil 4-9:

Effektivität der Wasserverwendung

Technologie de l’information - Installation et infrastructures de centres de traitement de

données - Partie 4-9: Efficacité de l’utilisation de l’eau
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 50600-4-9:2022
ICS:
35.110 Omreževanje Networking
35.160 Mikroprocesorski sistemi Microprocessor systems
SIST EN 50600-4-9:2023 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 50600-4-9:2023
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SIST EN 50600-4-9:2023
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 50600-4-9
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM December 2022
ICS 35.020; 35.110; 35.160
English Version
Information technology - Data centre facilities and infrastructures
- Part 4-9: Water Usage Effectiveness

Technologie de l'information - Installation et infrastructures Informationstechnik - Einrichtungen und Infrastrukturen von

de centres de traitement de données - Partie 4-9: Efficacité Rechenzentren - Teil 4-9: Effektivität der

de l'utilisation de l'eau Wasserverwendung

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2022-12-12. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC

Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the

same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Türkiye and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2022 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN 50600-4-9:2022 E
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SIST EN 50600-4-9:2023
EN 50600-4-9:2022 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ...................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 5

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................. 8

2 Normative references ........................................................................................................................ 8

3 Terms, definitions, abbreviations and symbols ............................................................................. 8

3.1 Terms and definitions .......................................................................................................................... 8

3.2 Abbreviations ..................................................................................................................................... 10

3.3 Symbols ............................................................................................................................................. 10

4 Applicable area of the data centre ................................................................................................. 11

5 Determination of Water Usage Effectiveness ............................................................................... 11

6 Measurement of Water Usage Effectiveness ................................................................................ 12

6.1 General .............................................................................................................................................. 12

6.2 Measuring actual water usage ........................................................................................................... 12

6.2.1 Calculation, measurement period and frequency ................................................... 12

6.2.2 Categories of Water Usage Effectiveness .............................................................. 12

7 Application of Water Usage Effectiveness ................................................................................... 15

8 Reporting of Water Usage Effectiveness ...................................................................................... 16

8.1 Requirements ..................................................................................................................................... 16

8.1.1 Standard construct for communicating WUE data ................................................. 16

8.1.2 Data for public reporting of WUE ............................................................................ 16

8.2 Recommendations ............................................................................................................................. 17

8.3 Example of reporting WUE values ..................................................................................................... 17

8.4 WUE derivatives ................................................................................................................................ 18

8.4.1 Purpose of WUE derivatives ................................................................................... 18

8.4.2 Using WUE derivatives ........................................................................................... 18

8.4.3 Interim WUE ........................................................................................................... 18

8.4.4 Partial WUE ............................................................................................................ 19

8.4.5 Design WUE ........................................................................................................... 19

8.4.6 Quality WUE ........................................................................................................... 19

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SIST EN 50600-4-9:2023
EN 50600-4-9:2022 (E)

8.4.7 Peak WUE .............................................................................................................. 19

8.5 Water Reuse Factor (WRF) ............................................................................................................... 19

Annex A (informative) Examples of use ................................................................................................. 20

A.1 Correct use of WUE ........................................................................................................................... 20

A.2 Water Usage Effectiveness Category 1 ............................................................................................. 20

A.3 Water Usage Effectiveness Category 3 ............................................................................................. 20

A.4 Interim Water Usage Effectiveness category 3 ................................................................................. 21

Annex B (normative) Water significance ............................................................................................... 22

Annex C (informative) Energy Water Intensity Factor .......................................................................... 23

Annex D (informative) Land consumption ............................................................................................. 24

Bibliography ............................................................................................................................................... 26

Figures

Figure 1 — Schematic relationship between the EN 50600 series documents ..................................... 6

Figure 2 — WUE Category 1 ..................................................................................................................... 13

Figure 3 — WUE Category 2 ..................................................................................................................... 14

Figure 4 — WUE category 3 ...................................................................................................................... 15

Tables

Table 1 — WUE Categories ....................................................................................................................... 12

Table C.1 — EWIF examples for different energy sources ................................................................... 23

Table D.1 — Examples of drainage factors for different grades of sealed surfaces .......................... 24

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SIST EN 50600-4-9:2023
EN 50600-4-9:2022 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 50600-4-9:2022) has been prepared by CLC/TC 215 “Electrotechnical aspects of

telecommunication equipment”. It is based on the text of ISO/IEC 30134-9:2022 “Information technology -

Data centres key performance indicators - Part 9: Water usage effectiveness (WUE)”.

The following dates are fixed:
• latest date by which this document has to be (dop) 2023-12-12
implemented at national level by publication of
an identical national standard or by
endorsement
• latest date by which the national standards (dow) 2025-12-12
conflicting with this document have to be
withdrawn

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document has been prepared under a Standardization Request given to CENELEC by the European

Commission and the European Free Trade Association.

Any feedback and questions on this document should be directed to the users’ national committee. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found on the CENELEC website.
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SIST EN 50600-4-9:2023
EN 50600-4-9:2022 (E)
Introduction

The unrestricted access to internet-based information demanded by the information society has led to an

exponential growth of both internet traffic and the volume of stored/retrieved data. Data centres are housing

and supporting the information technology and network telecommunications equipment for data processing,

data storage and data transport. They are required both by network operators (delivering those services to

customer premises) and by enterprises within those customer premises.

Data centres usually provide modular, scalable and flexible facilities and infrastructures to easily

accommodate the rapidly changing requirements of the market. In addition, energy consumption of data

centres has become critical both from an environmental point of view (reduction of environmental footprint)

and with respect to economical considerations (cost of energy) for the data centre operator.

The implementation of data centres varies in terms of:
a) purpose (enterprise, co-location, co-hosting or network operator facilities);
b) security level;
c) physical size;
d) accommodation (mobile, temporary and permanent constructions).

The needs of data centres also vary in terms of availability of service, the provision of security and the

objectives for energy efficiency. These needs and objectives influence the design of data centres in terms of

building construction, power distribution, environmental control, telecommunications cabling and physical

security as well as the operation of the data centre. Effective management and operational information are

important in order to monitor achievement of the defined needs and objectives.

Recognizing the substantial resource consumption, particularly of energy, of larger data centres, it is also

important to provide tools for the assessment of that consumption both in terms of overall value and of source

mix and to provide Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) to evaluate trends and drive performance

improvements.

At the time of publication of this document, the EN 50600 series is designed as a framework of standards,

technical specifications and technical reports covering the design, the operation and management, the key

performance indicators for energy efficient operation of the data centre as well as a data centre maturity

model.
The EN 50600-2 series defines the requirements for the data centre design.

The EN 50600-3 series defines the requirements for the operation and the management of the data centre.

The EN 50600-4 series defines the key performance indicators for the data centre.

The CLC/TS 50600-5 series defines the data centre maturity model requirements and recommendations.

The CLC/TR 50600-99-X Technical Reports cover recommended practices and guidance for specific topics

around data centre operation and design.

This series of documents specifies requirements and recommendations to support the various parties involved

in the design, planning, procurement, integration, installation, operation and maintenance of facilities and

infrastructures within data centres. These parties include:

1) owners, operators, facility managers, ICT managers, project managers, main contractors;

2) consulting engineers, architects, building designers and builders, system and installation designers,

auditors, test and commissioning agents;
3) facility and infrastructure integrators, suppliers of equipment;
4) installers, maintainers.
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SIST EN 50600-4-9:2023
EN 50600-4-9:2022 (E)

At the time of publication of this document, the EN 50600-4 series comprises the following documents:

EN 50600-4-1, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 4-1: Overview of

and general requirements for key performance indicators

EN 50600-4-2, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 4-2: Power Usage

Effectiveness

EN 50600-4-3, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 4-3: Renewable

Energy Factor;

EN 50600-4-6, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 4-6: Energy Reuse

Factor;

EN 50600-4-7, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 4-7: Cooling

Efficiency Ratio;

EN 50600-4-8, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 4-8: Carbon Usage

Effectiveness;

EN 50600-4-9, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 4-9: Water Usage

Effectiveness.

The inter-relationship of the documents within the EN 50600 series is shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1 — Schematic relationship between the EN 50600 series documents

EN 50600-2-X documents specify requirements and recommendations for particular facilities and

infrastructures to support the relevant classification for “availability”, “physical security” and “energy efficiency

enablement” selected from EN 50600-1.

EN 50600-3-X documents specify requirements and recommendations for data centre operations, processes

and management.

EN 50600-4-X documents specify requirements and recommendations for key performance indicators (KPIs)

used to assess and improve the resource usage efficiency and effectiveness, respectively, of a data centre.

NOTE Within the EN 50600-4-X series, the term “resource usage effectiveness” is more generally used for KPIs in

preference to “resource usage efficiency”, which is restricted to situations where the input and output parameters used to

define the KPI have the same units.
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SIST EN 50600-4-9:2023
EN 50600-4-9:2022 (E)

In today’s digital society data centre growth, and power consumption in particular, is an inevitable

consequence and that growth will demand increasing power consumption despite the most stringent energy

efficiency strategies. This makes the need for key performance indicators that cover the effective use of

resources (including but not limited to energy) and the reduction of CO emissions essential.

In order to enable the optimum resource effectiveness of data centres a suite of effective KPIs is needed to

measure and report on resources consumed in order to develop an improvement roadmap.

These standards are intended to accelerate the provision of operational infrastructures with improved

resource usage effectiveness.

This document specifies the Water Usage Effectiveness (WUE) including relevant derivatives and provides a

metric to report the (re-)use of water consumed in a data centre.

This document is intended for use by data centre managers. The use of the Water Usage Effectiveness as a

key performance indicator provides data centre managers with greater visibility and assists them in achieving

sustainability goals.

Additional standards in the EN 50600-4-X series will be developed, each describing a specific KPI for

resource usage effectiveness or efficiency.

The EN 50600-4-X series does not specify limits or targets for any KPI and does not describe or imply, unless

specifically stated, any form of aggregation of individual KPIs into a combined nor an overall KPI for data

centre resource usage effectiveness or efficiency.

This document is intended for use by and collaboration between data centre managers, facility managers, ICT

managers, and main contractors.

This series of documents does not address the selection of information technology and network

telecommunications equipment, software and associated configuration issues.
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SIST EN 50600-4-9:2023
EN 50600-4-9:2022 (E)
1 Scope

This document specifies the Water Usage Effectiveness (WUE) as a KPI for quantifying the water

consumption of a data centre during use phase of the data centre life cycle.
This document:
a) defines the Water Usage Effectiveness (WUE) of a data centre;
b) introduces WUE measurement categories;

c) describes the relationship of this KPI to a data centre’s infrastructure, information technology equipment

and information technology operations;
d) defines the measurement, the calculation and the reporting of the parameter;
e) provides information on the correct interpretation of the WUE.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content constitutes

requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references,

the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 50600-4-1:2016, Information technology - Data centre facilities and infrastructures - Part 4-1: Overview of

and general requirements for key performance indicators

EN 50600-4-2, Information technology - Data centre facilities and infrastructures - Part 4-2: Power Usage

Effectiveness

ISO 8601-1, Date and time — Representations for information interchange — Part 1: Basic rules

3 Terms, definitions, abbreviations and symbols
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 50600-4-1, EN 50600-4-2 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at https://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
3.1.1
total data centre energy consumption

total annual energy consumption for all energy types serving the data centre at its boundary

Note 1 to entry: For the purposes of this document, the total data centre energy is expressed in MWh; the energy is

measured with energy metering devices at the boundary of the data centre or points of generation within the boundary.

Note 2 to entry: This includes electricity, natural gas, hydrogen, bioethanol and district utilities such as supplied chilled

water or condenser water.
Note 3 to entry: Total annual energy includes supporting infrastructure.
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SIST EN 50600-4-9:2023
EN 50600-4-9:2022 (E)
3.1.2
IT equipment energy consumption

energy consumed by equipment that is used to manage, process, store or route data within the compute

space

Note 1 to entry: The IT equipment energy consumption is measured in MWh; examples for IT equipment are servers,

storage equipment, and telecommunications equipment.

Note 2 to entry: IT equipment energy use follows same categories as in EN 50600-4-2.

3.1.3
Water Usage Effectiveness

ratio of the data centre water consumption divided by the energy consumed by IT equipment

3.1.4
water use
water that is used by end users for a specific purpose within a given territory

Note 1 to entry: For the purposes of this document water use corresponds to the water consumption caused by the

processing of data in a data centre.

Note 2 to entry: Domestic use, irrigation or industrial processing are examples of a given territory.

Note 3 to entry: Water use is measured in water volume [m ] consumed.
3.1.5
potable water
drinking water

water being free from contamination that is safe to drink or to use for food and beverage preparation and

personal hygiene

Note 1 to entry: The definition of the quality criteria of potable water is usually subject to national or local regulation; if

there is no information about the criteria see [2].
3.1.6
reused water

water that is leaving the data centre boundaries for an alternative non-data-centre-use

Note 1 to entry: The non-data-centre-use of water is usually defined by local regulation for reuse.

3.1.7
industrial reuse of water
reuse of water for industrial purposes

Note 1 to entry: Industrial reuse covers water reuse for the purposes of e.g. fabrication, processing, washing, dilution

and cooling.
3.1.8
non-industrial reuse of water
reuse of water which is not for industrial reuse or drinking
3.1.9
energy water intensity factor
amount of water that is used to produce energy
Note 1 to entry: The energy water intensity factor is expressed in m per MWh.
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SIST EN 50600-4-9:2023
EN 50600-4-9:2022 (E)
3.1.10
water significance
amount of renewable freshwater that is available for each person each year

Note 1 to entry: For the purposes of this document, water significance is categorized by different levels of water stress.

3.1.11
water stress
ability to meet human and ecological demand for freshwater
3.1.12
water quality

physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water concerning to its suitability for an intended use by

humans, ecosystems or industrial processes
3.1.13
land consumption

loss of water permeability of the soil intended for use by humans, ecosystems or industrial processes

3.2 Abbreviations

For the purposes of this document the abbreviations of EN 50600-4-1 and the following apply.

CO Carbon Dioxide
DC Data centre
df drainage factor
E Energy
EWIF Energy Water Intensity Factor
FI Falkenmark index
in input
out output
PUE Power Usage Effectiveness
WRF Water Reuse Factor
WUE Water Usage Effectiveness
dWUE design Water Usage Effectiveness
iWUE interim Water Usage Effectiveness
pWUE partial Water Usage Effectiveness
qWUE Quality Water Usage Effectiveness
3.3 Symbols
For the purposes of this document, the following symbols apply.
data centre land consumption in m
landcon
E total data centre energy consumption (annual) in MWh
E IT equipment energy consumption (annual) in MWh
p population
annual surface runoff in m
run
water input in m
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SIST EN 50600-4-9:2023
EN 50600-4-9:2022 (E)
water input from water consumption of energy production in m
in,e
water input from potable water in m
in,pot
water input from rainwater in m
in,r
water output in m
out
water reuse (annual) of the data centre measured by total volume in m
industrial water reuse in m
re,id
non-industrial water reuse in m
re,nid
water use in m
4 Applicable area of the data centre
Water Usage Effectiveness as specified in this document:

a) is associated with the data centre infrastructure and IT equipment within its boundaries only;

b) describes the water usage in relation to facilities with given environmental conditions, IT load

characteristics, availability requirements, maintenance, and security requirements;

c) measures the relationship between the total data centre water usage and the IT equipment energy

consumed.
WUE does not:

1) account for efficiency of other resources such as human resource, space or CO ;

2) provide a data centre productivity metric;
3) provide a standalone, comprehensive efficiency metric;

4) account for quality of the water reuse process outside the data centre boundaries;

5) account for water down- or upgrade (reducing or improving water quality).
5 Determination of Water Usage Effectiveness
WUE provides a way to determine the water usage associated with data centres.

A value of 0,0 indicates that no water use is associated with the data centre’s operations. WUE has no

theoretical upper boundary.
Water Usage Effectiveness (WUE) is defined as:
WUE = W /E (1)
u IT
where
E is the IT equipment energy consumption (annual) in MWh;

NOTE For the purposes of this document, E is expressed in MWh and not in kWh as in other documents of the

EN 50600-4 series.
is the water usage (annual) of the data centre measured by total volume in m .
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SIST EN 50600-4-9:2023
EN 50600-4-9:2022 (E)
Annual water usage W is calculated according to Formula (2) as
W = W - W (2)
u in out
where

W is the total annual water input from outside the data centres boundaries measured by total volume in

m ;
is the total annual water returned out of the data centre boundaries in m .
out

WUE may be applied in mixed-use buildings when measurement of the difference between water used for the

data centre and that for other functions is possible.
6 Measurement of Water Usage Effectiveness
6.1 General

All Key Performance Indicators of the EN 50600-4 series are defined within the boundaries of a data centre

(see EN 50600-4-1).
6.2 Measuring actual water usage
6.2.1 Calculation, measurement period and frequency

The calculation of WUE requires the measurement and documentation of water values and E over a

coincident period of 12 months. This document does not specify the frequency of measurements of water

values and E , since WUE is calculated on an annual timeframe. However, the frequency of measurement

employed will determine the timing of subsequent WUE calculations on a rolling annual basis. Calculation

examples are given in Annex A.

NOTE The frequency of measurements or assessments can be useful for the improvement of sub-systems, but is not

required for WUE disclosures.
6.2.2 Categories of Water Usage Effectiveness
6.2.2.1 Introduction

The categories of WUE are defined, as shown in Table 1, to provide a defined route to refine the accuracy of

the WUE measured. WUE considers different water qualities and types of reused water. Category 3 requires

additional reporting for regional water significance (level of water stress, see Annex B) and land consumption

(see Annex D).
Table 1 — WUE Categories
Category 1 (WUE ) Category 2 (WUE ) Category 3 (WUE )
1 2 3
basic intermediate advanced

Considered water water input of the data water input of the data water consumption of energy

input centre centre production and physical
water input excluding
rainwater

Considered water no water reuse; water water output of the data water output of the data

output input equates to water centre for non-industrial centre with measurement of

use reuse non-industrial and industrial
reuse
Additional no no regional water stress level
reporting and land consumption
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SIST EN 50600-4-9:2023
EN 50600-4-9:2022 (E)

Water input qualities are classified as either potable or non-potable. Definitions of this document shall be

applied unless a local definition of these qualities exists. Water output is classified in three different types:

non-industrial reuse and industrial reuse (usually subject to national or local regulations) and non-reused

water, specified as used water.
6.2.2.2 WUE category 1: water usage without reuse

WUE is a metric considering total water consumption of the data centre. For the water output there is no

distinction of water use and water reuse in Category 1 (see Figure 2). For WUE the significance of regional

wat
...

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