Live working - Phase comparators -- Part 2: Resistive type to be used for voltages from 1 kV to 36 kV a.c.

This part of IEC 61481 is applicable to portable phase comparators of resistive type to be
used on electrical systems for voltages from 1 kV a.c. to 36 kV a.c. and frequencies of 50 Hz
and/or 60 Hz.
This standard is applicable to phase comparators of resistive type used in contact with the
bare conductive parts to be compared:
• as a complete device including its insulating element or
• as a separate device, adaptable to an insulating stick which, as a separate tool, is not
covered by this standard.
NOTE Some parts such as the contact electrode or the insulating element of a phase comparator as a complete
device may be dismantled.
Some restrictions on their use are applicable in the case of factory-assembled switchgear and
on overhead systems of electrified railways (see Annex A).
A device that is designed to provide other functions than phase comparison is a different
device and is not covered by this standard. For example a device designed to be also used as
a voltage detector is not covered by this standard (see Annex A).
Products designed and manufactured according to this standard contribute to the safety of the
users provided they are used by persons trained for the work, in accordance with the hot stick
working method and the instructions for use.
Except when otherwise specified, all the voltages defined in this standard refer to phase-tophase
voltages of three-phase systems. In other systems, the applicable phase-to-phase or
phase-to-earth (ground) voltages should be used to determine the operating voltage.

Arbeiten unter Spannung - Phasenvergleicher - Teil 2: Resistive (ohmsche) Ausführung für Wechselspannungen über 1 kV bis 36 kV

Travaux sous tension - Comparateurs de phase - Partie 2: Type résistif pour usage sur des tensions alternatives de 1 kV à 36 kV

L'IEC 61481-2:2014 est applicable aux comparateurs de phase portatifs de type résistif pour une utilisation sur des installations électriques à des tensions alternatives de 1 kV à 36 kV et à des fréquences de 50 Hz et/ou 60 Hz. La présente norme est applicable aux comparateurs de phase de type résistif utilisés au contact avec les parties nues conductrices à comparer à un dispositif complet incluant son élément isolant ou à un dispositif séparé adaptable sur une perche isolante qui, en tant qu'outil séparé, n'est pas couverte par la présente norme. Un dispositif conçu pour réaliser d'autres fonctions que la comparaison de phase est un dispositif différent et n'est pas couvert par la présente norme. Par exemple, un dispositif conçu pour être aussi utilisé comme détecteur de tension n'est pas couvert par la présente norme.
Cette première édition, avec la première édition de l'IEC 61481-1, annule et remplace la première édition de l'IEC 61481 parue en 2001, l'Amendement 1:2002 et l'Amendement 2:2004. Cette édition constitue une révision technique qui inclut les modifications majeures suivantes:
- la division de la norme en deux parties;
- la révision des exigences relatives à l'indication;
- la suppression de la classe C (+/- 110°);
- l'introduction d'une exigence relative à un nouveau marquage "LU" pour une utilisation limitée;
- et la révision des annexes existantes.

Delo pod napetostjo - Fazni primerjalniki - 2. del: Uporovne vrste za izmenične napetosti od 1 kV do 36 kV (IEC 61481-2:2014)

Ta del standarda IEC 61481 se uporablja za prenosne fazne primerjalnike uporovne vrste za električne sisteme z izmenično napetostjo od 1 kV do 36 kV in frekvencama 50 Hz in/ali 60 Hz. Ta standard se uporablja za fazne primerjalnike uporovne vrste, ki se uporabljajo pri stiku z golimi prevodnimi deli za primerjavo:
• kot celotna naprava, vključno z izolacijskim elementom ali
• kot ločena naprava, prilagodljiva izolacijski palici, ki, kot ločeno orodje, ni zajeta v tem standardu.
OPOMBA Nekatere dele, kot sta kontaktna elektroda ali izolacijski element faznega primerjalnika kot celotne naprave, je mogoče razstaviti.
Pri njihovi uporabi veljajo nekatere omejitve, in sicer v primeru tovarniško sestavljenih stikalnih in nadzemnih sistemov elektrificiranih železnic (glej dodatek A).
Naprava, zasnovana za zagotavljanje drugih funkcij, kot je fazna primerjava, je drugačna naprava in ni zajeta s tem standardom. Na primer naprava, ki je namenjena tudi uporabi kot detektor napetosti, ni zajeta s tem standardom (glej dodatek A).
Izdelki, zasnovani in izdelani v skladu s tem standardom, prispevajo k varnosti uporabnikov, če jih uporabljajo osebe, usposobljene za to delo, in se uporabljajo v skladu z metodo dela na oddaljenosti ter navodili za uporabo.
Razen kadar je določeno drugače, se vse napetosti, določene v tem standardu, nanašajo na medfazne napetosti trifaznih sistemov. Pri drugih sistemih je treba za določanje obratovalne napetosti uporabiti ustrezno medfazno in dozemno napetost.

General Information

Publication Date
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
Due Date
Completion Date


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Standards Content (Sample)

SIST EN 61481-2:2015
SIST EN 61481:2002
SIST EN 61481:2002/A1:2003
SIST EN 61481:2002/A2:2007
Live working - Phase comparators -- Part 2: Resistive type to be used for voltages from 1
kV to 36 kV a.c.
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 61481-2:2014
13.260 9DUVWYRSUHGHOHNWULþQLP Protection against electric
17.220.20 0HUMHQMHHOHNWULþQLKLQ Measurement of electrical
PDJQHWQLKYHOLþLQ and magnetic quantities
SIST EN 61481-2:2015 en
2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 61481-2:2015

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SIST EN 61481-2:2015



December 2014
ICS 13.260; 29.240.20; 29.260.99 Supersedes EN 61481:2001 (partially)
English Version
Live working - Phase comparators - Part 2: Resistive type to be
used for voltages from 1 kV to 36 kV a.c.
(IEC 61481-2:2014)
Travaux sous tension - Comparateurs de phase -  Arbeiten unter Spannung - Phasenvergleicher -
Partie 2: Type résistif pour usage sur des tensions Teil 2: Resistive (ohmsche) Ausführung für
alternatives de 1 kV à 36 kV Wechselspannungen über 1 kV bis 36 kV
(CEI 61481-2:2014) (IEC 61481-2:2014)
This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2014-11-28. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC
Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.
Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC
Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.
This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation
under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the
same status as the official versions.
CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,
Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,
Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,
Turkey and the United Kingdom.

European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels
© 2014 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.
 Ref. No. EN 61481-2:2014 E

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SIST EN 61481-2:2015
EN 61481-2:2014 - 2 -
The text of document 78/1052/FDIS, future edition 1 of IEC 61481-2, prepared by IEC/TC 78 "Live
working" was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and approved by CENELEC as
EN 61481-2:2014.

The following dates are fixed:
(dop) 2015-08-28
• latest date by which the document has to be
implemented at national level by
publication of an identical national
standard or by endorsement
• latest date by which the national (dow) 2017-11-28
standards conflicting with the
document have to be withdrawn

This document supersedes EN 61481:2001 (partially).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of
patent rights. CENELEC [and/or CEN] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such
patent rights.

Endorsement notice
The text of the International Standard IEC 61481-2:2014 was approved by CENELEC as a European
Standard without any modification.
In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards indicated:

IEC 60038 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60038.
IEC 60071-1:2006 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60071-1:2006 (not modified).
IEC 60743:2013 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60743:2013 (not modified).
IEC 61235:1993 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61235:1995 (modified).
IEC 61936-1:2010 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61936-1:2010 (modified).
ISO/IEC 17025 NOTE Harmonized as EN ISO/IEC 17025 (not modified).

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SIST EN 61481-2:2015
- 3 - EN 61481-2:2014
Annex ZA

Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are
indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated
references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE 1 When an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant
EN/HD applies.

NOTE 2 Up-to-date information on the latest versions of the European Standards listed in this annex is available here:

Publication Year Title EN/HD Year

CISPR 11 -  Industrial, scientific and medical EN 55011 -
equipment - Radio-frequency disturbance
characteristics - Limits and methods of
IEC 60060-1 2010 High-voltage test techniques - EN 60060-1 2010
Part 1: General definitions and test
IEC 60068-1 -  Environmental testing - EN 60068-1 -
Part 1: General and guidance
IEC 60068-2-6 -  Environmental testing - EN 60068-2-6 -
Part 2-6: Tests - Test Fc: Vibration
IEC 60068-2-14 -  Environmental testing - EN 60068-2-14 -
Part 2-14: Tests - Test N: Change of
IEC 60068-2-31 -  Environmental testing - EN 60068-2-31 -
Part 2-31: Tests - Test Ec: Rough handling
shocks, primarily for equipment-type
IEC 60068-2-75 -  Environmental testing - EN 60068-2-75 -
Part 2-75: Tests - Test Eh: Hammer tests
IEC 60417-DB -  Graphical symbols for use on equipment - -
IEC 60942 -  Electroacoustics - Sound calibrators EN 60942 -
IEC 61000-4-2 -  Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - EN 61000-4-2 -
Part 4-2: Testing and measurement
techniques - Electrostatic discharge
immunity test
IEC 61000-4-3 -  Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - EN 61000-4-3 -
Part 4-3: Testing and measurement
techniques - Radiated, radio-frequency,
electromagnetic field immunity test

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SIST EN 61481-2:2015
EN 61481-2:2014 - 4 -
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 61000-4-8 -  Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - EN 61000-4-8 -
Part 4-8: Testing and measurement
techniques - Power frequency magnetic
field immunity test
IEC 61260 -  Electroacoustics - Octave-band and EN 61260 -
fractional-octave-band filters
IEC 61318 -  Live working - Conformity assessment EN 61318 -
applicable to tools, devices and equipment
IEC 61326-1 -  Electrical equipment for measurement, EN 61326-1 -
control and laboratory use - EMC
requirements -
Part 1: General requirements
IEC 61477 -  Live working - Minimum requirements for EN 61477 -
the utilization of tools, devices and
IEC 61672-1 -  Electroacoustics - Sound level meters - EN 61672-1 -
Part 1: Specifications
ISO 3744 2010 Acoustics - Determination of sound power EN ISO 3744 2010
levels and sound energy levels of noise
sources using sound pressure -
Engineering methods for an essentially
free field over a reflecting plane
CIE 15 -  Colorimetry - -

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SIST EN 61481-2:2015

IEC 61481-2


Edition 1.0 2014-10






Live working – Phase comparators –

Part 2: Resistive type to be used for voltages from 1 kV to 36 kV a.c.

Travaux sous tension – Comparateurs de phase –

Partie 2: Type résistif pour usage sur des tensions alternatives de 1 kV à 36 kV








ICS 13.260; 29.240.20; 29.260.99 ISBN 978-2-8322-1878-5

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale

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SIST EN 61481-2:2015
– 2 – IEC 61481-2:2014 © IEC 2014

1 Scope . 9
2 Normative references . 9
3 Terms and definitions . 10
4 Requirements . 14
4.1 Indication . 14
4.2 Functional requirements. 14
4.2.1 Clear indication . 14
4.2.2 Clear perceptibility . 16
4.2.3 Temperature and humidity dependence of the indication. 16
4.2.4 Frequency dependence . 16
4.2.5 Response time . 17
4.2.6 Power source dependability . 17
4.2.7 Testing element . 17
4.2.8 Time rating . 17
4.3 Electrical requirements . 17
4.3.1 Insulating material . 17
4.3.2 Protection against bridging . 17
4.3.3 Resistance against sparking . 17
4.3.4 Resistive element . 18
4.3.5 Insulating element of phase comparator as a complete device . 18
4.3.6 Circuit current . 18
4.3.7 Indicator casing . 18
4.3.8 Insulation of the connecting lead . 18
4.4 Mechanical requirements . 18
4.4.1 General . 18
4.4.2 Design . 18
4.4.3 Dimensions, construction . 20
4.4.4 Grip force and deflection . 21
4.4.5 Vibration resistance . 22
4.4.6 Drop resistance . 22
4.4.7 Shock resistance . 22
4.5 Marking . 22
4.6 Instructions for use . 22
4.7 Requirements in the case of reasonably foreseeable misuse during live
working . 23
4.7.1 Voltage selection . 23
4.7.2 Frequency selection . 23
5 Tests . 23
5.1 General . 23
5.1.1 Testing provisions . 23
5.1.2 Atmospheric conditions . 23
5.1.3 Tests under wet conditions . 23
5.1.4 Type test . 24
5.1.5 Test methods . 25

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SIST EN 61481-2:2015
IEC 61481-2:2014 © IEC 2014 – 3 –
5.2 Function tests . 25
5.2.1 Description of the test set-up and general pass criteria . 25
5.2.2 Clear indication . 31
5.2.3 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) . 33
5.2.4 Influence of electric interference fields. 33
5.2.5 Clear perceptibility . 36
5.2.6 Frequency dependence . 40
5.2.7 Response time . 40
5.2.8 Power source dependability . 40
5.2.9 Check of testing element . 41
5.2.10 Time rating . 41
5.3 Dielectric tests . 42
5.3.1 Insulating material for tubes and rods . 42
5.3.2 Protection against bridging for indoor/outdoor type phase comparator . 42
5.3.3 Protection against bridging for outdoor type phase comparator . 47
5.3.4 Spark resistance . 48
5.3.5 Leakage current for phase comparator as a complete device . 49
5.3.6 Dielectric strength of connecting lead . 52
5.3.7 Maximum current in case of misuse . 53
5.4 Mechanical tests . 53
5.4.1 Visual and dimensional inspection . 53
5.4.2 Grip force and deflection for phase comparator as a complete device . 54
5.4.3 Robustness of connecting lead and connections . 54
5.4.4 Vibration resistance . 56
5.4.5 Drop resistance . 56
5.4.6 Shock resistance . 57
5.4.7 Climatic resistance . 58
5.4.8 Durability of markings . 59
5.5 Test for reasonably foreseeable misuse during live working . 59
5.5.1 Voltage selection (where relevant) . 59
5.5.2 Frequency selection (where relevant) . 59
6 Conformity assessment of phase comparators having completed the production
phase . 60
7 Modifications . 60
Annex A (normative) Instructions for use . 61
Annex B (normative) Suitable for live working; double triangle (IEC 60417 – 5216
(2002-10)) . 63
Annex C (normative) Chronology of type tests . 64
Annex D (normative) Classification of defects and tests to be allocated . 66
Annex E (informative) Information and guidelines on the use of the limit mark and of a
contact electrode extension . 68
E.1 General . 68
E.2 Situation when using a phase comparator as a complete device . 68
E.3 Situation when using a phase comparator as a separate device . 71
Annex F (informative) Rationale for the classification of defects. 74
Annex G (informative) In-service care . 76
Bibliography . 77

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SIST EN 61481-2:2015
– 4 – IEC 61481-2:2014 © IEC 2014

Figure 1 – Illustration of different elements of a phase comparator . 20
Figure 2 – Location of allowed conductive parts within the minimum length of the
insulating element of a pole of a phase comparator as a complete device . 21
Figure 3 – Test set-up for clear indication with the ball electrode in front of its ring
electrode . 27
Figure 4 – Test set-up for clear indication with the ball electrode behind its ring
electrode . 28
Figure 5 – Example of positioning of a pole of the phase comparator in relation to a
ball and ring test arrangement . 30
Figure 6 – Examples of suitable means for ensuring appropriate contact between a
contact electrode and the ball electrode . 30
Figure 7 – Test set-up for clear perceptibility of visual indication . 37
Figure 8 – Test set-up for clear perceptibility of audible indication . 39
Figure 9 – Test arrangements and dimensions of the bars for protection against
bridging . 43
Figure 10 – Electrical connection of the bars . 44
Figure 11 – Surface stress test . 44
Figure 12 – Radial and surface stress test . 45
Figure 13 – Bridging test on the connecting lead . 46
Figure 14 – Test arrangement for testing bridging protection of outdoor type phase
comparator . 48
Figure 15 – Arrangement for leakage current test under dry conditions for phase
comparator as a complete device . 50
Figure 16 – Arrangement for leakage current tests under wet conditions for phase
comparator as a complete device . 51
Figure 17 – Test set up for pressure load application . 52
Figure 18 – Test for grip force . 54
Figure 19 – Test set-up for the robustness of connecting lead and connections . 55
Figure 20 – Drop resistance test – Diagonal position . 57
Figure 21 – Curve of test cycle for climatic resistance . 58
Figure E.1 – Insulation element of a pole of a phase comparator as a complete device . 68
Figure E.2 – Example of positioning of a pole of a phase comparator in contact with a
live part without obstacles from other live parts . 69
Figure E.3 – Example of incorrect positioning of a pole of a phase comparator with the
limit mark between two live parts . 70
Figure E.4 – Usual ways of managing the selection or the use of the phase comparator
for maintaining the insulation distance between the limit mark and the hand guard . 71
Figure E.5 – Usual ways of managing the use of the phase comparator as a separate
device for assuring the appropriate insulation for the worker . 73

Table 1 – Climatic condition ranges . 16
Table 2 – Minimum length of the insulating element (L ) of a phase comparator as a
complete device . 20
Table 3 – Dimensioning of the ball and ring test set-up . 29
Table 4 – Test series and conditions for clear indication . 32
Table 5 – Test series and conditions for influence of electric interference fields . 35
Table 6 – Distance d for the bridging test set-up . 43

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SIST EN 61481-2:2015
IEC 61481-2:2014 © IEC 2014 – 5 –
Table 7 – Dimensions for the concentric rings and band electrodes . 47
Table C.1 – Sequential order for performing type tests . 64
Table C.2 – Type tests out of sequence . 65
Table D.1 – Classification of defects and associated requirements and tests . 66
Table E.1 – Recommended minimum lengths from the limit mark to the contact
electrode (A ) . 71
Table F.1 – Rationale for the classification of defects . 74
Table G.1 – In-service testing . 76

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SIST EN 61481-2:2015
– 6 – IEC 61481-2:2014 © IEC 2014



Part 2: Resistive type to be used for voltages from 1 kV to 36 kV a.c.

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising
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9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of
patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.
International Standard IEC 61481-2 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 78: Live
This first edition, together with

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