Effects of current on human beings and livestock - Part 2: Special aspects

IEC 60479-2 describes the effects on the human body when a sinusoidal alternating current in the frequency range above 100 Hz passes through it. The effects of current passing through the human body for: - alternating sinusoidal current with DC components, - alternating sinusoidal current with phase control, and - alternating sinusoidal current with multicycle control are given but are only deemed applicable for alternating current frequencies from 15 Hz up to 100 Hz. Means of extending the frequency of applicability of pure sinusoids to a frequency of 150 kHz are given, supplementing the data in IEC 60479-1. Means of examining random complex irregular waveforms are given. This document describes the effects of current passing through the human body in the form of single and multiple successive unidirectional rectangular impulses, sinusoidal impulses and impulses resulting from capacitor discharges. The values specified are deemed to be applicable for impulse durations from 0,1 ms up to and including 10 ms. This document only considers conducted current resulting from the direct application of a source of current to the body, as does IEC 60479-1. It does not consider current induced within the body caused by its exposure to an external electromagnetic field. This basic safety publication is primarily intended for use by technical committees in the preparation of standards in accordance with the principles laid down in IEC Guide 104 and ISO/IEC Guide 51. It is not intended for use by manufacturers or certification bodies. One of the responsibilities of a technical committee is, wherever applicable, to make use of basic safety publications in the preparation of its publications. The requirements, test methods or test conditions of this basic safety publication will not apply unless specifically referred to or included in the relevant publications.

Vplivi električnega toka na ljudi in živali – 2. del: Posebnosti

General Information

Status
Published In Translation
Publication Date
11-May-2020
Current Stage
6300 - Translation of adopted SIST international/foreign standards (Local Project)
Start Date
12-Jan-2021
Due Date
17-Jan-2021
Ref Project

Buy Standard

Standard
SIST IEC 60479-2:2020 - BARVE na PDF-str 20,25,27,29,35,36,52,53,54,55
English language
56 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview

e-Library read for
1 day

Standards Content (sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST IEC 60479-2:2020
01-junij-2020
Vplivi električnega toka na ljudi in živali – 2. del: Posebnosti
Effects of current on human beings and livestock - Part 2: Special aspects
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:
ICS:
13.200 Preprečevanje nesreč in Accident and disaster control
katastrof
29.020 Elektrotehnika na splošno Electrical engineering in
general
SIST IEC 60479-2:2020 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST IEC 60479-2:2020
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST IEC 60479-2:2020
IEC 60479-2
Edition 1.0 2019-05
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
BASIC SAFETY PUBLICATION
Effects of current on human beings and livestock –
Part 2: Special aspects
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 13.200; 29.020 ISBN 978-2-8322-6689-2

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST IEC 60479-2:2020
– 2 – IEC 60479-2:2019 © IEC 2019
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 5

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 7

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 8

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 8

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 9

4 Effects of alternating currents with frequencies above 100 Hz ....................................... 11

4.1 General ................................................................................................................. 11

4.2 Effects of alternating current in the frequency range above 100 Hz up to and

including 1 000 Hz ................................................................................................ 12

4.2.1 Threshold of perception ................................................................................. 12

4.2.2 Threshold of let-go ........................................................................................ 12

4.2.3 Threshold of ventricular fibrillation ................................................................. 13

4.3 Effects of alternating current in the frequency range above 1 000 Hz up to

and including 10 000 Hz ........................................................................................ 14

4.3.1 Threshold of perception ................................................................................. 14

4.3.2 Threshold of let-go ........................................................................................ 14

4.3.3 Threshold of ventricular fibrillation ................................................................. 15

4.4 Effects of alternating current in the frequency range above 10 000 Hz .................. 15

4.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 15

4.4.2 Threshold of perception ................................................................................. 15

4.4.3 Threshold of let-go ........................................................................................ 15

4.4.4 Threshold of ventricular fibrillation ................................................................. 15

4.4.5 Other effects .................................................................................................. 16

5 Effects of special waveforms of current ......................................................................... 16

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 16

5.2 Equivalent magnitude, frequency and threshold .................................................... 16

5.3 Effects of alternating current with DC components ................................................ 17

5.3.1 Waveforms and frequencies and current thresholds ....................................... 17

5.3.2 Threshold of startle reaction .......................................................................... 18

5.3.3 Threshold of let-go ........................................................................................ 19

5.3.4 Threshold of ventricular fibrillation ................................................................. 20

6 Effects of alternating current with phase control ............................................................ 24

6.1 Waveforms and frequencies and current thresholds .............................................. 24

6.2 Threshold of startle reaction and threshold of let-go .............................................. 25

6.3 Threshold of ventricular fibrillation ........................................................................ 25

6.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 25

6.3.2 Symmetrical control ....................................................................................... 26

6.3.3 Asymmetrical control ..................................................................................... 26

7 Effects of alternating current with multicyle control ........................................................ 26

7.1 Waveforms and frequencies .................................................................................. 26

7.2 Threshold of startle reaction and threshold of let-go .............................................. 27

7.3 Threshold of ventricular fibrillation ........................................................................ 27

7.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 27

7.3.2 Shock durations longer than 1,5 times the period of the cardiac cycle ........... 28

7.3.3 Shock durations less than 0,75 times the period of the cardiac cycle ............. 28

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST IEC 60479-2:2020
IEC 60479-2:2019 © IEC 2019 – 3 –

8 Estimation of the equivalent current threshold for mixed frequencies ............................. 28

8.1 Threshold of perception and let-go ........................................................................ 28

8.2 Threshold of ventricular fibrillation ........................................................................ 29

9 Effects of current pulse bursts and random complex irregular waveforms ...................... 29

9.1 Ventricular fibrillation threshold of multiple pulses of current separated by

300 ms or more ..................................................................................................... 29

9.2 Ventricular fibrillation threshold of multiple pulses of current separated by

than 300 ms .................................................................................................. 29

less

9.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 29

9.2.2 Examples....................................................................................................... 30

9.2.3 Random complex irregular waveforms ........................................................... 32

10 Effects of electric current through the immersed human body ........................................ 34

10.1 General ................................................................................................................. 34

10.2 Resistivity of water solutions and of the human body ............................................ 34

10.3 Conducted current through immersed body ........................................................... 36

10.4 Physiological effects of current through the immersed body .................................. 37

10.5 Threshold values of current ................................................................................... 38

10.6 Intrinsically “safe” voltage values .......................................................................... 38

11 Effects of unidirectional single impulse currents of short duration .................................. 38

11.1 General ................................................................................................................. 38

11.2 Effects of unidirectional impulse currents of short duration .................................... 39

11.2.1 Waveforms .................................................................................................... 39

11.2.2 Determination of specific fibrillating energy F ............................................... 40

11.3 Threshold of perception and threshold of pain for capacitor discharge .................. 41

11.4 Threshold of ventricular fibrillation ........................................................................ 43

11.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 43

11.4.2 Examples....................................................................................................... 44

Annex A (informative) Random complex irregular waveform analysis ................................... 47

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 47

A.2 Formal theoretical statement of the method .......................................................... 47

A.3 Demonstration of the calculation ........................................................................... 48

A.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 48

A.3.2 Choice of justified current .............................................................................. 50

A.3.3 Choice of sampling step size ......................................................................... 50

A.4 Examples 1 and 2 ................................................................................................. 51

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 54

Figure 1 – Variation of the threshold of perception within the frequency range

50/60 Hz to 1 000 Hz ............................................................................................................ 12

Figure 2 – Variation of the threshold of let-go within the frequency range 50/60 Hz to

1 000 Hz ............................................................................................................................... 13

Figure 3 – Variation of the threshold of ventricular fibrillation within the frequency

range 50/60 Hz to 1 000 Hz, shock durations longer than one heart period and

longitudinal current paths through the trunk of the body ........................................................ 13

Figure 4 – Variation of the threshold of perception within the frequency range

1 000 Hz to 10 000 Hz .......................................................................................................... 14

Figure 5 – Variation of the threshold of let-go within the frequency range 1 000 Hz to

10 000 Hz ............................................................................................................................. 14

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST IEC 60479-2:2020
– 4 – IEC 60479-2:2019 © IEC 2019

Figure 6 – Variation of the threshold of ventricular fibrillation for continuous sinusoidal

current (1 000 Hz to 150 kHz) ............................................................................................... 16

Figure 7 – Waveforms of currents ......................................................................................... 18

Figure 8 – Let-go thresholds for men, women and children ................................................... 19

Figure 9 – 99,5-percentile let-go threshold for combinations of 50/60 Hz sinusoidal

alternating current and direct current .................................................................................... 20

Figure 10 – Composite alternating and direct current with equivalent likelihood of

ventricular fibrillation............................................................................................................. 22

Figure 11 – Waveforms of rectified alternating currents ........................................................ 23

Figure 12 – Waveforms of alternating currents with phase control ......................................... 25

Figure 13 – Waveforms of alternating currents calculated with multicycle control factor ........ 27

Figure 14 – Threshold of ventricular fibrillation (average value) for alternating current

with multicycle control for various degrees of controls (results of experiments with

young pigs) ........................................................................................................................... 28

Figure 15 – Series of four rectangular pulses of unidirectional current .................................. 31

Figure 16 – Series of four rectangular pulses of unidirectional current .................................. 31

Figure 17 – Series of four rectangular pulses of unidirectional current .................................. 32

Figure 18 – Example of current versus elapsed time over a contaminated insulator .............. 33

Figure 19 – PC plotted on the AC time current curves (IEC 60479-1:2018, Figure 20)......... 34

Figure 20 – Forms of current for rectangular impulses, sinusoidal impulses and for

capacitor discharges ............................................................................................................. 40

Figure 21 – Rectangular impulse, sinusoidal impulse and capacitor discharge having

the same specific fibrillating energy and the same shock duration......................................... 41

Figure 22 – Threshold of perception and threshold of pain for the current resulting

from the discharge of a capacitor (dry hands, large contact area) ......................................... 42

Figure 23 – Probability of fibrillation risks for current flowing in the path left hand to

feet ...................................................................................................................................... 44

Figure A.1 – Definition of a segment of a random complex waveform .................................... 47

Figure A.2 – Definition of a duration within a sample ............................................................. 47

Figure A.3 – PC for demonstration example of the random complex waveform method

plotted against time-current curves for RMS AC .................................................................... 50

Figure A.4 – Random complex waveform typical of those used in Example 1 ....................... 51

Figure A.5 – Random complex waveform typical of those used in Example 2 ....................... 52

Figure A.6 – PC for Examples 1 and 2 of the random complex waveform method

plotted against time-current curves for RMS AC .................................................................... 53

Table 1 – Estimate for ventricular fibrillation threshold after each pulse of current in a

series of pulses each of which excited the heart tissue in such a manner as to trigger

ventricular responses ............................................................................................................ 30

Table 2 – Resistivity of water solutions [24], [25] .................................................................. 35

Table 3 – Resistivity of human body tissues .......................................................................... 36

Table 4 – Relative interaction between the resistivity of water solution and the

impedance characteristic of the electrical source .................................................................. 37

Table 5 – Effects of shocks ................................................................................................... 45

Table 6 – Effects of shocks ................................................................................................... 46

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST IEC 60479-2:2020
IEC 60479-2:2019 © IEC 2019 – 5 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
EFFECTS OF CURRENT ON HUMAN BEINGS AND LIVESTOCK –
Part 2: Special aspects
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60479-2 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 64:

Electrical installations and protection against electric shock.

This first edition cancels and replaces IEC TS 60479-2:2017. This edition constitutes a

technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to

IEC TS 60479-2:2017:
a) change in status from Technical Specification to International Standard.

It has the status of a basic safety publication in accordance with IEC Guide 104.

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST IEC 60479-2:2020
– 6 – IEC 60479-2:2019 © IEC 2019
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
CDV Report on voting
64/2300/CDV 64/2362/RVC

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts in the IEC 60479 series, published under the general title Effects of current

on human beings and livestock, can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
A bilingual version of this publication may be issued at a later date.

IMPORTANT – The “colour inside” logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct understanding

of its contents. Users should therefore print this publication using a colour printer.

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST IEC 60479-2:2020
IEC 60479-2:2019 © IEC 2019 – 7 –
INTRODUCTION

In order to avoid errors in the interpretation of this document, it should be emphasized that

the data given herein is mainly based on experiments with animals as well as on information

available from clinical observations. Only a few experiments with shock currents of short

duration have been carried out on living human beings.
The effects of current passing through the human body for
– alternating sinusoidal current with DC components,
– alternating sinusoidal current with phase control,
– alternating sinusoidal current with multicycle control,
– equivalent current threshold for mixed frequencies,
– current pulse bursts and random complex irregular waveforms,
– electric current through the immersed human body, and
– unidirectional single impulse currents of short duration
are described.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST IEC 60479-2:2020
– 8 – IEC 60479-2:2019 © IEC 2019
EFFECTS OF CURRENT ON HUMAN BEINGS AND LIVESTOCK –
Part 2: Special aspects
1 Scope
This part of IEC 60479 describes the effects on the human body when a sinusoidal
alternating current in the frequency range above 100 Hz passes through it.
The effects of current passing through the human body for:
– alternating sinusoidal current with DC components,
– alternating sinusoidal current with phase control, and
– alternating sinusoidal current with multicycle control
are given but are only deemed applicable for alternating current frequencies
from 15 Hz up to 100 Hz.

Means of extending the frequency of applicability of pure sinusoids to a frequency of 150 kHz

are given, supplementing the data in IEC 60479-1.
Means of examining random complex irregular waveforms are given.

This document describes the effects of current passing through the human body in the form of

single and multiple successive unidirectional rectangular impulses, sinusoidal impulses and

impulses resulting from capacitor discharges.

The values specified are deemed to be applicable for impulse durations from 0,1 ms up to and

including 10 ms.

This document only considers conducted current resulting from the direct application of a

source of current to the body, as does IEC 60479-1. It does not consider current induced

within the body caused by its exposure to an external electromagnetic field.

This basic safety publication is primarily intended for use by technical committees in the

preparation of standards in accordance with the principles laid down in IEC Guide 104 and

ISO/IEC Guide 51. It is not intended for use by manufacturers or certification bodies.

One of the responsibilities of a technical committee is, wherever applicable, to make use of

basic safety publications in the preparation of its publications. The requirements, test

methods or test conditions of this basic safety publication will not apply unless specifically

referred to or included in the relevant publications.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.

IEC 60479-1:2018, Effects of current on human beings and livestock – Part 1: General

aspects
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST IEC 60479-2:2020
IEC 60479-2:2019 © IEC 2019 – 9 –

IEC 60990, Methods of measurement of touch-current and protective conductor current

IEC Guide 104, The preparation of safety publications and the use of basic safety publications

and group safety publications
ISO/IEC Guide 51, Safety aspects – Guidelines for their inclusion in standards
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC 60479-1 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
frequency factor

ratio of the threshold current for the relevant physiological effects at the frequency f to the

threshold current at 50/60 Hz.

Note 1 to entry: The frequency factor differs for perception, let-go and ventricular fibrillation.

3.2
phase control

process of varying the instant within the cycle at which current conduction in an electronic

valve device or a valve arm begins
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-551:1998, 551-16-23]
3.3
phase control angle
current delay angle

time expressed in angular measure by which the starting instant of current conduction is

delayed by phase control

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-551:1998, 551-16-32, modified — The term "phase control angle" has

been added.]
3.4
multicycle control

process of varying the ratio of the number of cycles which include current conduction to the

number of cycles in which no current conduction occurs
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-551:1998, 551-16-31]
3.5
multicycle control factor

ratio between the number of conducting cycles and the sum of conducting and non-conducting

cycles in the case of multicycle control
SEE Figure 13.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST IEC 60479-2:2020
– 10 – IEC 60479-2:2019 © IEC 2019
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-551:1998, 551-16-37, modified — The symbol and reference to
Figure 13 have been added.]
3.6
specific fibrillating energy

·t value of a unidirectional impulse of short duration which under given conditions

minimum I

(current-path, heart-phase) causes ventricular fibrillation with a certain probability

Note 1 to entry: F is determined by the form of the impulse as the integral
i 2
i dt

where t is defined in Figure 20 and Figure 21. F multiplied by the body resistance gives the energy dissipated in

i e
the human body during the impulse.
Note 2 to entry: F is expressed in Ws/Ω or A s.
3.7
specific fibrillating charge

minimum I·t value of unidirectional impulse of short duration which under given conditions

(current-path, heart-phase) causes ventricular fibrillation with a certain probability

Note 1 to entry: F is determined by the form of the impulse as the integral
idt
where t is defined in Figure 20 and Figure 21.
Note 2 to entry: F is expressed in C or As.
3.8
time constant

time required for the amplitude of an exponentially decaying quantity to decrease to

= 0,367 9
times an initial amplitude

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-801:1994, 801-21-45, modified — The definition has been revised.]

3.9
shock duration

time interval from the beginning of the discharge to the time when

the discharge current has fallen to 5 % of its peak value

Note 1 to entry: When the time constant of the capacitor discharge is given by T the shock duration of the

capacitor discharge is equal to 3T. During the shock duration of the capacitor discharge practically all the energy of

the impulse is dissipated.
Note 2 to entry: See Figure 20 and Figure 21.
3.10
shock duration

shortest duration of that part of the impulse that contains

95 % of the energy over the total impulse
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST IEC 60479-2:2020
IEC 60479-2:2019 © IEC 2019 – 11 –
3.11
threshold of perception

minimum value for the charge of electricity, which, under given conditions, causes any

sensation to the person through whom it is flowing
3.12
threshold of pain
minimum value for the charge (I∙t) or specific ene
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.