This European Standard specifies a method for the detection of irradiated foods using photostimulated luminescence (PSL). The technique described here comprises an initial measurement of PSL intensity which may be used for screening purposes, and a calibration method to determine the PSL sensitivity to assist classification. It is necessary to confirm a positive screening result using calibrated PSL or another standardised (e.g. EN 1784 to EN 1788) or validated method.
The method has been successfully tested in interlaboratory trials using shellfish and herbs, spices and seasonings [1]. From other studies it may be concluded that the method is applicable to a large variety of foods [2], [3], [4].

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This document specifies a method for the detection of foodstuff containing crystalline sugars which have been treated with ionizing radiation, by analysing the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrum, also called electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum, of the foodstuff, see [1] to [7].
Interlaboratory studies have been successfully carried out on dried figs, dried mangoes, dried papayas and raisins, see [1] to [3].

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This document specifies a method for the detection of foodstuff containing cellulose which have been treated with ionizing radiation, by analysing the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrum, also called electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum, of the foodstuff, see [1] to [13].
Interlaboratory studies have been successfully carried out with pistachio nut shells, [14] to [18], paprika powder [19] and [20] and fresh strawberries [21]. However, it has been shown that chemical bleaching of nuts in shells can lead to comparable signals. For further information, see Clause 8 on limitations.

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This European Standard specifies a microbiological screening method comprising two procedures, which are carried out in parallel. It permits the identification of an unusual microbiological profile in poultry meat. The presence of a large excess population of dead micro-organisms can under certain circumstances be presumptive of irradiation treatment, which means, that the results of the procedure of the determination of endotoxin concentration in the test sample using the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) test and of the procedure of the enumeration of total Gram negative bacteria (GNB) in the test sample are not radiation specific. Therefore, it is recommended that a positive result be confirmed using a standardized reference method for the detection of irradiated food, e.g. EN 1784, EN 1785 or EN 1786 [1] to [3].
This screening method has been successfully tested by inter-laboratory trials [4], [5], [6] and the procedure is generally applicable to whole or parts of poultry, e.g. breast, legs, wings of fresh, chilled or frozen carcasses with or without skin.
The method can also provide information about the microbiological quality of a product prior to irradiation.

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This draft European Standard specifies a method for identification of irradia- tion treatment of food containig fat. It is based on the mass spectrometric (MS)detection of radiation-induced 2-alkylcyclobutanones after gas chromatographic (GC) separation 1 to 3. The method has been successfully tested in interlabora- tory tests on raw chicken, pork, and liquid whole egg, 4 to 6.

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This European Standard specifies a method for the identification of irradiation treatment of food which contains fat. It is based on the gas chromatographic detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons (HC). The method has been tested in interlaboratory tests on raw chicken, pork and beef (1) to (4) as well as on camembert, avocado, papays and mango 5, 6.

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This European Standard specifies a microbiological screening method for the detection of irradiation treatment of herbs and spices, using the combined direct epifluorescent filter technique (DEFT) and aerobic plate count (APC). The DEFT/APC technique is not radiation specific, therefore, it is recommended to confirm positive results using a standardised method (e.g. EN 1788, prEN 13751) to specifically prove an irradiation treatment of the suspected food.
The method has been successfully tested in interlaboratory tests with herbs and spices [1] to [5].

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This European Standard specifies a screening method for foods which contain DNA. It is based on micro-gel electrophoresis of single cells or nuclei to detect DNA fragmentation presumptive to irradiation treatment [1] to  [8]. The DNA Comet Assay is not radiation specific, therefore, it is recommended to confirm positive results using a standardized method to specifically prove an irradiation treatment of the respective food, e.g. EN 1784, EN 1785, EN 1786, EN 1787, EN 1788, EN 13708, and prEN 13751.
Interlaboratory studies have been successfully carried out with a number of food products, both of animal and plant origin such as various meats [9] to [11], seeds, dried fruits and spices [6], [12]. Other studies [13] to [32] demonstrate that the method is applicable to a large variety of foodstuffs, but also that limitations exist (see clause 8).

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This European Standard specifies a method for the detection of irradiation treatment of food and/or food ingredients by thermoluminescence analysis of contaminating silicate minerals. This method is applicable to those foodstuffs from which a sufficient amount of silicate minerals can be isolated.
The method has been successfully tested in interlaboratory tests with herbs and spices as well as their mixtures [1] to [3], shellfish including shrimps and prawns [4] to [6], both fresh and dehydrated fruits and vegetables [7] to [9], and potatoes [10]. Other studies [11] to [46] demonstrate that the method is applicable to a large variety of foodstuffs.

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This draft European Standard specifies a method for the detection of meat containing bone and fish containing bone which have been treated with ionizing radiation, by analysing the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrum or electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum of the bones. On the basis of results of analysis of meat containing bone from duck, frog, goose, chicken, hare, lamb, turkey, beef and pork, it is assumed that the same signals occur when other animal species are analysed.

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This European Standard specifies a method for the detection of irradiated foods using photostimulated luminescence (PSL). The technique described here comprises an initial measurement of PSL intensity which may be used for screening purposes, and a calibration method to determine the PSL sensitivity to assist classification. It is necessary to confirm a positive screening result using calibrated PSL or another standardised (e.g. EN 1784 to EN 1788) or validated method.
The method has been successfully tested in interlaboratory trials using shellfish [1] and herbs, spices and seasonings. From other studies it may be concluded that the method is applicable to a large variety of foods [2], [3], [4], [5].

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This draft European Standard specifies a method for identification of irradia- tion treatment of food containig fat. It is based on the mass spectrometric (MS)detection of radiation-induced 2-alkylcyclobutanones after gas chromatographic (GC) separation 1 to 3. The method has been successfully tested in interlabora- tory tests on raw chicken, pork, and liquid whole egg, 4 to 6.

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This European Standard specifies a method for the identification of irradiation treatment of food which contains fat. It is based on the gas chromatographic detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons (HC). The method has been tested in interlaboratory tests on raw chicken, pork and beef (1) to (4) as well as on camembert, avocado, papays and mango 5, 6.

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This European Standard specifies a method for the detection of foods containing crystalline sugars which have been treated with ionizing radiation, by analysing the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrum, also called electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum, of the food, see [1] to [7].
Interlaboratory studies have been successfully carried out on dried figs, dried mangoes, dried papayas and raisins [1] to [3].

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This draft European Standard specifies a method of detecting whether food has been treated by ionizing radiation by thermoluminescence analysis of contaminating silicate minerals. The method is applicable to those foodstuffs from which a sufficient amount of silicate minerals can be isolated. The method has been successfully tested in interlaboratory tests with herbs and spices and their mixtures (1) to (3) and shrimps (4) et (5).

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This draft European Standard specifies a method for the detection of foods containing cellulose which have been treated with ionizing radiation, by analysing the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrum, also called electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum, of the food, see (1) to (13). Interlaboratory studies have been successfully carried out with pistachio nut shells, (14) to (18), paprika powder, (19) and (20), and fresh strawberries (21).

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This European standard specifies a method for the detection of foods containing cellulose which have been treated with ionizing radiation, by analysing the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrum or electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum of the food.

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