This document specifies a method of determining the abrasion resistance of leather using a Taber® apparatus.

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This document specifies a method for determining the stitch tear resistance of leather. It can be used on all leathers but is particularly suitable for leathers over 1,2 mm in thickness.

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This document specifies a method for determining the resistance of all forms of leather to visible soiling through repeated contact with soiled objects. It provides a physical pretreatment routine for leathers that may be vulnerable to loss of soiling resistance while in service, prior to conducting further tests such as cleaning.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of free and released formaldehyde in leathers. This method, based on colorimetric analysis, is not intended to be used for a precise quantification of formaldehyde.
The formaldehyde content is taken to be the quantity of free-formaldehyde and formaldehyde extracted through hydrolysis contained in a water extract from the leather under standard conditions.
This process is not absolutely selective for formaldehyde. Other compounds such as extracted dyes could interfere at 412 nm.

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This document describes a method for the determination of chromium in aqueous solution obtained from leather. This is an analysis for total chromium in leather; it is not compound specific or specific to its oxidation state.
This method describes the determination of chromium by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and is applicable to leathers which are expected to have chromic oxide contents in excess of 1 mg/kg. Two techniques for the preparation of the solution to be analysed are included. In the event of dispute, the wet oxidation technique is intended to be used.

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This document describes a method for the determination of chromium in aqueous solution obtained from leather. This is an analysis for total chromium in leather; it is not compound specific or specific to its oxidation state.
This method describes the determination of chrome by iodometric titration and is to be applicable to chromium-tanned leathers which are expected to have chromic oxide contents in excess of 0,3 %. Two different methods are described as alternatives for obtaining chromium in a suitable solution. It is appropriate to use either method.

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ISO 17231 | IULTCS/IUP 37:2017 specifies a method for determining the repellency of leather to surface wetting. It is applicable to all leathers intended for use in clothing. The method does not determine the resistance of leather to water penetration.

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ISO 2418:2017 specifies the location of a laboratory sample within a piece of leather and the method of labelling and marking the laboratory samples for future identification.
It is applicable to all types of leather derived from mammals irrespective of the tanning used.
It is not applicable to leathers derived from birds, fish, reptiles or furs.

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ISO 17232:2017 specifies two methods for determining the heat resistance of patent leather.
Method A makes use of a modified lastometer, while Method B uses the "Zwik" apparatus. Both methods are applicable to patent leathers for all end uses.

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ISO 2420:2017 specifies a method for determining the apparent density and the mass per unit area of leather. It is applicable to all leathers.

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ISO 17233:2017 specifies a method for determining the cold crack temperature of surface coatings applied to leather. It is applicable to all leathers which have a surface coating and which can be easily flexed.

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ISO 17075-1:2017 specifies a method for determining chromium(VI) in solutions leached from leather under defined conditions. The method described is suitable to quantify the chromium(VI) content in leathers down to 3 mg/kg.
ISO 17075-1:2017 is applicable to all leather types.
The results obtained from this method are strictly dependent on the extraction conditions. Results obtained by using other extraction procedures (extraction solution, pH, extraction time, etc.) are not comparable with the results produced by the procedure described in this document.
If a leather sample is tested with both this document and ISO 17075-2, the results obtained with ISO 17075-2 are considered as the reference. The advantage of the method described in ISO 17075-2 is that there are no interferences from the colour of the extract. Nevertheless, interlaboratory trials do not show significant differences (see Annex C) and the results are comparable between both methods.

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ISO 2417:2016 specifies a method for determining the water absorption of leather under static conditions. The method is applicable to all leather, particularly heavy leather.

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ISO 2589:2016 specifies a method for determining the thickness of leather. The method is applicable to all types of leather of any tannage. The measurement is valid for both the whole leather and a test sample.

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ISO 3377-2:2016 specifies a method for determining the tear strength of leather using a double edged tear. The method is sometimes described as the Baumann tear. It is applicable to all types of leather.

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ISO 17236:2016 specifies a method for determining the extension set of leather. It is intended for use on upholstery leather but is applicable to all flexible leathers.

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ISO 17229:2016 specifies a method for determining the water vapour absorption of leather. The method is applicable for all leathers but is particularly relevant for leathers intended for footwear uppers and linings.

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ISO 5402-2:2015 specifies a method for determining the wet or dry flex resistance of leather and finishes applied to leather. It is applicable to all types of leather below 3,0 mm in thickness.

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ISO 19074:2015 specifies a method for determining the rate of absorption of water by capillary action or wicking in leathers. It is applicable to all types of leather.

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ISO 17235:2015 specifies a non-destructive method for determining the softness of leather. It is applicable to all non-rigid leathers, e.g. shoe upper leather, upholstery leather, leathergoods leather, and apparel leather.

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ISO 3380:2015 specifies a method for determination of the shrinkage temperature of leather up to 100 °C. It is applicable to all leathers.

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ISO 3379:2015 specifies a test method for the determination of distension and strength of the leather grain or finished surface. This method is applicable to all flexible leathers and it is particularly suitable to determine the lastability of leathers for footwear uppers.

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ISO 14268:2012 describes a method for determining the water vapour permeability of leather and provides alternative methods of sample preparation.

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ISO 26082-2:2011 specifies a tumbling method which is intended to determine the resistance of all forms of leather to visible soiling through repeated contact with soiled objects. It provides a physical pretreatment routine for leathers that may be vulnerable to loss of soiling resistance in service.

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ISO 2419:2012 specifies the preparation of leather for physical and mechanical testing together with standard atmospheres for conditioning and testing. It is applicable to all types of dry leather.

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ISO 5403-2:2011 specifies a method for determining the dynamic water resistance of leather by means of repeated angular compression. It is applicable to all flexible leathers but is particularly suitable for leathers intended for footwear applications. It uses a Maeser-type machine and includes an option for electronic detection.

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ISO 3377-1:2011 specifies a method for determining the tear strength of leather using a single-edge tear. The method is sometimes described as a trouser tear. It is applicable to all types of leather.

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ISO 17186:2011 specifies a method for determining the thickness of the surface coating applied to leather when measured under zero compression. It is applicable to all types of leather.

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ISO 5403-1:2011 specifies a method for determining the dynamic water resistance of leather by means of repeated linear compression. It is applicable to all flexible leathers but is particularly suitable for leathers intended for footwear applications.

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ISO 5404:2011 specifies a method for determining the water resistance of heavy leathers. The method allows determination of the penetration time, water absorption, area of penetration and water penetration rate as required. It is applicable to all types of heavy leathers.

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ISO 14087:2011 describes a test method for the determination of the bending force of leather.

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ISO 17230:2006 describes a method for determining the water penetration pressure of leather.

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ISO 17071:2006 specifies two alternative methods for determining the fogging characteristics of leathers used in the passenger compartments of motor vehicles, namely Method A and Method B. These are two different test procedures to measure the volatile components and there is no mathematical correlation between the results obtained with Method A and those with Method B.
Method A determines by reflection the light scattering properties (or opaqueness) and the nature of the film or droplet formation from volatile components condensed on a cold glass surface. Method B measures gravimetrically the quantity of volatile components condensed on a cold aluminium foil surface. Annex A gives the results of inter-laboratory trial which show that Method B performs well, whereas Method A showed a large variation in the percentage reflection.
The test conditions allow the two tests to be carried out in succession.

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ISO 17074:2006 specifies a method for determining the horizontal burning rate of leather. It is applicable to all light leathers but is particularly intended for leathers used in the passenger compartment of motor vehicles.

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ISO 17076-2:2011 specifies a method of determining the abrasion resistance of upholstery leather for different applications using Martindale apparatus with a ball plate. The method is applicable to semi-aniline, pigmented and coated leather.

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ISO 5398-2:2009 describes the determination of chrome by colorimetric means. It is applicable to leathers which are expected to have chromic oxide contents in excess of 0,05 %. This is an analysis for total chromium in leather; it is not compound specific or specific to its oxidation state.

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This document specifies a method for determining the dry or wet flex resistance of leather and finishes applied to leather. It is applicable to all types of flexible leather below 3,0 mm in thickness.

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This document specifies a method of determining the dimensional change (shrinkage) of leathers caused by ageing. It is applicable to all leathers.

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This document specifies a method for determining the tensile strength, elongation at a specified load and elongation at maximum force of leather. It is applicable to all types of leather.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of free and released formaldehyde in leathers. This method, based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), is selective and not sensitive to coloured extracts and is intended to be used for precise quantification of formaldehyde.
The formaldehyde content is taken to be the quantity of free formaldehyde and formaldehyde extracted through hydrolysis contained in a water extract from the leather under standard conditions of use.

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This European Standard specifies a method of determining the bagginess of leather together with its creep and stress relaxation properties. It is applicable to all non-rigid leathers. e.g. Shoe upper leather, upholstery leather, leathergoods leather and apparel leather. Leather is a viscoelastic material and, upon removal of any applied force, only a proportion of the extension observed is recovered. Even some time after removal of the force there is some degree of permanent deformation which is known as the retained set or bagginess of the leather. Due to the nature of the test method described below it is also possible to obtain a measure of the creep and stress relaxation properties of leather. Although the creep index quoted is not obtained via the true definition of creep, it will however provide a valuable comparative indication of this property in leather.

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ISO 4684:2005 specifies a method of determination of volatile matter which is applicable to all leather types.
It is not possible to determine the exact moisture content of leather by this method. This is because at elevated temperatures other volatile substances escape and tannins and fats can be oxidized. Some absorbed water may be left in the leather after drying.

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ISO 17227:2002 specifies a method of determining the dry heat resistance of conditioned leathers. It is applicable to all leathers.

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ISO 3378:2002 specifies a method for determining the resistance of leather to grain cracking and for determining the grain crack index. It is applicable to all heavy leathers.

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Migrated from Progress Sheet (TC Comment) (2000-07-10): WIs 056 to 060 are the result of the splitting of WI 021 (TC Res 10/1996)

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Migrated from Progress Sheet (TC Comment) (2000-07-10): WIs 056 to 060 are the result of the splitting of WI 021 (TC Res 10/1996)

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Migrated from Progress Sheet (TC Comment) (2000-07-10): WIs 056 to 060 are the result of the splitting of WI 021 (TC Res 10/1996)

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ISO 2418:2017 specifies the location of a laboratory sample within a piece of leather and the method of labelling and marking the laboratory samples for future identification.
It is applicable to all types of leather derived from mammals irrespective of the tanning used.
It is not applicable to leathers derived from birds, fish, reptiles or furs.

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ISO 17076-1:2012 specifies a method of determining the abrasion resistance of leather using a Taber apparatus.

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