This document describes procedures for determination of the compressive behaviour of ceramic matrix composite materials with continuous fibre reinforcement at room temperature. This method applies to all ceramic matrix composites with a continuous fibre reinforcement, uni-directional (1D), bi-directional (2D) and tri-directional (xD, with 2 < x < 3), tested along one principal axis of reinforcement or off axis conditions. This method also applies to carbon-fibre-reinforced carbon matrix composites (also known as carbon/carbon or C/C). Two cases of testing are distinguished: compression between platens and compression using grips.

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This document covers the reporting of uniaxial strength data and the estimation of probability distribution parameters for advanced ceramics which fail in a brittle fashion. The failure strength of advanced ceramics is treated as a continuous random variable. Typically, a number of test specimens with well-defined geometry are brought to failure under well-defined isothermal loading conditions. The load at which each specimen fails is recorded. The resulting failure stresses are used to obtain parameter estimates associated with the underlying population distribution.
This document is restricted to the assumption that the distribution underlying the failure strengths is the two-parameter Weibull distribution with size scaling. Furthermore, this document is restricted to test specimens (tensile, flexural, pressurized ring, etc.) that are primarily subjected to uniaxial stress states. Subclauses 6.4 and 6.5 outline methods of correcting for bias errors in the estimated Weibull parameters, and to calculate confidence bounds on those estimates from data sets where all failures originate from a single flaw population (i.e. a single failure mode). In samples where failures originate from multiple independent flaw populations (e.g. competing failure modes), the methods outlined in 6.4 and 6.5 for bias correction and confidence bounds are not applicable.

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This document specifies the test method to determine the extent to which ceramic powder compacts made of granulated or ungranulated ceramic powders are densified, when they are sintered at a high temperature without the application of any external pressure or external densification force. The test method is applicable to pure oxides, mixtures of oxides and solid solutions, and is also applicable to non-oxides (e.g. carbides, nitrides) that can be sintered under vacuum or constant gas pressure (1 bar or less) to prevent oxidation or decomposition. The test method is not applicable to ceramics that can only be sintered using pressure-assisted sintering techniques such as hot pressing (HP), hot isostatic pressing (HIP), gas pressure sintering (GPS) or spark plasma sintering (SPS). Inorganic sintering additives can be used where their presence is reported.

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This document specifies methods for the chemical analysis of fine aluminium nitride powders used as the raw material for fine ceramics.
This document stipulates the determination methods of the aluminium, total nitrogen, boron, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, potassium, silicon, sodium, titanium, tungsten, vanadium, zinc, zirconium, carbon, chlorine, fluorine, and oxygen contents in aluminium nitride powders. The aluminium content is determined by using either an acid pressure decomposition-CyDTA-zinc back titration method or an acid digestion-inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) method. The total nitrogen content is determined by using an acid pressure decomposition-distillation separation-acidimetric titration method, a direct decomposition-distillation separation-acidimetric titration method, or an inert gas fusion-thermal conductivity method. The boron, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, potassium, silicon, sodium, titanium, tungsten, vanadium and zinc contents are determined by using an acid digestion-ICP-OES method or an acid pressure decomposition-ICP-OES method. The sodium and potassium contents are determined via an acid pressure decomposition-flame emission method or an acid pressure decomposition-atomic absorption spectrometry method. The oxygen content is determined by using an inert gas fusion-IR absorption spectrometry method, while that of carbon is determined via a combustion-IR absorption spectrometry method or a combustion-conductometry method. The chlorine and fluorine contents are determined by using a pyrohydrolysation method followed by ion chromatography or spectrophotometry.

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ISO 21813 specifies methods for the chemical analysis of fine high purity barium titanate powders used as the raw material for fine ceramics.
ISO 21813 stipulates the determination methods of the barium, titanium, aluminium, cadmium, calcium, cobalt, dysprosium, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, nickel, niobium, potassium, silicon, sodium, strontium, vanadium, zirconium, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen contents in high purity barium titanate powders. The barium and titanium contents, the major elements, are determined by using an acid decomposition-gravimetric method or an acid decomposition-inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) method. The aluminium, cadmium, calcium, chromium, cobalt, dysprosium, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, nickel, niobium, potassium, silicon, strontium, vanadium and zirconium contents are simultaneously determined via an acid digestion-ICP-OES method. The nitrogen content is determined by using an inert gas fusion-thermal conductivity method, while that of oxygen is determined via an inert gas fusion-IR absorption spectrometry method. Finally, the carbon content is determined using a combustion-IR absorption spectrometry method or a combustion-conductometry method.

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This Technical Specification describes requirements and methods for undertaking tests to determine the resistance of the edges of brittle ceramic materials to be damaged by chipping or flaking. It is limited to homogeneous monolithic ceramics with flat surfaces and straight sharp or chamfered edges.

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This CEN Technical Specification specifies a single fibre push-out method to determine the fibre-matrix
bonding characteristics of ceramic matrix composite materials at room temperature, by the measurement of
the interfacial frictional shear stress.
This standard applies to all continuous fibre-reinforced ceramic matrix composites whatever the type of
reinforcement: unidirectional (1D), bidirectional (2D) and tridirectional (xD, with 2 < x ≤ 3).

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This CEN Technical Specification specifies a method to determine the fibre-matrix bonding characteristics of
ceramic matrix composite materials at room temperature, by the measurement of the interfacial frictional
shear stress obtained by cycled tension on mini-composites.
A mini-composite is a unidirectional composite reinforced with a single tow.

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This Technical Specification specifies the conditions for the determination of the thermal diffusivity of single filaments of ceramic fibres parallel to the fibre axis.
This Technical Specification applies to continuous ceramic filaments taken from tows, yarns, braids and knittings.
The experimental conditions are such that the material behaves in an homogeneous manner and that the heat transfer occurs only by thermal conduction.
The method is applicable to materials which are physically and chemically stable during the measurement, and covers the range of temperature between 100 K and 600 K. It is suitable for the measurement of thermal diffusivity values in the range between 10-4 m²·s-1 and 10-7 m2·s-1.

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This European Standard specifies the conditions for measurement of tensile properties of single filament of ceramic fibres at high temperatures in air or inert atmosphere (vacuum or controlled atmosphere). The method applies to continuous ceramic filaments taken from tows, yarns, staple fibre, braids and knitting, that have strain to fracture less or equal to 5 % and show linear elastic behaviour to fracture.
The method does not apply to testing for homogeneity of strength properties of fibres, nor does it assess the effects of volume under stress. Statistical aspects of fibre failure are not included.
Two methods are proposed depending on the temperature of the filament end:
   Hot end method: this method allows determination of tensile strength, of Young's modulus and of the stress strain curve.
NOTE 1   Current experience with this technique is limited to 1 300 °C, because of the application temperature of ceramic glue.
   Cold end method.
NOTE 2   This method is limited to 1 700 °C in air and 2 000 °C in inert atmosphere because of the limits of furnaces.

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This Technical Specification specifies the conditions for the determination of the tensile creep deformation and failure behaviour of single filaments of ceramic fibres at high temperature and under test conditions that prevent changes to the material as a result of chemical reaction with the test environment.
This Technical Specification applies to continuous ceramic filaments taken from tows, yarns, braids and knitted structures, that have strains to failure less than or equal to 5 %.

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This Part of EN 725 specifies one fusion and one acid dissolution method for the determination of elements of sodium, potassium, iron, silicon, calcium and magnesium present as impurities in alumina using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) or inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy. For each element present as impurities, the methods are applicable to the following ranges, calculated as oxides :
-   Sodium oxide:      20 ppm to 6000 ppm
-   Potassium oxide:      20 ppm to 100 ppm
-   Ferric oxide:      20 ppm to 300 ppm
-   Silica:         50 ppm to 2000 ppm
-   Calcium oxide:      20 ppm to 700 ppm
-   Magnesium oxide:                   5 ppm to 1000 ppm

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TC - Modifications in Table B.1, 1st column of the E + F versions

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This part of EN 843 specifies methods for determining the elastic moduli, specifically Young’s modulus, shear modulus and Poisson’s ratio, of advanced monolithic technical ceramics at room temperature. This European Standard prescribes four alternative methods for determining some or all of these three parameters:
A   The determination of Young’s modulus by static flexure of a thin beam in three- or four-point flexure.
B   The determination of Young’s modulus by forced longitudinal resonance, or Young’s modulus, shear modulus and Poisson’s ratio by forced flexural and torsional resonance, of a thin beam.
C    The determination of Young’s modulus, shear modulus and Poisson’s ratio from the time-of-flight of an ultrasonic pulse.
D   The determination of Young’s modulus from the fundamental natural frequency of a struck bar (impulse excitation method).
All the test methods assume the use of homogeneous test pieces of linear elastic materials.
NOTE 1   Not all ceramic materials are equally and linearly elastic in tension and compression, such as some porous materials and some piezoelectric materials.
With the exception of Method C, the test assumes that the test piece has isotropic elastic properties. Method C may be used to determine the degree of anisotropy by testing in different orientations.
NOTE 2   An ultrasonic method for dealing with anisotropic materials (ceramic matrix composites) can be found in
ENV 14186 (see Bibliography). An alternative to Method D for isotropic materials using disc test pieces is given in
Annex A.
NOTE 3   At high porosity levels all of the methods except Method C can become inappropriate. The methods are only suitable for a maximum grain size (see EN 623-3), excluding deliberately added whiskers, of less than 10 % of the minimum dimension of the test piece.
NOTE 4   The different methods given in this European Standard can produce slightly different results on the same material owing to differences between quasi-isothermal quasi-static an

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This part of EN 843 specifies methods for determining the nominal flexural strength of advanced monolithic technical ceramic materials at ambient temperature. The available loading geometries are three- and four-point flexure, using rectangular section test pieces of two prescribed geometries: 20 mm support span (A) and 40 mm support span (B).
NOTE   This part of EN 843 differs from ISO 14704 (see Bibliography) in respect of span A (not included in the ISO version), the absence of the 30 mm span option, and the required use of a fully articulating test jig.
The test applies to materials with grain size less than 200 µm.
The test prescribes four categories of surface finish applied to the test pieces:
I:   as-fired or annealed after machining;
II:   standard finishing by grinding;
III:   standard finishing by lapping/polishing;
IV:   machined using agreed grinding procedures and material removal rates.

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This part of EN 623 specifies qualitative methods for determination of the presence of defects in advanced technical ceramics by dye penetration tests. The results are reported as visual observations of dye penetration.
Three methods are described:
Method A:  A fuchsine dye test which is suitable for white or pale-coloured ceramic products, performed using an evacuation test.
Method B:  A fluorescent dye test which is suitable particularly for those products where the purple fuchsine has insufficient visual contrast with the ceramic material, performed using a proprietary test kit.
Method C:  A fuchsine dye test which is performed by simple immersion in or spraying with a dye solution, suitable for routine testing for major defects.

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This Technical Specification specifies a method for the determination of the internal stress in thin ceramic coatings by application of the Stoney formula to the results obtained from measurement of the radius of curvature of coated strips or discs.

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This document describes a method for the determination of the thermal conductivity of ceramic matrix composites with continuous fibre reinforcement. This method applies to all ceramic matrix composites with a fibre reinforcement, unidirectional (1D), bidirectional (2D), and tridirectional (xD, with 2 < x  3) as defined in ENV 13233, submitted to a heat flux along one principal axis of anisotropy.
The experimental conditions are such that the material behaves in an homogeneous manner for each of its axis of anisotropy and that the heat transfer occurs only by thermal conduction. The method is applicable to materials which are physically and chemically stable during the measurement.
Contrary to other methods of direct measurement which permit only to determine a value of the thermal conductivity averaged over an interval of temperature, the method described in this document, based on an adequate exploitation of the temperature record, allows to determine with a good accuracy the thermal conductivity at a defined temperature. This is more interesting since the variation of the thermal conductivity with the temperature is non-linear, which is generally the case for CMC's.
NOTE   It is also possible to calculate the conductivity of CMC's by an indirect method using the following equation:
 = a   pb  Cp
where
   is the thermal conductivity;
a   is the thermal diffusivity;
pb   is the bulk density;
Cp   is the specific heat capacity.

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1.1   This part of prCEN/TS 14425 provides information on the comparative value, and guidance on the selection, of test methods for determining the apparent fracture toughness of monolithic advanced technical ceramics. For the purposes of this standard, the term monolithic includes particle, platelet and whisker reinforced advanced technical ceramics which can be regarded as macroscopically homogeneous. It does not include long-fibre reinforced ceramics.
1.2   Reference is made in this part of prCEN/TS 14425 to specific test methods described in other parts of this Technical Specification.

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This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of the temperature at which the self-loaded deformation of a ceramic test piece commences and the extent of this deformation.

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This part of EN 658 specifies the conditions for the determination of the interlaminar shear strength matrix composite materials with continuous fibre reinforcement at ambient temperature, by loading a notched specimen in compression. The method applies to unidirectionally and bidirectionally reinforced ceramic matrix composites, as well as to tridirectional composites with weak reinforcement in the third direction.

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This part of EN 658 specifies the conditions for the determination of the interlaminar shear strength matrix composite materials with continuous fibre reinforcement at ambient temperature, by subjecting a test specimen to a short-span, three points, bend test. The method applies to unidirectionally and bidirectionally reinforced ceramic matrix composites, as well as to tridirectional composites with weak reinforcement in the third direction.

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This Part of this European Standard specifies a method of determining the three-point or four-point flexural strength of advanced monolithic technical ceramics at elevated temperatures as agreed between parties to the test. The test can be performed in any appropriate atmosphere.

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This part of EN 1007 specifies three methods for the determination of the diameter and cross-section area of ceramic single filament, as used in fibre reinforcement of ceramic composites. Note: The cross-sectional area of filaments from different suppliers will vary significantly. The term "diameter" applies both to circular cross-section ("true diameter") and non-circular cross-sections ("apparent diameter").

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This part of EN 1007 specifies a method for the determination of the linear density (mass per unit length) of ceramic fibres, including silicon carbide, silicon nitride, silicon carbon-nitride, alumino-silicate, alumina or silicon oxide fibres. The linear density is determined on unsized ceramic yarn.

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This part of EN 1007 specifies a method for the determination of the size content of ceramic fibres, including silicon carbide, silicon nitride, silicon carbon-nitride, alumino-silicate, alumina or silicon oxide fibres.

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This part of EN 725 specifies methods for the determination of the levels of silicon, aluminium, titanium, iron, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, yttrium, hafnium, cerium and strontium using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP - AES).  These methods are applicable to the concentration ranges given in clause 3, expressed as oxides.

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This part of EN 658 specifies the conditions for determination of tensile properties of ceramic matrix composite materials with continuous fibre reinforcement at ambient temperature. This standard applies to all ceramic matrix composites with a continuous fibre reinforcement, unidirectional (1D), bidirectional (2D) and tridirectional (xD, with 2

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This part of EN 821 describes a method for the determination of thermal diffusivity of advanced monolithic technical ceramics, to an accuracy of approximately +/- 5%. It is suitable for the measurement of thermal diffusivity values in the range 0.1 mm2/s to 1000 mm2/s at temperatures greater than -180°C.

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ISO 17947:2014 specifies the methods for the chemical analysis of fine silicon nitride powders used as the raw material for fine ceramics. It stipulates the determination methods of total silicon, total nitrogen, aluminium, iron, calcium, oxygen, carbon, fluorine, and chlorine in fine silicon nitride powders.

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ISO 20509:2003 describes the method of test for determining the oxidation resistance of non-oxide monolithic ceramics, such as silicon nitride, sialon and silicon carbide at high temperatures. This International Standard is designed to provide an assessment of the mass and dimensional changes of test pieces following oxidation at high temperature in an oxidizing atmosphere, and to assess whether oxidation has a significant effect on the subsequent strength. This test method may be used for materials development, quality control, characterization, and design data generation purposes.

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This International Standard ISO 24370 specifies a test method for determining the fracture toughness of monolithic ceramic materials at room temperature by the chevron-notched beam (CNB) method.
This International Standard is applicable to monolithic ceramics and whisker- or particulate-reinforced ceramics that are regarded as macroscopically homogeneous. It is not applicable to continuous-fibre reinforced ceramic composites.
This International Standard is usually applicable to ceramic materials with a fracture toughness less than about 12 MPa(m1/2). The test method is applicable to materials with a flat crack-growth resistance curve and may be applicable to materials with a rising crack-growth resistance curve (R-curve).

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ISO 17092:2005 describes the test method for determining the corrosion resistance of fine ceramics in acid and alkaline solutions, such as sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide. This International Standard is designed to provide an assessment of the mass changes and dimensional changes of test specimens following the corrosion test immersed in the corrosive liquids, and to assess whether corrosion has a significant effect on the subsequent strength. This test method may be used for development of materials, quality control, characterization, and design-data generation purposes.

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This part of EN 843 specifies a method for statistical analysis of ceramic strength data in terms of a two-parameter Weibull distribution using a maximum likelihood estimation technique. It assumes that the data set has been obtained from a series of tests under nominally identical conditions.
NOTE 1   In principle, Weibull analysis is considered to be strictly valid for the case of linear elastic fracture behaviour to the point of failure, i.e. for a perfectly brittle material, and under conditions in which strength limiting flaws do not interact and in which there is only a single strength-limiting flaw population.
If subcritical crack growth or creep deformation preceding fracture occurs, Weibull analysis can still be applied if the results fit a Weibull distribution, but numerical parameters may change depending on the magnitude of these effects. Since it is impossible to be certain of the degree to which subcritical crack growth or creep deformation has occurred, this European Standard permits the analysis of the general situation where crack growth or creep may have occurred, provided that it is recognized that the parameters derived from the analysis may not be the same as those derived from data with no subcritical crack growth or creep.
NOTE 2   This European Standard employs the same calculation procedures as method A of ISO 20501:2003, but does not provide a method for dealing with censored data (method B of ISO 20501).

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This document describes procedures for determination of the compressive behaviour of ceramic matrix composite materials with continuous fibre reinforcement at room temperature. This method applies to all ceramic matrix composites with a continuous fibre reinforcement, uni-directional (1D), bi-directional (2D) and tri-directional (xD, with 2 < x < 3), tested along one principal axis of reinforcement or off axis conditions. This method also applies to carbon-fibre-reinforced carbon matrix composites (also known as carbon/carbon or C/C). Two cases of testing are distinguished: compression between platens and compression using grips.

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This Part of EN 725 describes a method for determining the densification of ceramic powders on natural sintering, without the application of any external pressure. The method is applicable to pure oxides, mixtures of oxides and solid solutions. Inorganic sintering additives may be used where their presence is reported.

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This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of oxygen contents of 2 % or less in aluminium nitride powder, by XRF analysis.

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This part of EN 725 describes a method for the determination of impurities in barium titanate powders using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES).
The method is applicable only to stoichiometric barium titanate. The maximum concentrations measured for each impurity are as follows:
   Sr   4 mg/g (4 000 ppm)
   Ca   500 ug/g (500 ppm)
   K   200 ug/g (200 ppm)
   Na, Mg, Al, Fe, Nb   100 g/g (100 ppm)
The minimum concentration or detection limits are from 1 ug/g to 5 ug/g (1 ppm to 5 ppm).

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This document specifies the conditions for the determination of the distribution of strength and rupture strain of ceramic filaments within a multifilament tow at room temperature by performing a tensile test on a multifilament tow.
This document applies to dry tows of continuous ceramic filaments that are assumed to act freely and independently under loading and exhibit linear elastic behaviour up to failure. The outputs of this method are not to be mixed up with the strengths of embedded tows determined by using ISO 24046[1].
[1] Under preparation.

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ISO 17139:2014 describes methods for the determination of linear thermal expansion characteristics of ceramic matrix composite materials up to 2 300 K, and is applicable to 1D, 2D, and nD materials. The method describes general principles of construction, calibration, and operation of the equipment.

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This document describes the flash method for the determination of thermal diffusivity of ceramic matrix composites with continuous fibre reinforcement.
In order to conform with the unidimensional heat transfer hypothesis, the experimental conditions are defined such that the material behaves in a homogeneous manner. This involves performing tests in one symmetry axis of the composite.
The method is applicable to materials which are physically and chemically stable during the measurement, and covers the range of temperature from 100 K to 2 800 K. It is suitable for the measurement of thermal diffusivity values in the range 10−4 m2∙s−1 to 10−7 m2∙s−1.

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This document specifies methods for the determination of the apparent solid density, bulk density, apparent porosity and geometric bulk density of fine ceramics, including all ceramic matrix composites.
Two methods are described and are designated as Methods A and B, as follows:
—     Method A: Determination of bulk density, apparent solid density and apparent porosity by liquid displacement (Archimedes' method).
NOTE 1  This method is not appropriate for the determination of an apparent porosity greater than 10 %. For materials with higher porosity, the accuracy of the measurement might not be satisfactory. This method might also not give a satisfactory open porosity result if it is less than 0,5 %.
NOTE 2  This method is also not suitable for materials which are known to have an average pore size of greater than 600 µm.
—     Method B: Determination of bulk density only, by measurement of geometric dimensions and mass.

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ISO 17138:2014 describes a method for the determination of the flexural strength of ceramic matrix composite materials with continuous fibre reinforcement, under three-point or four-point bend at room temperature. This method applies to all ceramic matrix composites with a continuous fibre reinforcement, unidirectional (1D), bidirectional (2D), and tridirectional xD with (2 < x ≤ 3) as defined in CEN/TR 13233, loaded along one principal axis of reinforcement.

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ISO 18608:2017 describes a method for the classification of ceramic matrix composite (CMC) materials with respect to their sensitivity to crack propagation using tensile tests on notched specimens with different notch depths. Two classes of ceramic matrix composite materials can be distinguished: materials whose strength is sensitive to the presence of notches and materials whose strength is not affected. For sensitive materials, this document defines a method for determining equivalent fracture toughness.
The parameter, Keq, is defined as the fracture toughness of a homogeneous material which presents the same sensitivity to crack propagation as the ceramic matrix composite material which is being considered. The definition of the Keq parameter offers the possibility to compare ceramic matrix composite materials with other materials with respect to sensitivity to crack propagation.
For notch insensitive materials, the concept of Keq does not apply.
ISO 18608:2017 applies to all ceramic matrix composites with a continuous fibre reinforcement, unidirectional (1 D), bidirectional (2 D), and tridirectional (x D, where 2 < x ≤ 3), loaded along one principal axis of reinforcement.

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This European Prestandard specifies a method for the routine qualitative and quantitative determination of the crystalline phases (monoclinic, tetragonal and cubic) present in zirconia powders using X-ray powder diffraction.

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This European Prestandard specifies methods for the determination of calcium, magnesium, iron, and aluminium, using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS), or inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES).
The methods are applicable to the concentration ranges given in clause 3.

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This European Standard specifies the conditions, apparatus and procedure for determining the distribution of tensile strength and tensile strain to failure of ceramic filaments in multifilament tows at ambient temperature.
This European Standard applies to tows of continuous ceramic filaments, which are assumed to act freely and independently under loading, and behave linearly elastic up to failure.

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This European Standard describes two methods for determination of the bulk density and apparent porosity of ceramic matrix composites with fibrous continuous reinforcement (1D, 2D, 3D). Two methods are described and are designated as Methods A and B, as follows : - Method A: Determination of bulk density only, by measurement of dimensions and mass ; - Method B: Determination of bulk density and apparent porosity by liquid displacement.

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This part of EN 1159 describes the laser flash method for the determination of thermal diffusivity of ceramic matrix composites with continuous reinforcements (1D, 2D, 3D). The experimental conditions are such that the material behaves in an homogeneous manner for each of its axes of anisotropy and that the heat transfer occurs only by thermal conduction. The method is applicable to materials which are physically and chemically stable during the measurement, and covers the range of temperature between 100 K and 2 800 K.

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This part of EN 623 describes methods for determination of the bulk desnsity, apparent porosity of advanced technical ceramics.
Two methods are described and are designated as Methods 1 and 2, as follows :
Method 1: Determination of bulk density, apparent solid density and apparent porosity by the evacuation method.
Method 2: Determination of bulk density only, by measurement of dimensions and mass.

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