Fast pyrolysis bio-oils for industrial boilers - Requirements and test methods

This European Standard specifies requirements and test methods for fast pyrolysis bio-oils for boiler use at industrial scale (>1 MW thermal capacity), not for domestic use. Two different grades are specified.
It is recommended to draw attention to differences especially in those properties, which can have an effect on the required flue gas treatment system, such as ash, nitrogen, and sulfur content. National and local regulations determine the requirements for flue gas treatment system.
In addition to the quality requirements and test methods for fast pyrolysis bio-oils, further instructions on storage (Annex A), sampling, and materials compatibility (Annex B) are given.
NOTE   For the purposes of this European Standard, the term "% (m/m)" is used to represent respectively the mass fraction.

Schnellpyrolyse-Bioöle für industrielle Kesselanlagen - Anforderungen und Prüfverfahren

Diese Europäische Norm legt Anforderungen und Prüfverfahren für Schnellpyrolyse-Bioöle für industrielle Kesselanlagen (> 1 MW Wärmekapazität), nicht jedoch für den häuslichen Gebrauch fest. Es werden zwei verschiedene Klassen bestimmt.
Es wird empfohlen die Unterschiede insbesondere derjenigen Eigenschaften zu beachten, die einen Einfluss auf das erforderliche Abgasbehandlungssystem haben können, wie Asche-, Stickstoff- und Schwefelgehalt. Nationale und lokale Regelungen bestimmen die Anforderungen an das Abgasbehandlungssystem.
Zusätzlich zu den Qualitätsanforderungen und Prüfverfahren für Schnellpyrolyse-Bioöle sind weitere Hinweise zur Lagerung (Anhang A), Probenahme und Kompatibilität der Materialien (Anhang B) angegeben.
ANMERKUNG   Für die Zwecke dieser Europäischen Norm wird der Ausdruck "% (m/m)" zur Darstellung des jeweiligen Massenanteils genutzt.

Huiles de pyrolyse rapide pour application chaudières - Spécifications et méthodes d’analyses

La présente Norme européenne spécifie les exigences et méthodes d'essai applicables aux bio-huiles de pyrolyse rapide destinées à être utilisées dans des chaudières à usage industriel (> 1 MW de capacité thermique), et non dans des chaudières à usage domestique. Elle spécifie deux niveaux de qualité différents.
Il est recommandé de souligner les différences existantes, notamment au niveau des propriétés pouvant avoir un impact sur le système de traitement des gaz de combustion requis, telles que les teneurs en cendres, en azote et en soufre. Les réglementations locales et nationales fixent les exigences applicables en termes de système de traitement des gaz de combustion.
Outre les exigences de qualité et les méthodes d'essai applicables aux bio-huiles de pyrolyse rapide, des instructions relatives au stockage (Annexe A), à l'échantillonnage et à la compatibilité du matériel (Annexe B) sont données.
NOTE   Pour les besoins de la présente Norme européenne, l’expression «% (m/m)» est utilisée pour désigner les fractions massiques.

Bioolja, pridobljena s hitro pirolizo, za industrijske kotle - Zahteve in preskusne metode

Ta evropski standard določa zahteve in preskusne metode za trženo in dobavljeno gorivo, pridobljeno s postopki hitre pirolize olja. Uporablja se za olja, pridobljena s hitro pirolizo, za uporabo v industrijskih kotlih in povezani opremi, ki proizvaja toploto ali elektriko. Predstavlja alternativo ali komponento za mešanje v težkem ali lahkem kurilnem olju, ki se uporablja za podobne namene.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
14-Mar-2017
Current Stage
9020 - Submission to 2 Year Review Enquiry - Review Enquiry
Due Date
15-Apr-2022
Completion Date
15-Apr-2022

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Bioolja, pridobljena s hitro pirolizo, za industrijske kotle - Zahteve in preskusne metodeFast Pyrolyse-Öle für die stationäre Wärmeerzeugung - Anforderungen und PrüfverfahrenHuiles de pyrolyse rapide pour application chaudières - Spécifications et méthodes d’analysesFast pyrolysis bio-oils for industrial boilers - Requirements and test methods75.160.40BiogorivaBiofuelsICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 16900:2017SIST EN 16900:2017en,fr,de01-junij-2017SIST EN 16900:2017SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST EN 16900:2017
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 16900
March
t r s y ICS
y wä s x rä v r English Version

Fast pyrolysis bioæoils for industrial boilers æ Requirements and test methods Huiles de pyrolyse rapide pour application chaudières æSpécifications et méthodes d 5analyses

SchnellpyrolyseæBioöle für industrielle Kesselanlagen æAnforderungen und Prüfverfahren This European Standard was approved by CEN on

s x January
t r s yä

egulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alterationä Upætoædate lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN memberä

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versionsä

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austriaá Belgiumá Bulgariaá Croatiaá Cyprusá Czech Republicá Denmarká Estoniaá Finlandá Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedoniaá Franceá Germanyá Greeceá Hungaryá Icelandá Irelandá Italyá Latviaá Lithuaniaá Luxembourgá Maltaá Netherlandsá Norwayá Polandá Portugalá Romaniaá Serbiaá Slovakiaá Sloveniaá Spainá Swedená Switzerlandá Turkey and United Kingdomä

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Avenue Marnix 17,
B-1000 Brussels

t r s y CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Membersä Refä Noä EN

s x { r rã t r s y ESIST EN 16900:2017
EN 16900:2017 (E) 2 Contents

page European foreword ................................................................................................................................................................ 3 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................................. 4 1 Scope ............................................................................................................................................................................. 5 2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................................. 5 3 Terms and definitions ............................................................................................................................................ 6 4 Sampling and sample handling ........................................................................................................................... 7 5 Requirements and test methods ......................................................................................................................... 7 5.1 Additives ...................................................................................................................................................................... 7 5.2 Generally applicable requirements and related test methods ................................................................ 7 5.3 Transport and general safety requirements and related test methods ............................................... 8 5.4 Emission and burner dependent requirements and related test methods ........................................ 8 5.5 Precision and dispute ............................................................................................................................................. 9 Annex A (informative)

Storage of fast pyrolysis bio-oil ....................................................................................... 10 A.1 Temperature ........................................................................................................................................................... 10 A.2 Mixing ........................................................................................................................................................................ 10 A.3 Ageing ........................................................................................................................................................................ 10 Annex B (normative)

Compatible materials ............................................................................................................. 11 Annex C (normative)

Details of inter-laboratory test programme .................................................................. 12 Annex D (normative)

Information on test method procedures ........................................................................ 19 Bibliography .......................................................................................................................................................................... 21

SIST EN 16900:2017

EN 16900:2017 (E) 3 European foreword This document (EN 16900:2017) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 19 “Gaseous and liquid fuels, lubricants and related products of petroleum, synthetic and biological origin”, the secretariat of which is held by NEN. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by September 2017, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by September 2017. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. This document has been prepared under a mandate [1] given to CEN by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association. Annex C contains the precision data generated on the test methods, which are the results of inter-laboratory testing, carried out by Working Group 41 of CEN/TC 19. Many of the test methods included in this standard were the subject of inter-laboratory testing to determine the applicability of the method and its precision. In Annex D also the needed modifications to the test methods are presented.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.

SIST EN 16900:2017

EN 16900:2017 (E) 4 Introduction Fast pyrolysis bio-oils (FPBO) or fast pyrolysis liquids are completely different from petroleum fuels both in their physical properties and chemical composition. They are brownish liquids with a distinct and smoky odour. They can be produced from woody[2] biomass and agrobiomass (herbaceous[2]) and there is a wide range of reactor types are suitable for fast pyrolysis bio-oil production. Contrary to fossil fuels, they are highly polar, mainly water-soluble containing typically about 25 % (m/m) on wet basis) of water, acidic in nature, dense, and are viscous liquids, very poorly or not miscible with hydrocarbons [3, 6, 18, 19]. SIST EN 16900:2017

EN 16900:2017 (E) 5 1 Scope This European Standard specifies requirements and test methods for fast pyrolysis bio-oils for boiler use at industrial scale (>1 MW thermal capacity), not for domestic use. Two different grades are specified. It is recommended to draw attention to differences especially in those properties, which can have an effect on the required flue gas treatment system, such as ash, nitrogen, and sulfur content. National and local regulations determine the requirements for flue gas treatment system. In addition to the quality requirements and test methods for fast pyrolysis bio-oils, further instructions on storage (Annex A), sampling, and materials compatibility (Annex B) are given. NOTE For the purposes of this European Standard, the term “% (m/m)” is used to represent respectively the mass fraction. 2 Normative references The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN 16476, Liquid petroleum products - Determination of Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Phosphorus, Copper and Zinc contents in diesel fuel - Method via Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP OES) EN ISO 2719, Determination of flash point - Pensky-Martens closed cup method (ISO 2719) EN ISO 3104, Petroleum products - Transparent and opaque liquids - Determination of kinematic viscosity and calculation of dynamic viscosity (ISO 3104) EN ISO 3170:2004, Petroleum liquids - Manual sampling (ISO 3170:2004) EN ISO 4259, Petroleum products - Determination and application of precision data in relation to methods of test (ISO 4259) EN ISO 6245, Petroleum products - Determination of ash (ISO 6245) EN ISO 9038, Determination of sustained combustibility of liquids (ISO 9038) EN ISO 12185, Crude petroleum and petroleum products - Determination of density - Oscillating U-tube method (ISO 12185) EN ISO 20846, Petroleum products - Determination of sulfur content of automotive fuels - Ultraviolet fluorescence method (ISO 20846) ISO 3016, Petroleum products — Determination of pour point ASTM E70, Standard Test Method for pH of Aqueous Solutions with the Glass Electrode ASTM E203, Standard Test Method for Water Using Volumetric Karl Fischer Titration ASTM D5291, Standard Test Methods for Instrumental Determination of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen in Petroleum Products and Lubricants ASTM D7579, Standard Test Method for Pyrolysis Solids Content in Pyrolysis Liquids by Filtration of Solids in Methanol SIST EN 16900:2017

EN 16900:2017 (E) 6 DIN 51900-1, Testing of solid and liquid fuels - Determination of gross calorific value by the bomb calorimeter and calculation of net calorific value – Part 1: General information DIN 51900-3, Testing of solid and liquid fuels - Determination of gross calorific value by the bomb calorimeter and calculation of net calorific value - Part 3: Method using adiabatic jacket 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. 3.1 agrobiomass biomass obtained from energy crops and/or agricultural by-products (agricultural residues) [SOURCE: modified from FAO unified bioenergy terminology [UBET] 3.2 fast pyrolysis thermal treatment of lignocellulosic biomass at short hot vapour residence time (typically less than about 5 s) typically at between 450 °C – 600 °C and at near atmospheric pressure or below, in the absence of oxygen, using small (typically less than 5 mm) dry (typically less than 10 % water) biomass particles Note 1 to entry: Many fast pyrolysis processes are using fluidised or entrained bed reactor with sand as a heat carrier. Note 2 to entry: Under REACH it is defined as “lignocellulosic biomass, at short hot vapour residence time (typically less than about 10 seconds) typically at between 450-600 C at near atmospheric pressure or below, in the absence of oxygen” 3.3 fast pyrolysis bio-oil FPBO liquid produced by fast pyrolysis from biomass Note 1 to entry: The typical yield of bio-oil is 60 % (m/m) - 75 % (m/m) on wet basis (energy basis) and 55 % (m/m)– 65 % (m/m) of organic matter. Other products are char and non-condensable gases. 3.4 solids solid particles which are not soluble in methanol-dichloromethane (1:1), possibly containing inorganic elements including sand, char, and additional insoluble organic material Note 1 to entry: The solids will in time settle to the bottom or raise up to the surface depending on their density and the fast pyrolysis bio-oil composition. 3.5 stability situation in which physico–chemical properties remain unchanged during handling and storage Note 1 to entry: FPBOs are not chemically or thermally as stable as conventional petroleum fuels due to the high content of reactive oxygen containing compounds and low-boiling volatiles. The instability of FPBOs can be observed via an increase in viscosity (“ageing”) and possible phase-separation by time and temperature. A stability test based on viscosity increase at 80 °C in 24 h may be used to predict if the bio-oil will stand for a year's storage at room temperature without phase-separation [3]. SIST EN 16900:2017

EN 16900:2017 (E) 7 4 Sampling and sample handling Samples shall be taken as described in EN ISO 3170:2004 and/or in accordance with the requirements of national standards or regulations for the sampling of fast pyrolysis bio-oil. The national requirements shall be set out in detail or shall be referred as a National Annex to this European Standard. It is strongly advised to review all intended test methods prior to sampling to understand the importance of sampling technique, and special handling requirements. There is some information in EN ISO 3170:2004 that is not relevant with fast pyrolysis bio-oils: fast pyrolysis bio-oil is mostly water-soluble (approximately 80 %) and hence does not include any free water: — sampling methods described in EN ISO 3170:2004, Clause 8 are not relevant for FPBO; — for verification of mixing efficiency application of the procedure as described in EN ISO 3170:2004, 9.3.2 is not recommended; — water content determination should only be carried out according to ASTM E203. Even though the separation of extractives is very slow, the samples shall be taken immediately after mixing (see Annex A for further instructions). If bio-oil samples are not analysed immediately, samples should be stored in a freezer [3, 4, 5, 14, 15]. It is pointed out that the sampling devices, sample bottles, and other devices in contact with bio-oil have to be compatible with bio-oil (see Annex B). Bio-oil shall be well mixed when transferring from the primary sampling process and/or container to another container and/or analytical apparatus. Minimum of two samples should be taken and the maximum difference of the viscosity shall not exceed ± 5 % at 40 °C [5]. A minimum of 0,1 L sample size is recommended. The bio-oil shall be properly mixed and analysed according to the recommended standard methods. The bio-oil shall not be filtered or preheated above 40 °C for more than 30 min even though mentioned in some of the analysis standards. Fast pyrolysis bio-oils can typically be analysed like single-phase bio-oils because the separation of extractive-rich layer is very slow. However, the sampling and analyses should be carried out immediately after sample homogenization. 5 Requirements and test methods 5.1 Additives In order to improve the storage stability, the use of additives, like alcohols, is allowed. Suitable fuel additives without known harmful side-effects are recommended in the appropriate amount, to help to avoid aging reactions in the fast pyrolysis bio-oil. 5.2 Generally applicable requirements and related test methods When tested by the methods indicated in Table 1, fast pyrolysis bio-oils shall be in accordance with the limit values specified in the Table 1. The properties listed in the Table 1 have been assessed for application in boiler use [6, 7]. Precision data from inter-laboratory test programmes are given in Annex C. SIST EN 16900:2017

EN 16900:2017 (E) 8 Table 1 — Generally applicable requirements and test methods for fast pyrolysis bio- oils for boiler use Property Unit Test Method Limit value (minimum or maximum) Net calorific value, on wet basis a MJ/kg DIN 51900–3

14,0 Water content, on wet basis %(m/m) ASTM E203
30 pH
ASTM E70
2,0 Density at 15 °C kg/m3 EN ISO 12185
1 300 Pour point °C ISO 3016

- 9 Nitrogen content, (d.b.b). % (m/m) ASTM D5291 report a Net calorific value on wet basis is calculated from the gross calorific value according to DIN 51900–1. b d.b. is on dry basis. 5.3 Transport and general safety requirements and related test methods The UN transport of goods regulation [16] considers liquids with a flash point of more than 35 °C which do not sustain combustion as flammable liquids. Due to their consistency and water content (see Table 1 and Annex C) FPBO are in general non-flammable liquids and would not sustain combustion at a test temperature above 60,5 °C (as prescribed in EN ISO 9038 [17]). In line with the above FPBO that fulfils the following requirements are considered to be able to sustain combustion: — Flash point as measured by Procedure B of EN ISO 2719 is higher than 35 °C; and — Sustained combustibility passes the test procedure as in EN ISO 9038. NOTE Results of ILS analysis (Annex C) show that flash point is not suitable analysis method for FPBO. Also, according other research results [17] FPBO is non-flammable liquid. 5.4 Emission and burner dependent requirements and related test methods For emission and burner dependent requirements [6], options are given to allow grades to be set locally or chosen by the user. The options are two grades, of which Grade 1 requires more flue gas treatment than Grade 2. When tested by the methods indicated in Table 2, fast pyrolysis bio-oils shall be in accordance with the maximum limit specified in the Table 2 for the Grade applicable. The test methods listed in Table 2 have been assessed for application in boiler use. SIST EN 16900:2017

EN 16900:2017 (E) 9 Table 2 — Emission and burner dependent requirements and test methods for fast pyrolysis bio oil for boiler use Property Test method Unit Limit value (maximum) Grade 1 Grade 2 Kinematic viscosity at 40 °C EN ISO 3104 mm2/s 125 50 Sulfur content EN ISO 20846 %(m/m), d.b. a) 0,1 0,05 Solids content ASTM D7579 %(m/m), wet basis 2,5 0,5 Ash content EN ISO 6245 %(m/m), d.b. a) 0,25 0,05 Na, K, Ca, Mg EN 16476 %(m/m) d.b. a) - 0,02 a) d.b. is dry basis 5.5 Precision and dispute For all test methods referred to in this European Standard a precision statement has been developed. In cases of dispute, the procedures described in EN ISO 4259 for resolving the dispute apply, and the precision data from Annex C should be used. SIST EN 16900:2017

EN 16900:2017 (E) 10 Annex A (informative)

Storage of fast pyrolysis bio-oil A.1 Temperature Recommended storage conditions for large batches of bio-oil are 15 °C to 20 °C and maximum of six months. Storage at a minimum temperature of 15 °C is recommended to maintain adequate fluidity, but not higher than 20 °C for long-term storage. Long time at relatively high storage temperatures accelerate viscosity increase of the fuel [3, 6]. A.2 Mixing There are always some solids in FPBO but they are not considered as a separate phase in FPBO. After mixing solids are evenly distributed in the bio-oil. An extractive-rich phase may be gradually separated to top layer of the liquid. The stratification to top and bottom phase is slow and can be avoided by constant mixing. Similar type of phenomena is observed also with some agro-biomass. If moderate mixing is provided the fast pyrolysis bio-oil is a homogenous liquid [3, 14]. A.3 Ageing Ageing can lead to phase separation. All fast pyrolysis bi

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