Prevention of crime - Urban planning and building design - Part 6: Schools and educational institutions

This document gives guidance and recommendations for reducing the crime risk and antisocial behaviour against people and property in schools through planning and design stage by preventative risk management.
This document is usable for public and private schools and educational institutions. This document can be used particularly but not exclusively for the security risks. Proposal and implementation of crime prevention measures work with risk management. It is essential to consider changing social and cultural unwished behaviours in school and educational premises with preventive risk management.
This document is not addressed to universities. However, it can be used as methodology for crime prevention and risk management as well as to ensure the level of physical protection in universities as well.

Vorbeugende Kriminalitätsbekämpfung - Stadt- und Gebäudeplanung - Teil 6: Schulen

Verhaltens gegenüber Personen und Eigentum in Schulen durch präventives Risikomanagement bereits in der Planungs- und Auslegungsphase.
Dieses Dokument ist für die Nutzung durch öffentliche und private Schulen und Bildungseinrichtungen vorgesehen. Dieses Dokument kann besonders, aber nicht ausschließlich, für die Sicherheitsrisiken herangezogen werden. Der Vorschlag und die Umsetzung von Kriminalpräventionsmaßnahmen funktionieren im Zusammenhang mit dem Risikomanagement. Im Rahmen des präventiven Risikomanagements ist es von entscheidender Bedeutung, das sich verändernde, unerwünschte soziale und kulturelle Verhalten in Schulen und Bildungseinrichtungen zu berücksichtigen.
Universitäten werden in diesem Dokument nicht behandelt. Es kann aber dennoch auch im Falle von Universitäten als Methodik für die Kriminalprävention und das Risikomanagement sowie zur Sicherstellung des Niveaus der Objektsicherung herangezogen werden.

Preprečevanje kriminala - Urbanistično planiranje in projektiranje - 6. del: Šole in izobraževalne ustanove

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 14383-6:2022
01-april-2022

Preprečevanje kriminala - Urbanistično planiranje in projektiranje - 6. del: Šole in

izobraževalne ustanove
Prevention of crime - Urban planning and building design - Part 6: Schools and
educational institutions

Vorbeugende Kriminalitätsbekämpfung - Stadt- und Gebäudeplanung - Teil 6: Schulen

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: FprCEN/TS 14383-6
ICS:
03.180 Vzgoja in izobraževanje Education
13.310 Varstvo pred kriminalom Protection against crime
kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 14383-6:2022 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 14383-6:2022
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kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 14383-6:2022
FINAL DRAFT
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
FpCEN/TS 14383-6
SPÉCIFICATION TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION
January 2022
ICS
English Version
Prevention of crime - Urban planning and building design -
Part 6: Schools and educational institutions
Vorbeugende Kriminalitätsbekämpfung - Stadt- und
Gebäudeplanung - Teil 6: Schulen

This draft Technical Specification is submitted to CEN members for Vote. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/TC 325.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a Technical Specification. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change

without notice and shall not be referred to as a Technical Specification.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATIO N
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUN G
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2022 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. FpCEN/TS 14383-6:2022 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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FprCEN/TS 14383-6:2022 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ............................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction ............................................................................................................................................. 5

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................................ 6

2 Normative references ............................................................................................................ 6

3 Terms and definitions ............................................................................................................ 6

4 Abbreviations ............................................................................................................................ 9

5 Objectives and methodology ............................................................................................... 9

5.1 Objectives ................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2 Methodology and goals .......................................................................................................... 9

Figure 1 — Process of risk management with references to the related clauses of this

Technical Specification ........................................................................................................10

5.3 Roles and responsibilities ..................................................................................................11

6 Context and Criteria ..............................................................................................................11

6.1 Establishing the context ......................................................................................................11

6.2 Defining risk criteria ............................................................................................................12

7 Risk identification .................................................................................................................12

7.1 General ......................................................................................................................................12

7.2 Risk identification and risk categorization ..................................................................13

7.3 Assets identification and categorization .......................................................................15

8 Risk analysis ............................................................................................................................15

8.1 General ......................................................................................................................................15

8.2 Determining the likelihood of incidents occurrence ................................................15

8.3 Vulnerability of assets analysis ........................................................................................15

8.4 Risk consequence analysis .................................................................................................16

8.5 Level of risk determination................................................................................................16

9 Risk evaluation .......................................................................................................................16

9.1 General ......................................................................................................................................16

9.2 Comparison of determining risk level with defined criteria .................................16

9.3 Risk acceptance determination ........................................................................................16

9.4 List of acceptable and non-acceptable risks ................................................................16

9.5 Assessment effectivity of current security measures ...............................................17

9.6 Security audit ..........................................................................................................................17

10 Risk treatment ........................................................................................................................18

10.1 Design and layout of schools .............................................................................................18

10.2 Perimeter ..................................................................................................................................21

10.3 Building envelope ..................................................................................................................25

10.4 Internal school system .........................................................................................................28

10.5 Technical protection.............................................................................................................34

10.6 Regime measures ...................................................................................................................39

10.7 Security services ....................................................................................................................39

11 Recording and reporting .....................................................................................................40

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11.1 Security documentation in schools (in relation to object security) ....................40

11.2 Incident records .....................................................................................................................41

Figure 2 — Record of security incidents ......................................................................................41

11.3 Security documentation updating ...................................................................................41

12 Communication and consulting ........................................................................................42

12.1 Periodical training for stakeholders and participating operators ......................42

13 Monitoring and review ........................................................................................................42

13.1 Requirements on regime and organisational security audits ...............................42

13.2 Physical security control .....................................................................................................42

13.3 Requirements on functional tests and revision of technical protection

(mechanical and technical measures) ...........................................................................43

13.4 Efficiency verification and implementation of security measures covering new

observed risks .........................................................................................................................43

Bibliography ..........................................................................................................................................44

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European foreword
This document (FprCEN/TS 14383-6:2022) has been prepared by Technical Committee

CEN/TC 325 “Crime prevention though building, facility and area design”, the secretariat of which

is held by UNMZ.
This document is currently submitted to the Vote on TS.

EN 14383 consists of the following parts, under the general title Prevention of crime - Urban

planning and building design:
— Part 1 Definition of specific terms
— Part 2: Urban planning
— Part 3: Dwellings
— Part 4: Shops and offices
— Part 5: Petrol stations
— Part 6: Schools and educational institutions
— Part 7: Public transport facilities
— Part 8 Attacks with vehicles
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Introduction

While considering measures aimed at 'reduction of risk of crime and antisocial behaviour in

schools and educational institutions (schools), one of the most important tasks is risk

management. High-quality risk management when planning, implementing and using schools and

educational institutions depends on risk management system and its process risk assessment. A

scope of security measures of physical protection design and implementation shall be taken in

order to reduce the risk.

The causes of crime and antisocial behaviour have been researched for many years. There are

many factors that can influence the possibility of an offence being committed or not. Certain

factors, for example socio-economic conditions, are beyond the scope of this standard. A common

factor of all the measures is the fact that it is difficult to limit unauthorized entry into a school

building.

Most of crimes are committed because perpetrators use opportunities in schools such as easy

access, hiding places, absence of demarcation between public and private spaces, poor lighting

and/or favourable landscaping or architectural solution. By understanding the motivation of

potential offenders and counterbalancing it by risk assessment, specific physical security

measures combined with real or symbolic design elements with risk management, this document

aims to assist designers, planners, estate managers and stakeholders in crime prevention.

It helps to have a good understanding of technical recommendations, technical standards, laws

and regulations summarized in one document necessary for schools and educational institutions

to implement often neglected conceptual solutions of schools crime prevention in early stage

planning.
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1 Scope

This document gives guidance and recommendations for reducing the crime risk and antisocial

behaviour against people and property in schools through planning and design stage by

preventative risk management.

This document is usable for public and private schools and educational institutions. This

document can be used particularly but not exclusively for the security risks. Proposal and

implementation of crime prevention measures work with risk management. It is essential to

consider changing social and cultural unwished behaviours in school and educational premises

with preventive risk management.

This document is not addressed to universities. However, it can be used as methodology for crime

prevention and risk management as well as to ensure the level of physical protection in

universities as well.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies.

For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any

amendments) applies.

EN 14383-1:2006, Prevention of crime - Urban planning and building design - Part 1: Definition of

specific terms
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions of EN 14383-1:2006 and the

following apply.
3.1
asset
anything that has value to an organization

Note 1 to entry: Assets include but are not limited to human, physical, information, intangible and

environmental resource.
3.2
risk analysis
identification and evaluation of crime threats
[SOURCE: EN 14383-1:2006, 3.32]
3.3
secure area

mechanically and/or electronically enclosed area protected for safety and/or security purposes

[SOURCE: EN 14383-1:2006, 3.38]
3.4
security measures of physical protection

system of technical, technological and regime measures resulting in object/property protection,

to prevent crime and security threats and in case an event happens, to mitigate its consequences

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3.5
physical protection

system of technical and regime measures for the protection of persons against security threats

resulting from unauthorized activities within or with regards the property
3.6
physical security
security services performed by school staff and/or security staff (guards)
3.7
threat

individual or a group with motivation and capability for intentional act that cause harm to people

or loss of asset
3.8
location
territory with a particular appearance, part of a geographical area
3.9
risk management

coordinated activities resulting from risk assessment processes to deal with crime risks

[SOURCE: ISO 31000:2018, 3.2, modified]
3.10
local circumstances

conditions characteristic of a particular location, such as: terrain, accessibility, urban

concentration, security situation etc
3.11
consequence
outcome of an event
[SOURCE: ISO 31000:2018, 3.6, modified]
3.12
penetration test

practical test of security measures functionality regarding access denial/control systems

3.13
perimetric space

space in close vicinity of the building (from the boundary to the building envelope – including the

accesses)
[SOURCE: EN 14383-1:2006, 3.27]
3.14
building envelope
outer walls with openings i.e. doors and windows
3.15
risk assessment
categorization of risks and measures including evaluation of their likelihood
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3.16
regime measures

set of binding and clearly defined internal rules, instructions, orders and procedures to asset

regime and security measures

Note 1 to entry: Regime measures provide links between security measures and objects users.

3.17
risk
probability of occurrence of an unwanted event and its consequences

Note 1 to entry: Risk is also considered in terms of effect of uncertainty on objectives

3.18
scenario

assumed set of conditions and/or events of how a threat may achieve its objective

3.19
system of technical protection

technical system supplying prevention measures, installed as a part of physical protection of

buildings
3.20
exterior space

land and neighbourhood around school property (streets, buildings, trees, vegetation, etc.)

3.21
internal space
zone located inside a building
[SOURCE: EN 14383-1:2006, 3.47]
EXAMPLES Corridors, classrooms, offices, gyms etc
3.22
vulnerability
weakness resulting in susceptibility to a threat
3.23
crime risk
likelihood of becoming a victim of something unlawful, thread, harmful or loss
3.24
antisocial behaviour

anti-social behaviours are actions that harm or lack consideration for the well-being of others

3.25
crime

unlawful act, punishable by a state or authority, which may be harmful not only to some individual

but also to community, society, or the state

Note 1 to entry: This definition is used for purpose of crime analysis and planning of preventive measures

in the context of European standardization. It does not contradict statutory provisions in national laws.

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3.26
security audit

physical on-site control by audit of security measures, their functionality, efficiency and

compatibility
4 Abbreviations
CCTV Closed Circuit Television
ARC and MARC Monitoring and Alarm Receiving Centre
MBE Mechanical Barrier Equipment
MBS Mechanical Barrier Systems
FPS Design of Fire Safety Protection
ASES Alarm Security and Emergency System
FDAS Fire Detection and Fire Alarm Systems
SGMK System of General and Main Key
EACS Electronic Access Control Systems
TPS Technical Protection System
5 Objectives and methodology
5.1 Objectives

The objective of this Technical Specification is to embrace preventive risk management possibly

occurring in schools and educational institutions providing fundamentals and design proposals

for reducing risk and antisocial behaviour.

The main goal is to provide advice and ways of implementation of security measures based on risk

management in schools and educational institutions.
5.2 Methodology and goals

Risk management is the fundament for creating a strategy of crime prevention. Figure 1 shows

the process of risk management according to ISO 31000:2018. In each box of Figure 1 you can find

a reference, the clause number of this Technical Specification, which provides guidance for the

context of crime prevention in schools and educational facilities.
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The risk management process consists of the following steps:
Figure 1 — Process of risk management with references
to the related clauses of this Technical Specification

EXAMPLE Please find Risk Analysis for Crime prevention in schools is Clause 8 of this Technical

Specification.

Risk assessment is the overall process of risk identification, risk analysis and risk evaluation. Risk

assessment is an important tool to comprehend risks, their sources, vulnerabilities, and their

consequences. It is necessary for the next process of security measures implementation.

Before the effective strategy is developed, all risk factors arising from the matters of security

should be taken into consideration.

A potential aggressor is motivated by an asset. The asset is characterized by certain vulnerability

towards the threat. Furthermore, the asset is protected by security measures against effects of

active threats. Selected security precautions discourage / prevent the threat from activation. In

order to gain access to the asset, the threat has a direct impact on the asset or the security

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precautions. For the threat impact, activation is needed first. The activation requires resources –

special conditions.

Not only local factors should be considered preferably in order to determine the level of risk. To

identify type of reported crimes it is recommended to make crime assessment, including

information such as who are the victims and where and when previous events occurred.

Moreover, it is important to identify factors influencing opportunities for a crime in school area.

5.3 Roles and responsibilities

Establishment of the roles and responsibilities of each participant on a building project proposal

in a stage of construction and security management.

Regardless of the project type (construction, reconstruction or adaptation and repair of buildings)

it is recommended to define organization responsible for security. Stakeholders and organisations

who are involved in crime prevention include:

— School participants (teaching staff, staff responsible for education and health, administrative

and technical staff, students and legal representatives of pupils and students);

— External partners from central and local government entities (representatives of state police,

local authorities, social workers etc.);
— External partners from private sector (e.g. service providers).

In accordance with this Technical Specification, founders of schools should be responsible for

school development conception and strategy. Security conception and security policy are the most

relevant documents.

Directors of schools and other educational staff of the institution must ensure processing of the

security documentation. In particular, risk assessment, together with other documents relating to

the issue of regime and organisational measures in schools. Staff in educational institutions is

required to comply with security measures, including requirement to report any non-conformity

in realization of security measures.

External partners from both, private sector and government authorities shall contribute to

compliance with security measures. External partners ensuring physical protection are required

to be involved in processing of internal documents.
6 Context and Criteria
6.1 Establishing the context
6.1.1 General

The most important processes of risk management are establishing the context and defining

parameters for risk management. Defining the external and internal context, risk criteria and

perimeter is essential for the risk management policy. Together with establishing the context, aim

of risk assessment should be formulated. Integral part of the establishing is defining risk

management objectives.
6.1.2 Establishing the external context

Establishing the external context includes understanding the surrounding environment, in

particular:

— Cultural, political, social and legal environment, whether national, regional or local.

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— Key influences and trends of security impact on school.
— Perception and values of external stakeholders.
6.1.3 Establishing the internal context
Establishing the internal context includes, in particular:
— Information flows and decision-making processes.
— Internal stakeholders.
— Objectives and the strategies that are in the place to achieve.
— Policies and processes.
— Standards, guidelines and documents by schools.
— Structure (e.g. management, roles, and responsibilities).
6.1.4 Establishing the context of the risk management process
Establishing the context of the risk management processes, particular decisions:
— Defining the goals and objectives of the risk management.
— Defining responsibility within the process and parts of risk management.
— Defining the scope of the risk management activities.
— Defining risk criteria.

— Defining the way performance and effectiveness is evaluated in the risk management.

6.2 Defining risk criteria

The above mentioned section about establishing the context does not need to be final as other

possible parameters which could be present. Establishing the context should follow EN 31010

“Risk management - Risk assessment techniques”.

— The nature and types of cause and consequences that should be included in risk management.

— How the likelihood of an event / incident will be defined.
— Defining consequences.
— Defining risk level.
— Criteria.
7 Risk identification
7.1 General

The initial activity to process risk evaluation is risk identification. Risk identification is the overall

process of finding, recognizing and describing risks. In this process, two tasks are conducted – risk

identification and categorization and – asset identification and categorization.
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7.2 Risk identification and risk categorization

Methods and techniques for risk identification can be used from EN 31010 “Risk management -

Risk assessment techniques” for performing risk analysis.

First of all, the following methods and techniques are recommended to be used in order to identify

risk:
— Brainstorming.
— SWOT analyses.
— Structured interviews and questionnaires.
— Check-list.

— Historical data of incidents in schools within the local, regional, national and international

context.
— Security audit and security assessment conducted by a professional.

— On a new place under construction: the professional security evaluator will assess the needed

state of security for the school and state the measures to be adopted.

NOTE On an existing school: the professional security evaluator assesses the needed state of security,

the actual security level (measures already in place), and states the measures to be adopted in order to

cover the gap if it exists.

A security audit is the verification of physical protection and conformity with accepted and

adopted security measures (technical protection, regime protection, physical guard) in

accordance to the school written documents.

A security assessment is objective evaluation of the current state and functionality of physical

measures applied and the primary instrument for the effective security system setting.

During the process of risk identification, risks (threats) and their sources which affect at least one

asset are selected. Risk identification is followed by risk categorization.

The objective of this Technical Specification is to protect people and property and therefore all

possible crimes and antisocial behaviour at schools are to be considered. Individual events vary

among day time. Vandalism, aggression with or without weapon, abusive language, threats,

physical violence occur mostly during hours of occupancy. Some of them could happen outside

the area on in close spaces, near entrances or on access routes for both students and staff. Crimes

connected with property are in particular: burglary and arson. Extreme damages to property are

mostly conducted out of hours when schools are closed.

Schools technical and personnel measures should be adjusted to protect against crime in

accordance with resulting risk assessment. Risks can be categorized for instance by their negative

consequences.
Risks related to crimes against persons should be categorized as follows:
a) Insults, verbal offences, abusive language
b) Bullying.
c) Racketeering or attempt to racketeering, money theft.
d) Sexual physical violence.
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e) Armed physical violence.
f) Physical violence with common object used as weapon.
g) Physical violence without weapon.
h) Use explosives or threat with explosives.
i) Hostages' situations.
j) Threat with hazardous substances.
k) Kidnapping, attempt to kidnapping.
Risks related to crimes against property should be categorized as follows:
I. Theft (and attempt to theft)
• Trading stolen goods.
• Break-in, pick a lock.
• Robbery.
• Armed robbery.
II. Destruction and damaging
• Graffiti.
• Throwing stones or other objects
• Vandalism to buildings
• Vandalism to security systems
• Vandalism to other devices than security systems
• Vandalism to personal property
• Arson and attempt to arson.
III. Other
• False alarm.
• Drug consumption.
• Drug dealing.
• Entry of unauthorized persons in schools.
• Carrying of weapons.
• Illegal occupation of spaces of the school and / or its surroundings.
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List of the risks is not complete as there are also other important specific conditions at some

schools. It is also necessary to consider risk source dynamics and specifications capable to put

protected interests at risk. Crime mapping from the given location or a similar location can be

used for the process of frisk identification and categorization.
7.3 Assets identification and categorization

Asset identification means establishment of all assets located within the risk management. In

terms of security manage
...

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