Flexible cellular polymeric materials - Determination of fatigue by constant-load pounding (ISO 3385:2014)

ISO 3385:2014 specifies a method for the determination of loss in thickness and loss in hardness of flexible cellular materials intended for use in load-bearing applications such as upholstery. It provides a means of assessing the service performance of flexible cellular materials based on rubber latex or polyurethane used in load-bearing upholstery.
The method is applicable both to standard size test pieces cut from slabstock material and to shaped components. The measured loss in thickness and loss in hardness are related to, but are not necessarily the same as, the losses likely to occur in service.
ISO 3385:2014 is not intended to function as a detailed engineering design specification for fatigue apparatus.

Weich-elastische polymere Schaumstoffe - Bestimmung der Ermüdung im Dauerschwingversuch mit Stoßbelastung unter konstanter Kraft (ISO 3385:2014)

Diese Internationale Norm beschreibt ein Verfahren zur Bestimmung der Minderung von Dicke und Härte bei
Weichschaumstoffen, die für Anwendungen unter Belastung vorgesehen sind, zum Beispiel als lasttragende
Polsterwerkstoffe.
Dieses Prüfverfahren bietet eine Möglichkeit zur Einschätzung des Gebrauchsverhaltens von Weichschaumstoffen
aus Latex oder Polyurethan, die als lasttragende Polsterwerkstoffe eingesetzt werden.
Das Verfahren ist sowohl anwendbar auf Standardprobekörper, die aus Blockschaummaterial herausgeschnitten
sind, als auch auf geformte Polsterteile. Die gemessenen Verringerungen der Dicke und der Härte
werden in Beziehung gesetzt zu möglicherweise auch weiteren Eigenschaftsminderungen, die mit einer
gewissen Wahrscheinlichkeit während des Gebrauchs eintreten.
Diese Internationale Norm stellt keine detaillierte technische Spezifikation für die Konstruktion des bei der
Ermüdungsprüfung verwendeten Geräts dar. Es wird davon ausgegangen, dass die Hersteller dieser
Prüfgeräte über die notwendige Fachkompetenz verfügen, um die festgelegten wesentlichen Anforderungen
zu erfüllen. Ferner wird ein kommerzieller Schutz der einzelnen Bauausführungen durch Copyright oder
Patente vorausgesetzt.

Matériaux polymères alvéolaires souples - Détermination de la fatigue par indentation à charge constante (ISO 3385:2014)

L'ISO 3385:2014 spécifie une méthode de détermination des pertes d'épaisseur et de dureté des matériaux alvéolaires souples destinés à être utilisés dans des applications porteuses comme les rembourrages. Elle apporte un moyen d'évaluation des performances en service des matériaux alvéolaires souples à base de latex caoutchouc ou de polyuréthane, utilisés dans les rembourrages porteurs.
La méthode est applicable à la fois à des éprouvettes normales découpées dans un bloc de matériau et dans des éléments façonnés. Les pertes d'épaisseur et de dureté mesurées sont liées aux pertes susceptibles de se produire en cours d'utilisation, mais ce ne sont pas nécessairement les mêmes.
L'ISO 3385:2014 internationale n'est pas destinée à faire office de spécification technique détaillée relative à la conception des machines d'essai de fatigue.

Penjeni polimerni materiali - Mehke pene - Ugotavljanje utrujenosti materiala s sunkovitim obremenjevanjem s konstantno silo (ISO 3385:2014)

Standard EN ISO 3385 določa metodo za ugotavljanje izgube debeline in trdote penjenih polimernih materialov, namenjenih uporabi v nosilnih strukturah, kot je oblazinjeno pohištvo. Podaja način za ocenjevanje učinkovitosti penjenih polimernih materialov, temelječih na elastomernem lateksu ali poliuretanu, ki se uporablja pri oblazinjanju pohištva. Metoda se uporablja za preskušance standardne velikosti, izrezane iz penjenega materiala, in za oblikovane sestavne dele. Izmerjena izguba debeline in trdote je povezana z izgubami pri uporabi izdelkov, vendar jim ni nujno enaka. Ta mednarodni standard ni zasnovan zato, da bi ga uporabljali kot podrobno specifikacijo za utrujanje materiala.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
15-Jul-2014
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
16-Jul-2014
Completion Date
16-Jul-2014

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 3385:2014
01-oktober-2014
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN ISO 3385:2000
Penjeni polimerni materiali - Mehke pene - Ugotavljanje utrujenosti materiala s
sunkovitim obremenjevanjem s konstantno silo (ISO 3385:2014)

Flexible cellular polymeric materials - Determination of fatigue by constant-load pounding

(ISO 3385:2014)
Weich-elastische polymere Schaumstoffe - Bestimmung der Ermüdung im
Dauerschwingversuch mit Stoßbelastung unter konstanter Kraft (ISO 3385:2014)

Matériaux polymères alvéolaires souples - Détermination de la fatigue par indentation à

charge constante (ISO 3385:2014)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 3385:2014
ICS:
83.100 Penjeni polimeri Cellular materials
SIST EN ISO 3385:2014 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 3385:2014
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 3385:2014
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN ISO 3385
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
July 2014
ICS 83.100 Supersedes EN ISO 3385:1995
English Version
Flexible cellular polymeric materials - Determination of fatigue by
constant-load pounding (ISO 3385:2014)

Matériaux polymères alvéolaires souples - Détermination de Weich-elastische polymere Schaumstoffe - Bestimmung der

la fatigue par indentation à charge constante (ISO Ermüdung im Dauerschwingversuch mit Stoßbelastung

3385:2014) unter konstanter Kraft (ISO 3385:2014)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 28 June 2014.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same

status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United

Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2014 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 3385:2014 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 3385:2014
EN ISO 3385:2014 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 3385:2014
EN ISO 3385:2014 (E)
Foreword

This document (EN ISO 3385:2014) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 45 "Rubber and

rubber products" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 249 “Plastics” the secretariat of which is

held by NBN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical

text or by endorsement, at the latest by January 2015, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at

the latest by January 2015.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 3385:1995.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following

countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech

Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece,

Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,

Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.

Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 3385:2014 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 3385:2014 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 3385:2014
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 3385:2014
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 3385
Fourth edition
2014-07-15
Flexible cellular polymeric
materials — Determination of fatigue
by constant-load pounding
Matériaux polymères alvéolaires souples — Détermination de la
fatigue par indentation à charge constante
Reference number
ISO 3385:2014(E)
ISO 2014
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 3385:2014
ISO 3385:2014(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2014

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 3385:2014
ISO 3385:2014(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 1

4 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

5 Test pieces ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1 Shape and dimensions ...................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2 Samples showing orientation ..................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.3 Number .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.4 Conditioning .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

6 Procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7 Expression of results ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

7.1 Loss in thickness.................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.2 Loss in hardness .................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.3 Percentage hardness loss ............................................................................................................................................................... 7

8 Precision ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

9 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

Annex A (informative) Typical loading cycle................................................................................................................................................ 9

Annex B (informative) Precision ............................................................................................................................................................................10

Annex C (informative) Precision study — Machine Type B ........................................................................................................12

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................13

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 3385:2014
ISO 3385:2014(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on

the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 45, Rubber and rubber products, Subcommittee

SC 4, Products other than hoses.

This fourth edition cancels and replaces the third edition (ISO 3385:1989), which has been technically

revised.
iv © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 3385:2014
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 3385:2014(E)
Flexible cellular polymeric materials — Determination of
fatigue by constant-load pounding
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies a method for the determination of loss in thickness and loss in

hardness of flexible cellular materials intended for use in load-bearing applications such as upholstery.

It provides a means of assessing the service performance of flexible cellular materials based on rubber

latex or polyurethane used in load-bearing upholstery.

The method is applicable both to standard size test pieces cut from slabstock material and to shaped

components. The measured loss in thickness and loss in hardness are related to, but are not necessarily

the same as, the losses likely to occur in service.

This international Standard is not intended to function as a detailed engineering design specification

for fatigue apparatus.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 2439:2008, Flexible cellular polymeric materials — Determination of hardness (indentation technique)

3 Principle

Repeated indentation of a test piece by an indentor smaller in area than the test piece, the maximum

load reached during each cycle being kept within specified limits. The typical loading cycle is shown in

Figure A.1.
4 Apparatus

4.1 Pounding test machine of either Type A (see 4.2) or Type B (see 4.3), having the following

parts.

4.1.1 Plane platen, capable of fully supporting the test piece, and suitably vented with holes

approximately 6 mm in diameter at approximately 20 mm pitch in order to allow air to escape from the

test piece.

4.1.2 Indentor, having an overall diameter of 250 mm ± 1 mm with a 25 mm ± 1 mm radius at its lower

edge, provided with a device for applying a maximum force of 750 N ± 20 N during the loading cycle. The

indentor shall be rigidly fixed to its guide and its surface shall be smooth but not polished.

The machine shall be capable of oscillating either the platen (4.1.1) carrying the test piece, or the indentor

towards the other in a vertical direction at a rate of (70 ± 5) strokes per minute. The amplitude of the

stroke shall be adjustable.

The indentor shall be linked to a re-settable counting device which displays the number of compression

cycles performed during the test.
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 3385:2014
ISO 3385:2014(E)

4.1.3 Indentor drive mechanism, capable of applying the maximum force of 750 N ± 20 N for no more

than 10 % of the total duration of each cycle.

4.2 Machine Type A, in its simplest form the mechanism comprises a crank drive and suspended

weight. The weight shall be supported throughout the loading cycle except at that part

...

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Penjeni polimerni materiali - Mehke pene - Ugotavljanje utrujenosti materiala s sunkovitim obremenjevanjem s konstantno silo (ISO/FDIS 3385:2014)Weich-elastische polymere Schaumstoffe - Bestimmung der Ermüdung im Dauerschwingversuch mit Stoßbelastung unter konstanter Kraft (ISO/FDIS 3385:2014)Matériaux polymères alvéolaires souples - Détermination de la fatigue par indentation à charge constante (ISO/FDIS 3385:2014)Flexible cellular polymeric materials - Determination of fatigue by constant-load pounding (ISO/FDIS 3385:2014)83.100Penjeni polimeriCellular materialsICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:FprEN ISO 3385 revkSIST FprEN ISO 3385:2014en,fr,de01-junij-2014kSIST FprEN ISO 3385:2014SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
kSIST FprEN ISO 3385:2014

© ISO 2014Flexible cellular polymeric materials — Determination of fatigue by constant-load poundingMatériaux polymères alvéolaires souples — Détermination de la fatigue par indentation à charge constanteINTERNATIONAL STANDARDPlease see the administrative notes on page iiiReference numberISO/FDIS 3385:2014(E)ISO/FDIS3385ISO/TC 45/SC 4Secretariat: DSMVoting begins on: 2014-0Voting terminates on: 2014-0RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING DOCUMENTATION.IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS

BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO­LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN­DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN NATIONAL REGULATIONS.FINALDRAFTkSIST FprEN ISO 3385:2014

ISO/FDIS 3385:2014(E) ii © ISO 2014 – All rights reservedCOPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT©

ISO 2014All rights reservedä Unless otherwise speci Ðiedá no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any meansá electronic or mechanicalá including photocopyingá or posting on the internet or an intranetá without prior written permissionä Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISOïs member body in the country of the requester.ISO copyright of ÐiceTel. + 41 22 749 01 11Fax + 41 22 749 09 47Eæmail copyright 7isoäorgWeb www.iso.orgPublished in SwitzerlandkSIST FprEN ISO 3385:2014

ISO/CEN PARALLEL PROCESSING­cessed under the ISO-lead mode of collaboration as de Ðined in the Vienna Agreementä The

Ðinal draft was established on the basis of comments received during a parallel enquiry on the draftäThis

Ðinal draft is hereby submitted to the ISO member bodies and to the CEN member bodies for a parallel two­month approval vote in ISO and formal vote in CEN.Positive votes shall not be accompanied by comments.Negative votes shall be accompanied by the relevant technical reasons.ISO/FDIS 3385:2014(E) © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved iiikSIST FprEN ISO 3385:2014

ISO/FDIS 3385:2014(E) iv © ISO 2014 – All rights reservedContents PageForeword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................12 Normative references ......................................................................................................................................................................................13 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................14 Apparatus .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................15 Test pieces ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................45.1 Shape and dimensions ......................................................................................................................................................................45.2 Samples showing orientation .....................................................................................................................................................55.3 Number ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................55.4 Conditioning ..............................................................................................................................................................................................56 Procedure.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................57 Expression of results ........................................................................................................................................................................................67.1 Loss in thickness....................................................................................................................................................................................67.2 Loss in hardness ....................................................................................................................................................................................77.3 Percentage hardness loss ...............................................................................................................................................................78 Precision .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................79 Test report ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................7Annex A (informative) Typical loading cycle................................................................................................................................................9Annex B (informative) Precision ............................................................................................................................................................................10Annex C (informative) Precision study — Machine Type B ........................................................................................................12Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................13kSIST FprEN ISO 3385:2014

ISO/FDIS 3385:2014(E)Forewordthrough ISO technical committeesä Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizationsá governmental and nonægovernmentalá in liaison with ISOá also take part in the workä electrotechnical standardizationäThe procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the different types of ISO documents should be notedä This document was drafted in accordance with the editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rightsä ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rightsä Details of any the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not constitute an endorsement.For an explanation on the meaning of ISO speci Ðic terms and expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 45, Rubber and rubber products, Subcommittee SC 4, Products other than hoses.

urevised. © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved vkSIST FprEN ISO 3385:2014
kSIST FprEN ISO 3385:2014

Flexible cellular polymeric materials — Determination of fatigue by constant-load pounding1 ScopeThis International Standard speci Ðies a method for the determination of loss in thickness and loss in hardness of

Ðlexible cellular materials intended for use in loadæbearing applications such as upholsteryäIt provides a means of assessing the service performance of

Ðlexible cellular materials based on rubber latex or polyurethane used in loadæbearing upholsteryäThe method is applicable both to standard size test pieces cut from slabstock material and to shaped componentsä The measured loss in thickness and loss in hardness are related toá but are not necessarily the same asá the losses likely to occur in serviceäThis international Standard is not intended to function as a detailed engineering design speci Ðication for fatigue apparatus. 2 Normative referencesThe following documentsá in whole or in partá are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its applicationä For dated referencesá only the edition cited appliesä For undated ISO 2439:2008, Flexible cellular polymeric materials — Determination of hardness (indentation technique)3 PrincipleRepeated indentation of a test piece by an indentor smaller in area than the test pieceá the maximum load reached during each cycle being kept within speci Ðied limitsä The typical loading cycle is shown in Figure A.1.4 Apparatus4.1 Pounding test machine of either Type A (see 4.2) or Type B (see 4.3), having the following parts.4.1.1 Plane platená capable of fully supporting the test pieceá and suitably vented with holes approximately

x mm in diameter at approximately

t r mm pitch in order to allow air to escape from the test piece.4.1.2 Indentor, having an overall diameter of 250 mm ± 1 mm with a 25 mm ± 1 mm radius at its lower edgeá provided with a device for applying a maximum force of

y w r N
t r N during the loading cycleä The indentor shall be rigidly

Ðixed to its guide and its surface shall be smooth but not polishedäThe machine shall be capable of oscillating either the platen (4.1.1towards the other in a vertical direction at a rate of (70 ± 5) strokes per minute. The amplitude of the stroke shall be adjustableäThe indentor shall be linked to a reæsettable counting device which displays the number of compression cycles performed during the testäFINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 3385:2014(E)© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 1kSIST FprEN ISO 3385:2014

ISO/FDIS 3385:2014(E)4.1.3 Indentor drive mechanismá capable of applying the maximum force of

y w r N
t r N for no more than
s r

¨ of the total duration of each cycleä4.2 Machine Type A, in its simplest form the mechanism comprises a crank drive and suspended weightä The weight shall be supported throughout the loading cycle except at that part of the stroke when the mounting and platen are closest together. At this point, the full force of the indentor shall be supported by the test pieceâ this shall not be for more than

s r

¨ of the full machine cycleä This type of device is shown schematically in Figure 1 a) and Figure 1 bmeans to locate the test piece and prevent its lateral movement during the test.a)

Full loading pointb)

Zero load pointKey1load frame2indentor mounting3indentor4test piece5moving platen6drive shaft/camFigure 1 — Example of an arrangement of machine Type A with manual adjustment4.3 Machine Type Bá a fully controlled device driven by electroæá pneumatic or hydraulic mechanismá equipped with load cell and means to provide the necessary indentation frequency and peak forceä The generic for

...

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