Oil spill identification - Waterborne petroleum and petroleum products - Part 1: Sampling

This document provides guidance on taking and handling samples that are collected as part of an investigation into the likely source of a crude oil or petroleum product spill into a marine or aquatic environment. Guidance is given on taking samples from both the spill and its potential source.
If samples are to be used in connection with legal proceedings, this document should be read in conjunction with any documents issued by the regulatory authorities in the country and location where the spill has occurred.
Taking samples may involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This document is not intended to address all the safety and health aspects associated with the guidance given. It is the responsibility of the user to consult and establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.  
For the sake of clarity the word ‘oil’ is used throughout this document to mean either crude oil, a petroleum product or mixtures of such.

Identifizierung von Ölverschmutzungen - Rohöl und Mineralölerzeugnisse aus dem Wasser - Teil 1: Probenahme

Dieses Dokument gibt eine Anleitung für die Probenahme und den Umgang mit Proben im Rahmen von Untersuchungen, deren Ziel die Ermittlung der wahrscheinlichen Herkunft  des Rohöls oder Mineralölprodukts ist, das eine Wasser- oder Meeresverschmutzung verursacht hat. Diese Anleitung befasst sich mit der Probenahme am Schadensort und am vermuteten Ursprung des Schadstoffs.
Wenn die Proben in einem gerichtlichen Verfahren verwendet werden, so sollten mit diesem Dokument auch vorhandene Vorschriften der Aufsichtsbehörden in dem Land bzw. an dem Ort berücksichtigt werden, an dem sich der Vorfall ereignet hat.
Bei der Probenahme ist eine Gefährdung durch chemische Substanzen, angewandte Methoden und Geräte möglich. In dieser Anleitung kann nicht auf die vielen, damit zusammenhängenden Sicherheits- und Gesundheitsaspekte eingegangen werden. Der Anwender ist selbst für die Einhaltung der geltenden Sicherheits- und Arbeitsschutzvorschriften verantwortlich und muss sich im voraus über geltende Vorschriften und Einschränkungen informieren.
Der Einfachheit halber wird im Folgenden das Wort Öl für Rohöl, Mineralölprodukte oder Ölgemische verwendet.

Identification des pollutions pétrolières - Pétrole et produits pétroliers dans l'eau - Partie 1 : Echantillonnage

Prepoznavanje razlitij olj - Nafta in naftni proizvodi v vodi - 1. del: Vzorčenje

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
31-Oct-2006
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
01-Nov-2006
Completion Date
01-Nov-2006

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 15522-1:2008
01-julij-2008

3UHSR]QDYDQMHUD]OLWLMROM1DIWDLQQDIWQLSURL]YRGLYYRGLGHO9]RUþHQMH

Oil spill identification - Waterborne petroleum and petroleum products - Part 1: Sampling

Identifizierung von Ölverschmutzungen - Rohöl und Mineralölerzeugnisse aus dem
Wasser - Teil 1: Probenahme

Identification des pollutions pétrolieres - Pétrole et produits pétroliers dans l'eau - Partie

1 : Echantillonnage
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 15522-1:2006
ICS:
13.020.40 Onesnaževanje, nadzor nad Pollution, pollution control
onesnaževanjem in and conservation
ohranjanje
13.060.99 Drugi standardi v zvezi s Other standards related to
kakovostjo vode water quality
SIST-TP CEN/TR 15522-1:2008 en,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TP CEN/TR 15522-1:2008
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SIST-TP CEN/TR 15522-1:2008
TECHNICAL REPORT
CEN/TR 15522-1
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
November 2006
ICS 13.020.40
English Version
Oil spill identification - Waterborne petroleum and petroleum
products - Part 1: Sampling

Identification des pollutions pétrolières - Pétrole et produits Identifizierung von Ölverschmutzungen - Rohöl und

pétroliers dans l'eau - Partie 1 : Echantillonnage Mineralölerzeugnisse aus dem Wasser - Teil 1:

Probenahme

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 26 September 2006. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/BT/TF 120.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,

Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels

© 2006 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TR 15522-1:2006: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................. 3

1 Scope...................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references ........................................................................................................................... 5

3 Principle ................................................................................................................................................. 5

4 Precautions and avoidance of contamination of samples during collection ................................. 6

4.1 General................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.2 Potential sources of contamination.................................................................................................... 6

4.3 Controls ................................................................................................................................................. 6

5 Sampling equipment and sample containers and closures ............................................................. 7

5.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... 7

5.2 General................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.3 Sample containers, closures and packages ...................................................................................... 7

5.4 Sampling devices.................................................................................................................................. 7

6 Sampling General................................................................................................................................ 10

6.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................... 10

6.2 Types of sample .................................................................................................................................. 10

6.3 Sample volume.................................................................................................................................... 10

6.4 Number of samples to be taken......................................................................................................... 10

6.5 Custody of samples............................................................................................................................ 11

6.6 Sample information and documentation .......................................................................................... 11

6.7 Sealing of samples.............................................................................................................................. 12

7 Sampling procedures ......................................................................................................................... 12

7.1 Sampling from water surfaces........................................................................................................... 12

7.2 Sampling beaches, rocky shores, river banks and harbour structures........................................ 14

7.3 Sampling tar balls ............................................................................................................................... 14

7.4 Samples from oiled animals .............................................................................................................. 15

7.5 Samples from ships, barges or river-craft........................................................................................ 15

7.6 Sampling from land tanks and pipelines..........................................................................................16

7.7 Sampling from road and rail tank wagons ....................................................................................... 16

8 Transport and storage of samples .................................................................................................... 17

Annex A (informative) Example of a sample record form............................................................................ 18

Annex B (informative) Example of a sample transport and receipt form................................................... 19

Annex C (informative) Typical piping system of an oil tanker ....................................................................20

Annex D (informative) Typical machinery room oil handling systems and bilges .................................. 21

Annex E (informative) Recommended contents of sampling kits .............................................................. 22

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 23

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Foreword

This document (CEN/TR 15522-1:2006) has been prepared by CEN/BT/TF 120 “Oil spill identification”,

the secretariat of which is held by SN.
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Introduction

Where an oil pollution incident has occurred, samples should be collected from both the spill and,

wherever possible, the potential source of the pollutant, e.g. ship, shore tank, pipeline or road vehicle,

in order to assist in the identification or confirmation of the source of the spill. The aim of this

document is to give guidance on the best current practice for taking such samples.

This document does not contain details relating to all types of spill situation, but should only be

regarded as general guidelines. However, by following these guidelines it should be possible to collect

and provide legally valid samples that can be used in the process of identifying or confirming the

source of the spill.

The issues addressed only cover the mechanics of sample collection. The command and control that

may be put in place during incident response, the authorities who may request sample collection and

the individuals who have the authority to collect samples, will vary from country to country and as a

consequence these issues are not addressed.
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1 Scope

This document provides guidance on taking and handling samples that are collected as part of an

investigation into the likely source of a crude oil or petroleum product spill into a marine or aquatic

environment. Guidance is given on taking samples from both the spill and its potential source.

If samples are to be used in connection with legal proceedings, this document should be read in

conjunction with any documents issued by the regulatory authorities in the country and location where

the spill has occurred.

Taking samples may involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This document is not

intended to address all the safety and health aspects associated with the guidance given. It is the

responsibility of the user to consult and establish appropriate safety and health practices and

determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

For the sake of clarity the word ‘oil’ is used throughout this document to mean either crude oil, a

petroleum product or mixtures of such.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this European Standard.

For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the

referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
EN ISO 3170, Petroleum liquids - Manual Sampling (ISO 3170:2004)
3 Principle

Samples form an important aspect of any investigation and care should be taken to ensure that they

are as representative of both the spill and the potential source as possible. The samples shall be

taken and placed in containers that will enable the samples to be transported safely and will retain the

samples integrity over the period of time required to transport the samples to the laboratory for

analysis and storage prior to analysis. They shall be clearly, unambiguously and uniquely labelled and

sealed so that they cannot be opened without breaking the seal.
When investigating a spill, samples are usually taken from:
 The water surface (sea, river or lake);
 shoreline or banks (sand, shingle, rocks and oiled animals and vegetation);

 marine or river vessel’s cargo tanks, fuel tanks, waste oil tanks, slop tanks, ballast tanks and

bilges;
 land tanks and pipelines.

All spills and all potential sources of spills should be sampled. It is important to take samples from

both the spill and the source even on such occasions where it seems quite clear from where the spill

originates.

Sampling procedures, which are connected to liability investigations, shall be performed with great

care and accuracy and every action shall be taken to prevent a decrease in the samples' value as

evidence.

If a spill has scattered and only thin sheens remain on the water surface, every possible effort should

be made to take a sample of the spill material. No sample volume is too small and samples that

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seemingly consist of pure water or sample pads that do not show any traces of oil can, when

analysed, provide useful data.

If any part of the spill differs in any respect from other parts, extra samples shall be taken to check if

more than one spill has occurred in the area.

If the spill response operation continues for more than one day, samples should be taken every day to

make it possible to determine the degree of weathering of the oil, as well as possible contamination

by other oils.

If an oil sample is suspected to be contaminated with material already in the water, if possible also

take samples of the water plus the ‘contaminant’. Waters in harbours and estuaries may contain

traces of various petroleum products and when spills in such waters are sampled it is therefore

important to provide the laboratory with blank samples of the water.

Sampling equipment shall be handled and stored in such a manner that its use cannot contaminate

the samples being taken.

Samples shall be handled as legal evidence and shall be kept in a chain of custody until identification

and possible legal procedure has been completed.

NOTE Identity per se requires all measurable data to be the same. This definition is practically and

technically impossible to fulfill, and instead the definition of identity is rephrased in operational terms: two

samples are identical if no differences in the analysed GC-FID and GC-MS data are present that cannot be

explained by weathering. The task of looking for differences in chemical composition instead of proving similarity

is conceptually more logical and easier to comply with. According to this, only distinct differences between

samples can be proved whereas identity per se cannot. Therefore, only when no differences between samples

are observed can identity be concluded as being beyond reasonable doubt.
4 Precautions and avoidance of contamination of samples during collection
4.1 General

It is critical to take precautions in order to prevent contaminating the samples with traces of other oils

during collection. Disposable nitrile gloves should be used and as far as possible, the sampling

equipment should be disposable. If the equipment is to be reused great care needs to be taken to

ensure that it is thoroughly cleaned and stored in a clean condition prior to further use.

4.2 Potential sources of contamination

Avoiding contamination of the samples during sampling is essential. All the following possible sources

of contamination should be considered and the appropriate control applied if necessary. These are:

 residue of earlier samples remaining on sampling containers, funnels, scoops, spatulas and other

equipment;
 material from the site during sampling;
 residual water in or on ropes, chains or extension handles;
 dust or dirty water on the container closure;
 hands, gloves and general handling.
4.3 Controls
Contamination may be minimised by taking the following appropriate action:
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 Check that the equipment is clean;
 take care to avoid disturbance at the sampling site;

 wipe and dry ropes, chains or extension handles between sampling and prior to storage;

 store containers and closures in a clean environment;
 avoid touching the material to be sampled with fingers, hands or gloves.

If contamination is suspected this should be reported and if possible a fresh sample collected.

5 Sampling equipment and sample containers and closures
5.1 Introduction

It should be noted that some of the equipment described may only be available from specialist

sources. It is recommended that sampling kits should be made up and readily available. A description

of the contents of suitable sampling kits is given in Annex E and a list of suppliers of suitable

equipment can be obtained from European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Central Secretariat.

5.2 General

All sampling devices, sample containers and closures should be designed and constructed so as to

assure the function for which they are intended in order to maintain the initial characteristics of the

material being sampled. Their cleanliness should be confirmed before use.
5.3 Sample containers, closures and packages

Glass jars or bottles with openings of a sufficient size to accommodate the material being sampled

fitted with plastic closures with an inert insert. Metal closures, corks and rubber bungs should not be

used as these may either react with, or contaminate, the material being sampled. The capacity of the

container will be dependent on the material being sampled and will usually be 100 ml to 500 ml.

Larger wide mouth air-tight containers may be necessary to contain tar-balls, see 7.3. The bottle and

the lid should have the same serial number in order to prevent intermixing of lids, which could cause

sample contamination.

Plastic sample containers should be avoided because components from the plastic material may

migrate into the oil and interfere with the analysis. However, if only plastic containers, or even bags,

are available, it is still better to use these than to obtain no samples at all.

Plastic bags in which the sample container can be sealed should be of sufficient strength and size to

accommodate the sample and retain its sealed condition during transportation.

Wooden or cardboard boxes that can be sealed can be used for transporting the samples. If the

samples are to be transported by air the packages should conform to all the necessary regulatory

requirements and be International Aviation Transport Association (IATA) approved.

5.4 Sampling devices

5.4.1 For sampling ships cargo tanks, bunker tanks and bilges, barges, road tankers, shore

tanks and pipelines
Sampling equipment, containers and closures as described in EN ISO 3170.

For sampling bunker tanks from the deck using sounding pipes use a thick-walled brass tube less

than 25 mm in diameter containing a 10 ml glass tube. The brass tube is fitted with a ring to enable

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attachment to a measuring tape. The brass tube should be constructed with an asymmetric end that

ensures that it lies horizontally when touching the tank bottom and should be of sufficient weight to

allow it to sink into viscous oils, see Figure 1.
Key
X 10 ml glass tube
Y Thick-walled heavy brass tube
Figure 1 — Thick-walled brass tube
5.4.2 For sampling waterborne oil globules

Either wide-necked glass jars, if necessary fixed to a wooden pole or a small, one litre

polytetrafluoroethylene (PFTE) bucket with a number of small diameter holes drilled in the base to

allow water to drain away from the oil.
5.4.3 For sampling waterborne oil layers greater than 1 mm thickness

Disposable polyethylene cornet suspended from a metal ring (in aluminium, 25 cm – 30 cm in

diameter) fixed to a wooden pole, having a 10 mm to 15 mm hole in its base to allow the liquid to

drain in a controlled manner, see Figure 2.

Teflon® is an example of a suitable product available commercially. This information is given for the

convenience of users of this CEN Technical report and does not constitute an endorsement by CEN

of this product.
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Key
A polyethylene cornet
B Metal ring
C Holder
D Wooden pole
E Hole
Figure 2 —Polyethylen cornet

5.4.4 For sampling waterborne oil layers of less than 1 mm thickness and oil sheens

PFTE net approximately 200 mm by 300 mm, fixed to a rod and line by means of a disposable clip,

see Figure 3.
Key
X Rod and line
Y Clip
Z Teflon net
Figure 3 — PFTE net fixed to a rod and line by means of a disposable clip
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6 Sampling General
6.1 Introduction

Sampling procedures and other recommendations in connection with sampling are briefly described in

this clause. The information given is designed to assist the sample collector in obtaining samples

which may be used for identifying oil spills.

These recommendations do not contain details relating to all types of spill situation, but should merely

be regarded as general guidelines. However, by following these guidelines it should be possible to

collect and provide legally valid samples that can help to determine the source responsible for the spill.

As an aid to this operation it is recommended that photographs are taken of the site being sampled.

6.2 Types of sample

The following types of oil or oily mixture may occur at spill sites and suspected sources and will need

to be sampled:

 oil, oily water, heavily emulsified oil, tar balls or lumps on the water surface;

 mixtures of oil and sorbents or other materials which are soaked with oil;
 mixtures of oil and foreign materials on beaches;
 oiled animals on the water surface or on beaches;
 neat oil in ships, offshore constructions or land facilities;
 oily water in bilges and slop tanks on board ships;
 oily sludge in sludg
...

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