Bio-based products - Guidelines for Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) for the End-of-life phase

This Technical Report provides guidance on how to compile an inventory for the end-of-life phase in LCA of bio-based products. All the end-of-life treatments here addressed are shown in Figure 1.
NOTE   The order of the end-of-life options indicated in Figure 1 respect the Directive 2008/98/EC on waste. This list is not exhaustive, but illustrates the content of this Technical Report.

Biobasierte Produkte - Leitlinien für die Sachbilanzierung von Produkten in der Nachnutzungsphase

Produits biosourcés - Lignes directrices relatives à l'inventaire du cycle de vie (ICV) pour la phase de fin de vie

Bioizdelki - Smernice za popis življenjskega cikla (LCI) za fazo po izteku življenjske dobe

To tehnično poročilo podaja smernice o tem, kako izdelati popis za fazo po izteku življenjske dobe pri analizi življenjskega cikla (LCA) bioizdelkov. Vsi načini obdelave po izteku življenjske dobe, opisani v tem standardu, so prikazani na sliki 1.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
06-Sep-2016
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
07-Sep-2016
Completion Date
07-Sep-2016

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 16957:2016
01-november-2016

Bioizdelki - Smernice za popis življenjskega cikla (LCI) za fazo po izteku življenjske

dobe

Bio-based products - Guidelines for Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) for the End-of-life phase

Produits biosourcés - Lignes directrices relatives à l'inventaire du cycle de vie (ICV) pour

la phase de fin de vie
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 16957:2016
ICS:
13.020.55 Biološki izdelki Biobased products
13.020.60 Življenjski ciklusi izdelkov Product life-cycles
SIST-TP CEN/TR 16957:2016 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TP CEN/TR 16957:2016
CEN/TR 16957
TECHNICAL REPORT
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
September 2016
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
ICS 13.020.60
English Version
Bio-based products - Guidelines for Life Cycle Inventory
(LCI) for the End-of-life phase

Produits biosourcés - Lignes directrices relatives à Biobasierte Produkte - Leitlinien für die

l'inventaire du cycle de vie (ICV) pour la phase de fin Sachbilanzierung von Produkten in der

de vie Nachnutzungsphase

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 22 May 2016. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC 411.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2016 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TR 16957:2016 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 6

4 Modelling end-of-life options for bio-based products ....................................................................... 6

4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 6

4.2 Documentation requirements .................................................................................................................... 8

4.3 Reuse and/or preparation for reuse ........................................................................................................ 8

4.4 Recycling ............................................................................................................................................................ 9

4.4.1 Mechanical recycling ...................................................................................................................................... 9

4.4.2 Organic recycling .......................................................................................................................................... 10

4.5 Recovery .......................................................................................................................................................... 13

4.5.1 Chemical recovery ....................................................................................................................................... 13

4.5.2 Energy recovery ............................................................................................................................................ 14

4.6 Incineration .................................................................................................................................................... 14

4.6.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 14

4.6.2 Parameters specific for bio-based waste ............................................................................................. 15

4.6.3 Parameters specific for incineration models ..................................................................................... 15

4.6.4 Documentation requirements ................................................................................................................. 16

4.7 Landfill ............................................................................................................................................................. 16

4.7.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 16

4.7.2 Parameters specific for bio-based waste ............................................................................................. 16

4.7.3 Parameters specific for landfill model ................................................................................................. 16

4.7.4 Documentation requirements ................................................................................................................. 19

4.8 Wastewater treatment (WWT) ............................................................................................................... 19

4.8.1 Wastewater aerobic treatment ............................................................................................................... 19

4.8.2 Parameters specific for aerobic WWT models .................................................................................. 20

4.8.3 Product specific parameters .................................................................................................................... 20

4.8.4 Anaerobic primary sludge treatment ................................................................................................... 20

4.9 Release of bio-based products in nature ............................................................................................. 21

Annex A (informative) Examples of pathways ................................................................................................ 22

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 24

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European foreword

This document (CEN/TR 16957:2016) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 411 “Bio-

based products”, the secretariat of which is held by NEN.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

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Introduction

Bio-based products from forestry and agriculture have a long history of application, such as paper,

board and various chemicals and materials. The last decades have seen the emergence of new bio-based

products in the market. Some of the reasons for the increased interest lie in the bio-based products’

benefits in relation to the depletion of fossil resources and climate change. Bio-based products may also

provide additional product functionalities. This has triggered a wave of innovation with the

development of knowledge and technologies allowing new transformation processes and product

development.

Acknowledging the need for common standards for bio-based products, the European Commission

issued mandate M/492, resulting in a series of standards developed by CEN/TC 411, with a focus on

bio-based products other than food, feed and biomass for energy applications.

The standards of CEN/TC 411 “Bio-based products” provide a common basis on the following aspects:

— Common terminology;
— Bio-based content determination;
— Life Cycle Assessment (LCA);
— Sustainability aspects;
— Declaration tools.

It is important to understand what the term bio-based product covers and how it is being used. The

term ‘bio-based’ means 'derived from biomass'. Bio-based products (bottles, insulation materials, wood

and wood products, paper, solvents, chemical intermediates, composite materials, etc.) are products

which are wholly or partly derived from biomass. It is essential to characterize the amount of biomass

contained in the product by for instance its bio-based content or bio-based carbon content.

The bio-based content of a product does not provide information on its environmental impact or

sustainability, which may be assessed through LCA and sustainability criteria. In addition, transparent

and unambiguous communication within bio-based value chains is facilitated by a harmonized

framework for certification and declaration.
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1 Scope

This Technical Report provides guidance on how to compile an inventory for the end-of-life phase in

LCA of bio-based products. All the end-of-life treatments here addressed are shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1 — End-of-life treatments addressed in this TR and related clauses

NOTE The order of the end-of-life options indicated in Figure 1 respect the Directive 2008/98/EC on waste.

This list is not exhaustive, but illustrates the content of this Technical Report.

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 16575, Bio-based products - Vocabulary
EN 16760, Bio-based products - Life Cycle Assessment
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3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 16575, EN 16760 and the

following apply.
3.1
chemical recovery

process to recover valuable chemical substances by chemical treatment of used materials by hydrolysis,

glycolysis, methanolysis, catalytic reaction, thermal reaction, and other chemical processes

[SOURCE: ISO 18601:2013, definition 3.1, modified - “packaging” replaced by “materials”, “process to

substitute used packaging for natural resources” deleted.]
4 Modelling end-of-life options for bio-based products
4.1 General

The end-of-life options for bio-based products are in general the same as the options available for non

bio-based products. Each end-of-life option has different environmental impacts to be evaluated as part

of the LCA.

Life cycle inventory data (e.g. emissions to air, water and soil) related to the bio-based product end-of-

life option depends on the type of treatment technology, processing conditions, the local infrastructure

for collection (e.g. separate collection of biodegradable waste for composting), sorting and processing,

the location (i.e. the contribution of for example the electricity used) and the physical-chemical

characteristics of the disposed material such as the chemical composition and the biodegradation

behaviour.

The end of life options recycling (mechanical or organic) and chemical recovery can lead to secondary

materials, and consequently saving primary materials, keeping the bio-based carbon fixed in the

material or preserving nutrients.

NOTE 1 Collection, transportation and sorting of the waste from bio-based products are considered under the

LCA but are not detailed in this Technical Report. Regardless of the origin of the process module applied in the

LCA study (generic modules from LCA databases, other public data, or modules developed by the practitioner of

the LCA study), the parameters shown in Table 1 need to be defined in order to reflect the material properties of

the studied bio-based waste.
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Table 1 — Properties of waste from bio-based products
Parameters Unit
Combustion characteristics
Lower Heating Value (LHV) MJ/kg
Share of biodegradable carbon actually decomposed
into inorganic components within a defined time
period
In composting %
In landfill %
years
Time period covered
In incineration %
In anaerobic digestion %
Water content %
(weight)
Chemical composition (in dry mass)
Carbon (fossil) (C) g/kg
Carbon (biogenic) (C) g/kg
Hydrogen (H) g/kg
Oxygen (O) g/kg
Sulphur (S) g/kg
Nitrogen (N) g/kg
Fluorine (F) g/kg
Chlorine (Cl) g/kg
Magnesium (Mn) g/kg
Potassium (K) g/kg
Calcium (Ca) g/kg
Arsenic (As) g/kg
Cadmium (Cd) g/kg
Nickel (Ni) g/kg
Cobalt (Co) g/kg
Chromium (Cr) g/kg
Copper (Cu) g/kg
Mercury (Hg) g/kg
Manganese (Mg) g/kg
Lead (Pb) g/kg
Zinc (Zn) g/kg
Other elements (e.g. Se and Mo) g/kg
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NOTE 2 Very low concentrations (ppm) of some of these elements may have a high impact and therefore need

to be included in the LCI.

The quantity of energy contained in a material is generally expressed through the Lower Heating Value

(LHV). This parameter points out the maximum energy obtainable from the complete combustion of the

material, without considering the heat of the water vapour generated by the combustion. The lower

heating value of bio-based product waste can be measured according to EN 15359.

LHV can be estimated using the following formula, based on the chemical composition of the bio-based

material.
LHV MJ /kg HHV−H O×2,2−×H 2,2×9
[ ]
where
HHV= O×9,83+H×124,27+C×34,02+S×19,07+N×6,28
where
HHV is Higher Heating Value (MJ/kg material);
O is oxygen (without O from H O) (kg/kg of material);
H is hydrogen (without H from H O) (kg/kg of material);
C is carbon (kg/kg of material);
N is nitrogen (kg/kg of material);
S is sulphur (kg/kg of material).
NOTE 3 Source: Ecoinvent [15].

The share of biodegradable carbon actually decomposed into inorganic components, along with,

chemical composition of the bio-based material guarantee, for example, a closed biogenic carbon

balance in the LCA system model of the bio-based product.
4.2 Documentation requirements

The properties of the waste from bio-based products (Table 1) need to be documented along with their

data sources to ensure transparency and enable comparability. This is especially relevant in case of

cradle-to-grave studies, where those properties are of key importance to correctly model the end-of-life

process along the value chain.

Biogenic carbon content in any LCA study of bio-based products/materials should be documented.

Biogenic carbon emissions (carbon dioxide, methane), originating from decomposition or combustion,

of bio-based material need to be documented separately from non-bio-based carbon emissions in order

to allow a consistent biogenic carbon balance over the full lifecycle of a bio-based product.

4.3 Reuse and/or preparation for reuse

Reuse means any operation by which products or components that are not waste are used again for the

same purpose for which they were conceived. Preparing for reuse means checking, cleaning or

repairing recovery operations, by which products or components of products that have become waste

are prepared so that they can be reused without any other pre-processing.
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Important aspects to consider in the LCA study are the energy use from transportation to collection and

logistic points and the use of resources for the preparation for reuse (e.g. water use, cleaning agents,

energy, etc.).
NOTE See also Annex C of ILCD Handbook [17].
4.4 Recycling
4.4.1 Mechanical recycling
4.4.1.1 General

In mechanical recycling, waste material is reclaimed in order to enable use of the material in

manufacture of a new product. During mechanical recycling, waste for example is ground, cleaned and

eventually recycled (e.g. for plastics recycled into flakes or pellets). The quality of the recycled materials

differs depending on original material properties and recycling processes applied.

This waste treatment pathway is open to bio-based materials. Prerequisite for a valuable mechanical

recycling of bio-based material is (a source-separated) waste collection and subsequent sorting.

Recycled bio-based material maintains the CO2 fixed from the atmosphere during plant growth within

the technical material cycle. This might be accountable as a type of carbon sequestration. In such case

bio-based carbon may therefore be considered as sequestered in the recycled bio-based material until

the recycled material (after one or more recycling “loops”) ends up in a final treatment (incineration,

composting or anaerobic digestion process).
4.4.1.2 Parameters specific for bio-based waste

The key parameters for modelling bio-based waste recycling are listed in Table 2.

Table 2 — Parameters required for recycling model
Energy demand – electrical kWh/t waste input
Energy demand – thermal kWh/t waste input
Energy demand – mechanical kWh/t waste input
Operating supplies (e.g. water, detergents)

Recycling efficiency (dry weight of waste) (%) kg output materials/ kg input materials x 100

Amount of non-recycled fraction (kg) and its
end-of-life

Depending on the LCA modelling approach to be used, information on what is substituted, the end use

market or the quality of the recycled material may be needed.
4.4.1.3 Documentation requirements

Bio-based carbon content that is fixed in recycled material needs to be documented in order to

guarantee a consistent biogenic carbon balance over the lifecycle.

Inventory and impact assessment results need to be presented transparently, separately indicating

contributions of recycling processes and any associated credits (e.g. credits for replacement of virgin

materials).
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4.4.2 Organic recycling
4.4.2.1 General

During organic recycling, biodegradable materials are exposed to the action of microorganisms. A

fundamental change in the molecular structure of the materials occurs. The process can be aerobic

(with air) or anaerobic (without air). In the first case, which corresponds to composting operations,

biodegradable materials will be degraded into CO , water and other components. In the second case,

methane will be also produced.

Organic recycling can provide valuable materials such as soil amendment and biogas.

NOTE If LCA studies are performed including composting as a possible end-of-life option then the study

should not focus on the isolated packaging or food service items (cutlery, plates, cups), but on the complete waste

stream, so also including the food waste. With this the actual benefits of composting will be captured.

4.4.2.2 Composting
4.4.2.2.1 General

Composting is a waste treatment option for biodegradable/compostable waste. The biodegradable

waste is typically converted into carbon dioxide, methane, water, Non Methane Volatile Organic

Compounds (NMVOC) and a residual fraction (the latter is the compost product). The compost product

can serve as a soil amendment, maintaining the soil carbon stock and can replace fertilizers.

Composting is an aerobic biodegradation process. It can be classified into a) home composting and b)

industrial composting. Home composting is a simple, one-stage, open-pile composting process of which

the parameters (temperature, humidity, availability of microorganisms and oxygen, residence time) can

vary widely, resulting in a process of which the average composting rate and performance is less

predictable. On top of this, emission control does not exist at home composting. In contrast to this,

industrial composting is typically is a two-stage process (main composting step and an after-

composting step) of which the conditions (oxygen availability, temperature, humidity, availability of

microorganisms and residence time) are controlled leading to a process of which the composting

performance is much more stable and guaranteed.

Often, e.g. in case of biodegradable polymer waste materials, the degradation process is started by a

chemical/physical degradation (e.g. hydrolysis). In a second step, hydrolyzation products (monomers in

case of hydrolyzed polymers) are subject to biodegradation by microorganisms present in the

composting environment.

Industrial composting offers options for emission control measures, as one or two composting stages

may take place in encapsulated systems instead of open piles. In encapsulated systems, air emission

abatement can be achieved, e.g. by the installation of biofilters.

Prerequisite for a composting treatment is the compostability of the bio-based material under study.

The property may be assessed using, e.g. EN 13432 and EN 14995.
4.4.2.2.2 Parameters specific for bio-based waste

Regardless of the origin of the process module applied in the LCA study (from LCA databases, other

public data, or modules developed by the practitioner of the LCA study), the mineralization rate in

composting process and chemical composition (i.e. Table 1) need to be adjusted to material properties

of the studied bio-based waste. If default composting modules are used, as a minimum requirement

they should at least allow adaptation of (biogenic) carbon content of waste material. The latter is

required to guarantee a consistent biogenic carbon balance over the full lifecycle of the bio-based

product.
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4.4.2.2.3 Parameters specific for composting models

Regardless of the origin of the process module applied in the LCA study (from LCA databases, other

public data, or modules developed by the practitioner of the LCA study), those parameters need to be

adjusted as far as possible to scope of the LCA study (regarding geographical, technical scope and time

period under study).
Table 3 specifies relevant parameters for composting models.
Table 3 — Parameters required for composting models
Specification/description of composting technology
used
Emissions to air
CO g/kg of dry waste
CH g/kg of dry waste
NMVOC g/kg of dry waste
N O g/kg of dry waste
NH g/kg of dry waste
Emissions to water
N g/kg of dry waste
BOD g/kg of dry waste
P g/kg of dry waste
Energy demand (waste handling, capture installations
etc.)
electrical kWh/t waste
thermal kWh/t waste
mechanical kWh/t waste
Fertilising value of compost
C, N, P, K and ash content g/kg of dry weight
Conversion ratio kg output compost (dry
content) / kg input waste
(dry content)

NOTE 1 The time frame for the compost handling should be 100 years so the field emissions also need to be

taken into account.

For home composting, the parameters in Table 3 should be considered and adapted in the light of the

different conditions including:

— composting is done in one step, with lower temperatures (typically at 20 °C to 30 °C) than in

industrial composting, the actual biodegradation rate should reflect this; and

— home composting is an open composting process, which means there are no emission abatement

measures.
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NOTE 2 A French standard on home composting of plastics has been published (NF T51–800).

4.4.2.2.4 Documentation requirements

Inventory and impact assessment results need to be presented transparently, separately indicating

contributions of compost and any associated credits with its use (e.g. replaced peat, replaced mineral

fertilizers, organic matter in soil and carbon sequestration, biodiversity).
4.4.2.3 Anaerobic digestion
4.4.2.3.1 General

Anaerobic digestion is a biological waste treatment process suitable for biodegradable waste, but in

contrast to composting it is an anaerobic process.

The waste material is converted into biogas (a mix of methane, carbon dioxide, NMVOC, N and H S),

2 2

water, and a residual fraction called digestate. The main components of biogas are carbon dioxide and

methane. Due to its high greenhouse gas potential, biogas needs to be managed in order to avoid its

release to the atmosphere. Energy may be recovered from generated methane gas. The digestate may

undergo a subsequent (aerobic) composting process (in this case, statements above related to

composting are also valid for composting of digestate). Emission abatement in encapsulated digestion

plants may be achieved by biofilters and scrubbers.

NOTE Depending on the input material's composition, biogas can contain H S which needs to be captured and

treated.

Prerequisite for a digestion treatment is at least the biodegradability of the bio-based waste. The

property may be assessed by, e.g. biodegradability standards such as ISO 15985, ISO 14853 and OECD

No. 311 or composting standards (such as EN 13432 and EN 14995) (the latter also include the

biodegradability requirements).
4.4.2.3.2 Parameters specific for bio-based waste

Regardless of the origin of the process module applied in the LCA study (from LCA databases, other

public data, or modules developed by the practitioner of the LCA study), the mineralization rate in

anaerobic digestion process and chemical composition (i.e. Table 1) need to be adjusted to material

properties of the studied bio-based material. If default anaerobic digestion modules are used, as a

minimum requirement they should at least allow adaptation of (biogenic) carbon content of waste

material. The latter is required to guarantee a consistent biogenic carbon balance over the full lifecycle

of the bio-based product.
4.4.2.3.3 Parameters specific for biogas models

Regardless of the origin of the process module applied in the LCA study (from LCA databases, other

public data, or modules developed by the practitioner of the LCA study), those parameters need to be

adjusted as far as possible to the individual LCA study.
Table 4 specifies relevant parameters for biogas models.
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Table 4 — Parameters required for biogas models
Specification/description of AD technology used
Total methane production g/kg of dry input weight
Energy content of the biogas MJ/m biogas
Biogas composition
CO %
CH %
H S %
N %
NMVOC %
Emissions to air
e.g. CH , CO , N O NH ) g/kg of dry input weight
4 2 2 , 3
Fertilizing value of digestates
C, N, P, K and ash content g/kg of dry weight
Energy demand (waste kWh/t waste
handling, capture installations,
etc.)

NOTE 1 The products of anaerobic digestion are biogas and digestates. The digestate can be converted to

fertilizer by composting. The biogas can be upgraded for use together with natural gas, converted to fuel or used

for electricity production.

NOTE 2 When biogas is converted to electricity at the biogas plant, then the energy recovery refers to the net

energy produced by the biogas plant.

NOTE 3 The time frame for the biodigestate handling should be 100 years so the field emissions also need to be

taken into account.
4.4.2.3.4 Documentation requirements

Energy recovery efficiency a) as electric energy and b) as thermal energy are critical parameters to be

documented.

Inventory and impact assessment results need to be presented transparently, separately indicating

contributions of anaerobic digestion (e.g. emissions to air and water during process, storage and

application e.g. NO , NH , CH ) and any associated credits (recovered energy that replaces electricity

2 4 4
and/or thermal energy).
4.5 Recovery
4.5.1 Chemical recovery

Chemical recovery may be a suitable process to recover valuable chemical substances from used bio-

based materials. For example, this treatment is appropriate for plastic waste where polymers are

broken down to its monomer building blocks, which can then be used to replace virgin polymers or in

other materials.

The chemical recovery parameters, specific for bio-based waste, and the documentation requirements

are identical to the mechanical recycling parameters and requirements, described in 4.4.1.2 and 4.4.1.3.

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NOTE Fu
...

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