This document specifies a direct method for the determination of the total oxygen content in bio-based products using an elemental analyser. The scope is limited to products containing elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, chloride, bromide and iodide without fluoride, representing at least 95 % of the composition of the product to be analysed.
NOTE 1   Bio-based materials can contain both organic and inorganic components. The oxygen content might originate both from the organic and/or the inorganic components. The inorganic components are not bio-based but will nevertheless contribute to the amount of oxygen determined by the following prescribed methods and therefore influence the results in terms of oxygen content. According to the current state of the art, it is not possible by isotopic measurements to establish a distinction between oxygen originating from biomass and oxygen originating from non-biomass.
NOTE 2   Although this document has been drafted for the purpose of the determinations dealing with bio-based content, it can be also used as a standalone standard for determination of oxygen in organic compounds.
NOTE 3   For the purposes of this document, the unit "% (m/m)" is used to represent the oxygen content of a material.
NOTE 4   The method specified in this document involves a direct measurement method for the determination of oxygen content. This method contains many similarities with the ASTM D5622 [1] standard for gasoline and methanol fuels. The method specified in this document is specifically developed and validated for bio-based products. In addition, this method provides more accurate and unadulterated measured values for oxygen in contrast to indirect measurement methods for the determination of oxygen (e.g. ASTM D 3176 [2]).

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This document provides examples of business to business (B2B) reporting in accordance with EN 16751 Bio-based products -Sustainability criteria. This Technical Report also offers some additional guidance to the user of EN 16751.

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This part of EN 16785 specifies a method of determining the bio-based content in products using the material balance applied to a representative product batch in a production unit.
This European Standard is applicable to any solid, liquid and gaseous bio-based product containing carbon, obtained by chemical synthesis, mixing or assembling, provided that:
-   for a product batch, the composition of the product and the bio-based content of each input, output and loss  in the production unit are known; and
-   the bio-based content of the product is verifiable by analysis.
This method incorporates only the physical parts of the input and output stream as present in the final product, and does not incorporate material inputs for the energy to be used during the production process.
This method is not needed for the determination of the bio-based content in natural products wholly derived from biomass.

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This European Standard sets the requirements for bio-based solvents in terms of their bio-based content, their technical properties and test methods. It lays down the characteristics and details for assessment of bio-based solvents that:
-   are fit for purpose in terms of performance related properties;
-   comply with the health, safety and environmental requirements which apply generally to solvents; and
-   are derived from biomass.
This European Standard specifies solvent classes, based on the percentage of bio-based carbon content and bio-based content.
NOTE   EN 16575 defines the term "bio-based" as derived from biomass and clarifies that "bio-based" does not imply "biodegradable". In addition, "biodegradable" does not necessarily imply the use of "bio-based" material.
In addition, this document sets requirements on information to be provided regarding sustainability aspects.

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This European Standard specifies requirements for transparent and non-misleading business-to consumer communication of characteristics of bio-based products by means of labelling and claims. It does not specify requirements for bio-based products.
This European Standard is intended to be used as a tool to generate and transfer information to the consumer and/or as an input for product-specific standards and certification schemes.
Business to business communication is covered by FprEN 16848.[1]
NOTE   This standard is applicable to all claims which are based on or make reference to bio-based content (e.g. vegetable-based, plant-based).

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This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of the bio-based carbon content in products, based on the 14C content measurement.
This European Standard also specifies three test methods to be used for the determination of the 14C content from which the bio-based carbon content is calculated:
-   Method A: Liquid scintillation-counter method (LSC) (normative);
-   Method B: Beta-ionization (BI) (informative);
-   Method C: Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) (normative).
The bio-based carbon content is expressed by a fraction of sample mass or as a fraction of the total carbon content. This calculation method is applicable to any product containing carbon, including bio composites.
NOTE   This European standard does not provide the methodology for the calculation of the biomass content of a sample see prEN 16785-1 [5] and prEN 16785-2 [6].

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This European Standard specifies a template for the reporting and communication of characteristics, including recovery and disposal options, of bio-based products designed for business to business transactions.
This horizontal European Standard is intended to be used as a tool to generate and transfer information in the industrial chain and/or as an input for product specific standards and certification schemes.
This European Standard does not contain requirements for bio-based products, but requirements for claims about bio-based products.
Business to consumer communication is not covered by this standard

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This Technical Report provides guidance on how to compile an inventory for the end-of-life phase in LCA of bio-based products. All the end-of-life treatments here addressed are shown in Figure 1.
NOTE   The order of the end-of-life options indicated in Figure 1 respect the Directive 2008/98/EC on waste. This list is not exhaustive, but illustrates the content of this Technical Report.

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TThis European Standard sets horizontal sustainability criteria applicable to the bio-based part of all bio-based products, excluding food, feed and energy, covering all three pillars of sustainability; environmental, social and economic aspects. If the product is partly bio-based, this European Standard can only be used for the bio-based part since it does not address non-bio-based (fossil, mineral) parts of a product.
This European Standard can be used for two applications; either to provide sustainability information about the biomass production only or to provide sustainability information in the supply chain for the bio-based part of the bio-based product.
This European Standard sets a framework to provide information on management of sustainability aspects.
This European Standard cannot be used to make claims that operations or products are sustainable since it does not establish thresholds or limits.
This European Standard can however be used for business-to-business (B2B) communication or for developing product specific standards and certification schemes.

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This European Standard specifies a method of determining the bio-based content in products, based on the radiocarbon analysis and elemental analysis.
This European Standard is applicable to any solid, liquid and gaseous product containing carbon element, provided that a statement giving the composition and the origin of the product is available.
This method is not needed for the determination of the bio based content in natural products wholly derived from biomass.

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This European Standard provides specific life cycle assessment (LCA) requirements and guidance for bio-based products, excluding food, feed and energy, based on EN ISO 14040 and EN ISO 14044.
This European Standard covers bio-based products, derived wholly or partly from biomass.
This European Standard provides guidance and requirements to assess impact over the life cycle of bio-based products with the focus on how to handle the specificities of the bio-based part of the product.
The applications of LCA as such are outside the scope of this European Standard. Clarifications, considerations, practices, simplifications and options for the different applications, are also beyond the scope of this European Standard. In addition, this European Standard may be applied in studies that do not cover the whole life cycle, with justification e.g. in the case of business-to-business information, such as cradle-to-gate studies, gate-to-gate studies, and specific parts of the life cycle (e.g. waste management, components of a product).

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This European Standard defines general terms to be used in the field of bio-based products, including horizontal aspects relevant for bio-based product standards.
NOTE   Though the terms in this standard are horizontally applicable to bio-based products, this standard focuses on areas other than food, feed and energy applications, where terms may be defined in existing specific standards.

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This Technical Report gives an overview of methods which can be used for the determination of the bio-based content of solid, liquid and gaseous products. It describes more specifically:
a)   a method using the radiocarbon analysis and elemental analysis: this method is based on a statement and a verification of the composition of the products;
b)   methods based on measurement of stable isotopic ratio; and
c)   a method based on the material balance.
This Technical Report gives guidance on the applicability of the different methods.
This Technical Report also gives recommendations for the further development of European Standards for the determination of the bio-based content.

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The stable isotope ratios of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen can be used to obtain information about the origin of bio-based feedstock and characteristics of production processes of bio-based products. However, no or limited attention for the use of the elements nitrogen and sulphur is given in this document due to the fact that these applications are not yet available.
This Technical Report provides an overview of existing applications of isotope ratio analysis of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen that are relevant to the analysis of bio-based feedstocks, products and production processes

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  • Technical report
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This Technical Specification sets requirements for bio-based solvents in terms of properties, limits, application classes and test methods. It lays down the characteristics and details for assessment of bio-based solvents:
-   fit for purpose in terms of performance related properties;
-   comply with the requirements regarding the health, safety and environment which apply to general solvents;
-   are derived from a certain minimum percentage of biomass; and
-   comply with at least similar sustainability criteria as comparable (regular) solvents.
The criteria of the Regulation for Environmental Assessment of Chemicals (REACH) [2] are included in the discussions that have led to this Technical Specification.
NOTE   EN 16575 defines the term “bio-based” as derived from biomass and clarifies that “bio-based” does not imply “biodegradable”. In addition, “biodegradable” does not necessarily imply the use of “bio-based” material.

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  • Technical specification
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This Technical Specification specifies a method for the determination of the bio-based carbon content in products, based on the 14C content measurement.
It also specifies three test methods to be used for the determination of the 14C content from which the bio-based carbon content is calculated:
-   Method A: Liquid scintillation-counter method (LSC);
-   Method B: Beta-ionization (BI);
-   Method C: Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS).
The bio-based carbon content is expressed by a fraction of sample mass, as a fraction of the total carbon content or as a fraction of the total organic carbon content.
This calculation method is applicable to any product containing organic carbon, including biocomposites.
NOTE   This Technical Specification does not provide the methodology for the calculation of the biomass content of a sample.

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