Environmental management - Life cycle assessment - Requirements and guidelines (ISO 14044:2006)

ISO 14044:2006 specifies requirements and provides guidelines for life cycle assessment (LCA) including: definition of the goal and scope of the LCA, the life cycle inventory analysis (LCI) phase, the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) phase, the life cycle interpretation phase, reporting and critical review of the LCA, limitations of the LCA, relationship between the LCA phases, and conditions for use of value choices and optional elements.
ISO 14044:2006 covers life cycle assessment (LCA) studies and life cycle inventory (LCI) studies.

Umweltmanagement - Ökobilanz - Anforderungen und Anleitungen (ISO 14044:2006)

Diese Internationale Norm legt Anforderungen an eine Ökobilanz fest und liefert Anleitungen für deren Erstellung, einschließlich
a) der Festlegung des Ziels und des Untersuchungsrahmens der Ökobilanz;
b) der Sachbilanz-Phase;
c) der Phase der Wirkungsabschätzung;
d) der Auswertungsphase;
e) der Berichterstattung über die Ökobilanz und deren Kritische Prüfung;
f) der Grenzen der Ökobilanz;
g) der Beziehungen zwischen den Phasen einer Ökobilanz und
h) der Bedingungen der Anwendung von Werthaltungen und optionalen Bestandteilen.
Diese Norm umfasst Ökobilanz-Studien und Sachbilanz-Studien.
Die vorgesehene Anwendung der Ergebnisse von Öko- oder Sachbilanzen wird bei der Festlegung des Ziels und des Untersuchungsrahmens berücksichtigt, die Anwendung selbst fällt jedoch nicht in den Anwendungs-bereich dieser Internationalen Norm.
Diese Internationale Norm ist nicht für vertragliche oder regulative Zwecke oder für Zulassung und Zerti-fizierung vorgesehen.

Management environnemental - Analyse du cycle de vie - Exigences et lignes directrices (ISO 14044:2006)

L'ISO 14044:2006 spécifie les exigences et fournit les lignes directrices pour la réalisation d'analyses du cycle de vie (ACV) comprenant: la définition des objectifs et du champ de l'étude, la phase d' inventaire du cycle de vie, la phase d'évaluation de l'impact du cycle de vie, la phase d'interprétation du cycle de vie, la communication et la revue critique de l'analyse du cycle de vie, les limitations de l'analyse du cycle de vie, la relation entre les phases de l'analyse du cycle de vie et les conditions d'utilisation des choix de valeur et des éléments facultatifs.
L'ISO 14044:2006 traite des études d'analyse du cycle de vie et des études d'inventaire du cycle de vie.

Ravnanje z okoljem - Ocenjevanje življenjskega cikla – Zahteve in smernice (ISO 14044:2006)

Ta mednarodni standard določa zahteve in podaja smernice za ocenjevanje življenjskega cikla (LCA), kar vključuje a) opredelitev cilja in področja uporabe LCA, b) fazo popisa življenjskega cikla (LCI), c) fazo ocenjevanja vplivov življenjskega cikla (LCIA), d) fazo razlage življenjskega cikla, e) poročanje in kritični pregled LCA, f) omejitve LCA, g) razmerje med fazami LCA in h) pogoje za uporabo vrednostnih izbir in izbirnih elementov. Ta mednarodni standard zajema študije ocenjevanja življenjskega cikla (LCA) in študije popisa življenjskega cikla (LCI). Načrtovana uporaba rezultatov LCA in LCI je obravnavana v opredelitvi cilja in področja uporabe, sama uporaba pa ni zajeta v področje uporabe tega standarda. Ta mednarodni standard ni predviden za pogodbene ali regulatorne namene ali registracijo in certificiranje.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
30-Jun-2006
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
01-Jul-2006
Completion Date
01-Jul-2006

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 14044:2006
01-september-2006
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN ISO 14040:2000
SIST EN ISO 14041:2000
SIST EN ISO 14042:2001
SIST EN ISO 14043:2001
Ravnanje z okoljem - Ocenjevanje življenjskega cikla – Zahteve in smernice (ISO
14044:2006)

Environmental management - Life cycle assessment - Requirements and guidelines (ISO

14044:2006)
Umweltmanagement - Ökobilanz - Anforderungen und Anleitungen (ISO 14044:2006)

Management environnemental - Analyse du cycle de vie - Exigences et lignes directrices

(ISO 14044:2006)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 14044:2006
ICS:
13.020.10 Ravnanje z okoljem Environmental management
13.020.60 Življenjski ciklusi izdelkov Product life-cycles
SIST EN ISO 14044:2006 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 14044:2006
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SIST EN ISO 14044:2006
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN ISO 14044
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
July 2006
ICS 13.020.60; 13.020.10 Supersedes EN ISO 14040:1997, EN ISO 14041:1998,
EN ISO 14042:2000, EN ISO 14043:2000
English Version
Environmental management - Life cycle assessment -
Requirements and guidelines (ISO 14044:2006)

Management environnemental - Analyse du cycle de vie - Umweltmanagement - Ökobilanz - Anforderungen und

Exigences et lignes directrices (ISO 14044:2006) Anleitungen (ISO 14044:2006)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 19 June 2006.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the Central Secretariat or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official

versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,

Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels

© 2006 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 14044:2006: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 14044:2006
EN ISO 14044:2006 (E)
Foreword

This document (EN ISO 14044:2006) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 207

"Environmental management" in collaboration with CMC.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of

an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by January 2007, and conflicting national

standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by January 2007.

This document supersedes EN ISO 14040:1997, EN ISO 14041:1998, EN ISO 14042:2000, EN

ISO 14043:2000.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of

the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium,

Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary,

Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland,

Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 14044:2006 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 14044:2006 without any

modifications.
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SIST EN ISO 14044:2006
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 14044
First edition
2006-07-01
Environmental management — Life cycle
assessment — Requirements and
guidelines
Management environnemental — Analyse du cycle de vie — Exigences
et lignes directrices
Reference number
ISO 14044:2006(E)
ISO 2006
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SIST EN ISO 14044:2006
ISO 14044:2006(E)
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ii © ISO 2006 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14044:2006
ISO 14044:2006(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Scope ..................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ........................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions........................................................................................................................... 1

4 Methodological framework for LCA.................................................................................................... 6

4.1 General requirements........................................................................................................................... 6

4.2 Goal and scope definition.................................................................................................................... 7

4.3 Life cycle inventory analysis (LCI).................................................................................................... 11

4.4 Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) ............................................................................................... 16

4.5 Life cycle interpretation ..................................................................................................................... 23

5 Reporting ............................................................................................................................................. 27

5.1 General requirements and considerations ...................................................................................... 27

5.2 Additional requirements and guidance for third-party reports...................................................... 28

5.3 Further reporting requirements for comparative assertion intended to be disclosed to the

public.................................................................................................................................................... 30

6 Critical review...................................................................................................................................... 31

6.1 General................................................................................................................................................. 31

6.2 Critical review by internal or external expert................................................................................... 31

6.3 Critical review by panel of interested parties ..................................................................................31

Annex A (informative) Examples of data collection sheets ......................................................................... 33

Annex B (informative) Examples of life cycle interpretation ....................................................................... 36

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 46

© ISO 2006 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 14044:2006
ISO 14044:2006(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 14044 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 207, Environmental management, Subcommittee

SC 5, Life cycle assessment.

This first edition of ISO 14044, together with ISO 14040:2006, cancels and replaces ISO 14040:1997,

ISO 14041:1998, ISO 14042:2000 and ISO 14043:2000, which have been technically revised.

iv © ISO 2006 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14044:2006
ISO 14044:2006(E)
Introduction

The increased awareness of the importance of environmental protection, and the possible impacts associated

with products , both manufactured and consumed, has increased interest in the development of methods to

better understand and address these impacts. One of the techniques being developed for this purpose is life

cycle assessment (LCA).
LCA can assist in

⎯ identifying opportunities to improve the environmental performance of products at various points in their

life cycle,

⎯ informing decision-makers in industry, government or non-government organizations (e.g. for the purpose

of strategic planning, priority setting, product or process design or redesign),

⎯ the selection of relevant indicators of environmental performance, including measurement techniques,

and

⎯ marketing (e.g. implementing an ecolabelling scheme, making an environmental claim, or producing an

environmental product declaration).

LCA addresses the environmental aspects and potential environmental impacts (e.g. use of resources and

environmental consequences of releases) throughout a product's life cycle from raw material acquisition

through production, use, end-of-life treatment, recycling and final disposal (i.e. cradle-to-grave).

There are four phases in an LCA study:
a) the goal and scope definition phase,
b) the inventory analysis phase,
c) the impact assessment phase, and
d) the interpretation phase.

The scope, including system boundary and level of detail, of an LCA depends on the subject and the intended

use of the study. The depth and the breadth of LCA can differ considerably depending on the goal of a

particular LCA.

The life cycle inventory analysis phase (LCI phase) is the second phase of LCA. It is an inventory of

input/output data with regard to the system being studied. It involves the collection of the data necessary to

meet the goals of the defined study.

The life cycle impact assessment phase (LCIA) is the third phase of the LCA. The purpose of LCIA is to

provide additional information to help assess a product system’s LCI results so as to better understand their

environmental significance.
1) In this International Standard, the term “product” includes services.

2) The “potential environmental impacts” are relative expressions, as they are related to the functional unit of a product

system.
© ISO 2006 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 14044:2006
ISO 14044:2006(E)

Life cycle interpretation is the final phase of the LCA procedure, in which the results of an LCI or an LCIA, or

both, are summarized and discussed as a basis for conclusions, recommendations and decision-making in

accordance with the goal and scope definition.

There are cases where the goal of an LCA may be satisfied by performing only an inventory analysis and an

interpretation. This is usually referred to as an LCI study.

This International Standard covers two types of studies: life cycle assessment studies (LCA studies) and life

cycle inventory studies (LCI studies). LCI studies are similar to LCA studies but exclude the LCIA phase. LCI

are not to be confused with the LCI phase of an LCA study.

Generally, the information developed in an LCA or LCI study can be used as part of a much more

comprehensive decision process. Comparing the results of different LCA or LCI studies is only possible if the

assumptions and context of each study are equivalent. Therefore this International Standard contains several

requirements and recommendations to ensure transparency on these issues.

LCA is one of several environmental management techniques (e.g. risk assessment, environmental

performance evaluation, environmental auditing, and environmental impact assessment) and might not be the

most appropriate technique to use in all situations. LCA typically does not address the economic or social

aspects of a product, but the life cycle approach and methodologies described in this International Standard

may be applied to these other aspects.

This International Standard, like other International Standards, is not intended to be used to create non-tariff

trade barriers or to increase or change an organization's legal obligations.
vi © ISO 2006 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14044:2006
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 14044:2006(E)
Environmental management — Life cycle assessment —
Requirements and guidelines
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies requirements and provides guidelines for life cycle assessment (LCA)

including
a) the goal and scope definition of the LCA,
b) the life cycle inventory analysis (LCI) phase,
c) the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) phase,
d) the life cycle interpretation phase,
e) reporting and critical review of the LCA,
f) limitations of the LCA,
g) relationship between the LCA phases, and
h) conditions for use of value choices and optional elements.

This International Standard covers life cycle assessment (LCA) studies and life cycle inventory (LCI) studies.

The intended application of LCA or LCI results is considered during the goal and scope definition, but the

application itself is outside the scope of this International Standard.

This International Standard is not intended for contractual or regulatory purposes or registration and

certification.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references,

only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any

amendments) applies.

ISO 14040:2006, Environmental management — Life cycle assessment — Principles and framework

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

NOTE These terms and definitions are taken from ISO 14040:2006 and are repeated for the convenience of users of

this International Standard.
© ISO 2006 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 14044:2006
ISO 14044:2006(E)
3.1
life cycle

consecutive and interlinked stages of a product system, from raw material acquisition or generation from

natural resources to final disposal
3.2
life cycle assessment
LCA

compilation and evaluation of the inputs, outputs and the potential environmental impacts of a product system

throughout its life cycle
3.3
life cycle inventory analysis
LCI

phase of life cycle assessment involving the compilation and quantification of inputs and outputs for a product

throughout its life cycle
3.4
life cycle impact assessment
LCIA

phase of life cycle assessment aimed at understanding and evaluating the magnitude and significance of the

potential environmental impacts for a product system throughout the life cycle of the product

3.5
life cycle interpretation

phase of life cycle assessment in which the findings of either the inventory analysis or the impact assessment,

or both, are evaluated in relation to the defined goal and scope in order to reach conclusions and

recommendations
3.6
comparative assertion

environmental claim regarding the superiority or equivalence of one product versus a competing product that

performs the same function
3.7
transparency
open, comprehensive and understandable presentation of information
3.8
environmental aspect

element of an organization's activities, products or services that can interact with the environment

[ISO 14001:2004; definition 3.6]
3.9
product
any goods or service
NOTE 1 The product can be categorized as follows:
⎯ services (e.g. transport);
⎯ software (e.g. computer program, dictionary);
⎯ hardware (e.g. engine mechanical part);
⎯ processed materials (e.g. lubricant);
2 © ISO 2006 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14044:2006
ISO 14044:2006(E)

NOTE 2 Services have tangible and intangible elements. Provision of a service can involve, for example, the following:

⎯ an activity performed on a customer-supplied tangible product (e.g. automobile to be repaired);

⎯ an activity performed on a customer-supplied intangible product (e.g. the income statement needed to prepare a tax

return);

⎯ the delivery of an intangible product (e.g. the delivery of information in the context of knowledge transmission);

⎯ the creation of ambience for the customer (e.g. in hotels and restaurants).

Software consists of information and is generally intangible and can be in the form of approaches, transactions or

procedures.

Hardware is generally tangible and its amount is a countable characteristic. Processed materials are generally tangible

and their amount is a continuous characteristic.
NOTE 3 Adapted from ISO 14021:1999 and ISO 9000:2005.
3.10
co-product
any of two or more products coming from the same unit process or product system
3.11
process

set of interrelated or interacting activities that transforms inputs into outputs

[ISO 9000:2005, definition 3.4.1 (without notes)]
3.12
elementary flow

material or energy entering the system being studied that has been drawn from the environment without

previous human transformation, or material or energy leaving the system being studied that is released into

the environment without subsequent human transformation
3.13
energy flow

input to or output from a unit process or product system, quantified in energy units

NOTE Energy flow that is an input may be called an energy input; energy flow that is an output may be called an

energy output.
3.14
feedstock energy

heat of combustion of a raw material input that is not used as an energy source to a product system,

expressed in terms of higher heating value or lower heating value

NOTE Care is necessary to ensure that the energy content of raw materials is not counted twice.

3.15
raw material
primary or secondary material that is used to produce a product
NOTE Secondary material includes recycled material.
3.16
ancillary input

material input that is used by the unit process producing the product, but does not constitute part of the

product
© ISO 2006 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 14044:2006
ISO 14044:2006(E)
3.17
allocation

partitioning the input or output flows of a process or a product system between the product system under

study and one or more other product systems
3.18
cut-off criteria

specification of the amount of material or energy flow or the level of environmental significance associated

with unit processes or product system to be excluded from a study
3.19
data quality

characteristics of data that relate to their ability to satisfy stated requirements

3.20
functional unit
quantified performance of a product system for use as a reference unit
3.21
input
product, material or energy flow that enters a unit process

NOTE Products and materials include raw materials, intermediate products and co-products.

3.22
intermediate flow

product, material or energy flow occurring between unit processes of the product system being studied

3.23
intermediate product

output from a unit process that is input to other unit processes that require further transformation within the

system
3.24
life cycle inventory analysis result
LCI result

outcome of a life cycle inventory analysis that catalogues the flows crossing the system boundary and

provides the starting point for life cycle impact assessment
3.25
output
product, material or energy flow that leaves a unit process

NOTE Products and materials include raw materials, intermediate products, co-products, and releases.

3.26
process energy

energy input required for operating the process or equipment within a unit process, excluding energy inputs for

production and delivery of the energy itself
3.27
product flow
products entering from or leaving to another product system
3.28
product system

collection of unit processes with elementary and product flows, performing one or more defined functions, and

which models the life cycle of a product
4 © ISO 2006 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14044:2006
ISO 14044:2006(E)
3.29
reference flow

measure of the outputs from processes in a given product system required to fulfil the function expressed by

the functional unit
3.30
releases
emissions to air and discharges to water and soil
3.31
sensitivity analysis

systematic procedures for estimating the effects of the choices made regarding methods and data on the

outcome of a study
3.32
system boundary
set of criteria specifying which unit processes are part of a product system

NOTE The term “system boundary” is not used in this International Standard in relation to LCIA.

3.33
uncertainty analysis

systematic procedure to quantify the uncertainty introduced in the results of a life cycle inventory analysis due

to the cumulative effects of model imprecision, input uncertainty and data variability

NOTE Either ranges or probability distributions are used to determine uncertainty in the results.

3.34
unit process

smallest element considered in the life cycle inventory analysis for which input and output data are quantified

3.35
waste
substances or objects which the holder intends or is required to dispose of

NOTE The definition is taken from the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous

Wastes and Their Disposal (22 March 1989) but is not confined in this International Standard to hazardous waste.

3.36
category endpoint

attribute or aspect of natural environment, human health, or resources, identifying an environmental issue

giving cause for concern
3.37
characterization factor

factor derived from a characterization model which is applied to convert an assigned life cycle inventory

analysis result to the common unit of the category indicator
NOTE The common unit allows calculation of the category indicator result.
3.38
environmental mechanism

system of physical, chemical and biological processes for a given impact category, linking the life cycle

inventory analysis results to category indicators and to category endpoints
3.39
impact category

class representing environmental issues of concern to which life cycle inventory analysis results may be

assigned
© ISO 2006 – All rights reserved 5
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SIST EN ISO 14044:2006
ISO 14044:2006(E)
3.40
impact category indicator
quantifiable representation of an impact category

NOTE The shorter expression “category indicator” is used in this International Standard for improved readability.

3.41
completeness check

process of verifying whether information from the phases of a life cycle assessment is sufficient for reaching

conclusions in accordance with the goal and scope definition
3.42
consistency check

process of verifying that the assumptions, methods and data are consistently applied throughout the study and

are in accordance with the goal and scope definition performed before conclusions are reached

3.43
sensitivity check

process of verifying that the information obtained from a sensitivity analysis is relevant for reaching the

conclusions and giving recommendations
3.44
evaluation

element within the life cycle interpretation phase intended to establish confidence in the results of the life cycle

assessment

NOTE Evaluation includes completeness check, sensitivity check, consistency check, and any other validation that

may be required according to the goal and scope definition of the study
3.45
critical review

process intended to ensure consistency between a life cycle assessment and the principles and requirements

of the International Standards on life cycle assessment
NOTE 1 The principles are described in ISO 14040:2006, 4.1.
NOTE 2 The requirements are described in this International Standard.
3.46
interested party

individual or group concerned with or affected by the environmental performance of a product system, or by

the results of the life cycle assessment
4 Methodological framework for LCA
4.1 General requirements
See ISO 14040 for the principles and framework to be used to conduct an LCA.

LCA studies shall include the goal and scope definition, inventory analysis, impact assessment and

interpretation of results.

LCI studies shall include definition of the goal and scope, inventory analysis and interpretation of results. The

requirements and recommendations of this International Standard, with the exception of those provisions

regarding impact assessment, also apply to life cycle inventory studies.

An LCI study alone shall not be used for comparisons intended to be used in comparative assertions intended

to be disclosed to the public.

It should be recognized that there is no scientific basis for reducing LCA results to a single overall score or

number.
6 © ISO 2006 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14044:2006
ISO 14044:2006(E)
4.2 Goal and scope definition
4.2.1 General

The goal and scope of an LCA shall be clearly defined and shall be consistent with the intended application.

Due to the iterative nature of LCA, the scope may have to be refined during the study.

4.2.2 Goal of the study

In defining the goal of an LCA, the following items shall be unambiguously stated:

⎯ the intended application;
⎯ the reasons for carrying out the study:

⎯ the intended audience, i.e. to whom the results of the study are intended to be communicated:

⎯ whether the results are intended to be used in comparative assertions intended to be disclosed to the

public.
4.2.3 Scope of the study
4.2.3.1 General

In defining the scope of an LCA, the following items shall be considered and clearly described:

⎯ the product system to be studied;

⎯ the functions of the product system or, in the case of comparative studies, the systems;

⎯ the functional unit;
⎯ the system boundary;
⎯ allocation procedures;
⎯ LCIA methodology and types of impacts;
⎯ interpretation to be used;
⎯ data requirements;
⎯ assumptions;
⎯ value choices and optional elements;
⎯ limitations;
⎯ data quality requirements;
⎯ type of critical review, if any;
⎯ type and format of the report required for the study.

In some cases, the goal and scope of the study may be revised due to unforeseen limitations

...

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