Additive manufacturing - Design - Part 1: Laser-based powder bed fusion of metals (ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019)

This document specifies the features of laser-based powder bed fusion of metals (PBF-LB/M) and provides detailed design recommendations.
Some of the fundamental principles are also applicable to other additive manufacturing (AM) processes, provided that due consideration is given to process-specific features.
This document also provides a state of the art review of design guidelines associated with the use of powder bed fusion (PBF) by bringing together relevant knowledge about this process and by extending the scope of ISO/ASTM 52910.

Additive Fertigung - Konstruktion - Teil 1: Laserbasierte Pulverbettfusion von Metallen (ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019)

Dieses Dokument legt die Merkmale der laserbasierten Pulverbettfusion von Metallen (PBF LB/M) fest und bietet detaillierte Konstruktionsempfehlungen.
Einige der grundlegenden Prinzipien gelten auch für andere additive Fertigungsverfahren (AM Verfahren), vorausgesetzt, dass die prozessspezifischen Merkmale berücksichtigt werden.
Dieses Dokument bietet eine Übersicht von Konstruktionsleitfäden auf dem Stand der Technik im Zusammen¬hang mit pulverbettbasiertem Schmelzen (PBF), indem relevantes Wissen zu diesem Verfahren zusammengeführt und der Anwendungsbereich von ISO/ASTM 52910 erweitert wird.

Fabrication additive - Conception - Partie 1: Fusion laser sur lit de poudre métallique (ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019)

Le présent document spécifie les caractéristiques de la fusion laser sur lit de poudre métallique (PBF-LB/M) et fournit des recommandations de conception détaillées.
Certains des principes fondamentaux sont également applicables à d'autres procédés de fabrication additive (FA), sous réserve que les caractéristiques spécifiques à un procédé soient dûment prises en compte.
Le présent document fournit également un État de l'Art des lignes directrices de conception associées à l'utilisation d'une fusion sur lit de poudre (PBF), en compilant des connaissances pertinentes sur ce procédé et en élargissant le domaine d'application de l'ISO/ASTM 52910.

Aditivna proizvodnja - Konstruiranje - 1. del: Selektivno lasersko pretaljevanje kovinskega prahu (ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019)

Namen tega standarda je zagotoviti inženirjem za načrtovanje in proizvodnjo delovno podlago, ki jim omogoča sprejemanje utemeljenih odločitev glede uporabe laserske fuzije kovinskih prahastih plasti. Ta standard opisuje značilnosti laserske fuzije kovinskih prahastih plasti in podaja podrobna priporočila za načrtovanje. Nekatera temeljna načela je mogoče uporabiti tudi pri drugih procesih aditivne proizvodnje, pod pogojem, da se upošteva značilnosti procesa. Namen tega standarda je izvajalcem pomagati raziskati prednosti laserske fuzije kovinskih prahastih plasti ter prepoznati omejitve, povezane s procesi, pri načrtovanju delov.
Dokument ponuja tudi najsodobnejši pregled smernic za načrtovanje, povezanih z uporabo fuzije prahastih plasti, ki združujejo ustrezno znanje o tem procesu in razširjajo področje uporabe standarda ISO/ASTM 52910, »Standardnega vodila za načrtovanje aditivne proizvodnje«.

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
30-Dec-2019
Withdrawal Date
30-Mar-2020
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Start Date
25-Sep-2019
Completion Date
25-Sep-2019

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019
01-december-2019
Aditivna proizvodnja - Konstruiranje - 1. del: Selektivno lasersko pretaljevanje
kovinskega prahu (ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019)

Additive manufacturing - Design - Part 1: Laser-based powder bed fusion of metals

(ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019)

Additive Fertigung - Technische Konstruktionsrichtlinie für Pulverbettfusion - Teil 1:

Laserbasierte Pulverbettfusion von Metallen (ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019)

Fabrication additive - Conception - Partie 1: Fusion laser sur lit de poudre métallique

(ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019
ICS:
25.030 3D-tiskanje Additive manufacturing
SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019
EN ISO/ASTM 52911-1
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
September 2019
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 25.030
English Version
Additive manufacturing - Design - Part 1: Laser-based
powder bed fusion of metals (ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019)

Fabrication additive - Conception - Partie 1: Fusion Additive Fertigung - Konstruktion - Teil 1:

laser sur lit de poudre métallique (ISO/ASTM 52911- Laserbasierte Pulverbettfusion von Metallen

1:2019) (ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 21 July 2019.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019
EN ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019
EN ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 261

"Additive manufacturing" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 438 “Additive

Manufacturing” the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by March 2020, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by March 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019

without any modification.
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019
INTERNATIONAL ISO/ASTM
STANDARD 52911-1
First edition
2019-07
Additive manufacturing — Design —
Part 1:
Laser-based powder bed fusion of
metals
Fabrication additive — Conception —
Partie 1: Fusion laser sur lit de poudre métallique
Reference number
ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019(E)
ISO/ASTM International 2019
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019
ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/ASTM International 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may be

reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester. In the United States, such requests should be sent to ASTM International.

ISO copyright office ASTM International
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, USA
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11 Phone: +610 832 9634
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47 Fax: +610 832 9635
Email: copyright@iso.org Email: khooper@astm.org
Website: www.iso.org Website: www.astm.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/ASTM International 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019
ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 Symbols ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5 Characteristics of powder bed fusion (PBF) processes ................................................................................................ 3

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Size of the parts ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.3 Benefits to be considered in regard to the PBF process ...................................................................................... 4

5.4 Limitations to be considered in regard to the PBF process ............................................................................. 5

5.5 Economic and time efficiency .................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.6 Feature constraints (islands, overhang, stair-step effect) ................................................................................. 6

5.6.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.6.2 Islands ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.6.3 Overhang ................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.6.4 Stair-step effect ................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.7 Dimensional, form and positional accuracy ................................................................................................................... 7

5.8 Data quality, resolution, representation ........................................................................................................................... 7

6 Design guidelines for laser-based powder bed fusion of metals (PBF-LB/M) ......................................8

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.1.1 Selecting PBF-LB/M ...................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.1.2 Design and test cycles .................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.2 Material and structural characteristics .............................................................................................................................. 8

6.3 Support structures ............................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.4 Build orientation, positioning and arrangement ....................................................................................................11

6.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.4.2 Powder spreading ........................................................................................................................................................11

6.4.3 Support structures design ....................................................................................................................................12

6.4.4 Curl effect ............................................................................................................................................................................13

6.5 Anisotropy of the material characteristics...................................................................................................................14

6.6 Surface roughness .............................................................................................................................................................................14

6.7 Post-production finishing ...........................................................................................................................................................14

6.7.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................14

6.7.2 Surface finishing ............................................................................................................................................................15

6.7.3 Removal of powder residue .................................................................................................................................15

6.7.4 Removal of support structures .........................................................................................................................15

6.7.5 Adjusting geometric tolerances .......................................................................................................................15

6.7.6 Heat treatment................................................................................................................................................................15

6.8 Design considerations....................................................................................................................................................................16

6.8.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................16

6.8.2 Cavities ..................................................................................................................................................................................16

6.8.3 Gaps ..........................................................................................................................................................................................16

6.8.4 Wall thicknesses ............................................................................................................................................................16

6.8.5 Holes and channels .....................................................................................................................................................17

6.8.6 Integrated markings ..................................................................................................................................................17

6.9 Example applications .....................................................................................................................................................................17

6.9.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................17

6.9.2 Integral design (provided by CETIM — Technical Centre for Mechanical

Industry) ..............................................................................................................................................................................17

© ISO/ASTM International 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019
ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019(E)

6.9.3 Gear wheel design (provided by Fraunhofer IGCV) ........................................................................19

6.9.4 Impossible crossing (provided by TNO — The Netherlands Organisation

for applied scientific research) .........................................................................................................................20

Annex A (informative) Materials for PBF-LB/M .....................................................................................................................................22

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................23

iv © ISO/ASTM International 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019
ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 261, Additive manufacturing, in

cooperation with ASTM F42, Additive Manufacturing Technologies, on the basis of a partnership

agreement between ISO and ASTM International with the aim to create a common set of ISO/ASTM

standards on additive manufacturing.
A list of all parts in the ISO 52911 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
© ISO/ASTM International 2019 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019
ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019(E)
Introduction

Laser-based powder bed fusion of metals (PBF-LB/M) describes an additive manufacturing (AM)

process and offers an additional manufacturing option alongside established processes. PBF-LB/M has

the potential to reduce manufacturing time and costs, and increase part functionality. Practitioners

are aware of the strengths and weaknesses of conventional, long-established manufacturing processes,

such as cutting, joining and shaping processes (e.g. by machining, welding or injection moulding), and

of giving them appropriate consideration at the design stage and when selecting the manufacturing

process. In the case of PBF-LB/M and AM in general, design and manufacturing engineers only have

a limited pool of experience. Without the limitations associated with conventional processes, the

use of PBF-LB/M offers designers and manufacturers a high degree of freedom and this requires an

understanding about the possibilities and limitations of the process.

The ISO 52911 series provides guidance for different powder bed fusion (PBF) technologies. It is

intended that the series will include this document on PBF-LB/M, ISO 52911-2 on laser-based powder

bed fusion of polymers (PBF-LB/P), and ISO 52911-3 on electron beam powder bed fusion of metals

(PBF-EB/M). Each document in the series shares Clauses 1 to 5, where general information including

terminology and the PBF process is provided. The subsequent clauses focus on the specific technology.

This document is based on VDI 3405-3:2015. It provides support to technology users, such as design

and production engineers, when designing parts that need to be manufactured by means of PBF-LB/M.

It will help practitioners to explore the benefits of PBF-LB/M and to recognize the process-related

limitations when designing parts. It also builds on ISO/ASTM 52910 to extend the requirements,

guidelines and recommendations for AM design to include the PBF process.
1) Under preparation.
2) Under preparation.
vi © ISO/ASTM International 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019(E)
Additive manufacturing — Design —
Part 1:
Laser-based powder bed fusion of metals
1 Scope

This document specifies the features of laser-based powder bed fusion of metals (PBF-LB/M) and

provides detailed design recommendations.

Some of the fundamental principles are also applicable to other additive manufacturing (AM) processes,

provided that due consideration is given to process-specific features.

This document also provides a state of the art review of design guidelines associated with the use of

powder bed fusion (PBF) by bringing together relevant knowledge about this process and by extending

the scope of ISO/ASTM 52910.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/ASTM 52900, Additive manufacturing — General principles — Fundamentals and vocabulary

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/ASTM 52900 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
3.1
curl effect
thermal and residual stress effect

dimensional distortion as the printed part cools and solidifies after

being built or by poorly evacuated heat input
3.2
downskin area
(sub-)area where the normal vector n projection on the z-axis is negative
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.
© ISO/ASTM International 2019 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019
ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019(E)
3.3
downskin angle

angle between the plane of the build platform and the downskin area (3.2) where the value lies between

0° (parallel to the build platform) and 90° (perpendicular to the build platform)

Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.
3.4
upskin area
(sub-)area where the normal vector n projection on the z-axis is positive
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.
3.5
upskin angle

angle between the plane of the build platform and the upskin area (3.4) where the value lies between 0°

(parallel to the build platform) and 90° (perpendicular to the build platform)
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.
Key
δ downskin angle
normal vector
D downskin (left) area
U upskin (right) area
υ upskin angle
SOURCE VDI 3405-3:2015.
Figure 1 — Orientation of the part surfaces relating to the build platform
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
4.1 Symbols
The symbols given in Table 1 are used in this document.
2 © ISO/ASTM International 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019
ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019(E)
Table 1 — Symbols
Symbol Designation Unit
a overhang mm
D downskin area mm
I island mm
normal vector —
R mean roughness µm
R average surface roughness µm
U upskin area mm
δ downskin angle °
υ upskin angle °
4.2 Abbreviated terms
The following abbreviated terms are used in this document.
AM additive manufacturing
AMF additive manufacturing file format
CT computed tomography
DICOM digital imaging and communications in medicine
HIP hot isostatic pressing
MRI magnetic resonance imaging
PBF powder bed fusion
PBF-EB/M electron beam powder bed fusion of metals
PBF-LB laser-based powder bed fusion

PBF-LB/M laser-based powder bed fusion of metals (also known as, for example, laser beam melting,

selective laser melting)

PBF-LB/P laser-based powder bed fusion of polymers (also known as, for example, laser beam

melting, selective laser melting)
STL stereolithography format or surface tessellation language
5 Characteristics of powder bed fusion (PBF) processes
5.1 General

Consideration shall be given to the specific characteristics of the manufacturing process used in order

to optimize the design of a part. Examples of the features of AM processes which need to be taken into

consideration during the design and process planning stages are listed in 5.2 to 5.8. With regards to

metal processing, a distinction can be made between, for example, laser-based PBF (applied for metals

and polymers) and electron beam-based PBF (applied for metals only).

Polymers PBF uses, in almost every case, low-power lasers to sinter polymer powders together. As with

polymer powders PBF, metals PBF includes varying processing techniques. Unlike polymers, metals

PBF often requires the addition of support structures (see 6.4.3). Metals PBF processes may use low-

© ISO/ASTM International 2019 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019
ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019(E)

power lasers to bind powder particles by only melting the surface of the powder particles or high-power

(approximately 200 W to 1 kW) beams to fully melt and fuse the powder particles together.

Electron beam-based melting and laser-based melting have similar capabilities, although the beam

energy transferred from the electron beam to the metal is of a higher intensity and the process

most commonly operates at higher temperatures than the laser counterpart, therefore typically also

supporting faster build rates at lower resolutions. In general, since the powder bed is preheated and

kept close to the melting temperature during the building operation, electron beam processes subject

parts to less thermal induced stresses and have faster build rates, but the trade-off often comes with

much longer times needed for the build chamber to cool down after the build cycle has been completed,

and in general larger minimum feature sizes and greater surface roughness than laser melting.

5.2 Size of the parts

The size of the parts is not only limited by the working area/working volume of the PBF-machine. Also,

the occurrence of cracks and deformation due to residual stresses can limit the maximum part size.

Another important practical factor that can limit the maximum part size is the cost of production having

a direct relation to the size and volume of the part. Cost of production can be minimized by choosing

part location and build orientation in a way that allows nesting of as many parts as possible. The cost of

the volume of powder required to fill the bed should be considered. Powder reuse rules impact this cost

significantly. If no reuse is allowed then all powder is scrapped regardless of volume solidified.

5.3 Benefits to be considered in regard to the PBF process

PBF processes can be advantageous for manufacturing parts where the following points are relevant.

— Integration of multiple functions in the same part.

— Parts can be manufactured to near-net shape (i.e. close to the finished shape and size).

— Degrees of design freedom for parts are typically high. Limitations of conventional manufacturing

processes do not usually exist, e.g. for:
— tool accessibility, and
— undercuts.
— A wide range of complex geometries can be produced, such as:
— free-form geometries, e.g. organic structures,

— topologically optimized structures, in order to reduce mass and optimize mechanical

properties, and
— infill structures, e.g. honeycomb.

— The degree of part complexity is largely unrelated to production costs, unlike most conventional

manufacturing.

— Assembly and joining processes can be reduced through part consolidation, potentially achieving

en bloc construction.

— Overall part characteristics can be selectively configured by adjusting process parameters locally.

— Reduction in lead times from design to part production.
4 © ISO/ASTM International 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019
ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019(E)
5.4 Limitations to be conside
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019
01-december-2019
Aditivna proizvodnja - Načrtovanje - 1. del: Laserska fuzija kovinskih prahastih
plasti (ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019)

Additive manufacturing - Design - Part 1: Laser-based powder bed fusion of metals

(ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019)

Additive Fertigung - Technische Konstruktionsrichtlinie für Pulverbettfusion - Teil 1:

Laserbasierte Pulverbettfusion von Metallen (ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019)

Fabrication additive - Conception - Partie 1: Fusion laser sur lit de poudre métallique

(ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019
ICS:
25.030 3D-tiskanje Additive manufacturing
SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019
EN ISO/ASTM 52911-1
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
September 2019
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 25.030
English Version
Additive manufacturing - Design - Part 1: Laser-based
powder bed fusion of metals (ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019)

Fabrication additive - Conception - Partie 1: Fusion Additive Fertigung - Konstruktion - Teil 1:

laser sur lit de poudre métallique (ISO/ASTM 52911- Laserbasierte Pulverbettfusion von Metallen

1:2019) (ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 21 July 2019.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
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© 2019 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019
EN ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019
EN ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 261

"Additive manufacturing" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 438 “Additive

Manufacturing” the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by March 2020, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by March 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019

without any modification.
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SIST EN ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019
INTERNATIONAL ISO/ASTM
STANDARD 52911-1
First edition
2019-07
Additive manufacturing — Design —
Part 1:
Laser-based powder bed fusion of
metals
Fabrication additive — Conception —
Partie 1: Fusion laser sur lit de poudre métallique
Reference number
ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019(E)
ISO/ASTM International 2019
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COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/ASTM International 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may be

reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

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Published in Switzerland
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Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 Symbols ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5 Characteristics of powder bed fusion (PBF) processes ................................................................................................ 3

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Size of the parts ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.3 Benefits to be considered in regard to the PBF process ...................................................................................... 4

5.4 Limitations to be considered in regard to the PBF process ............................................................................. 5

5.5 Economic and time efficiency .................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.6 Feature constraints (islands, overhang, stair-step effect) ................................................................................. 6

5.6.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.6.2 Islands ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.6.3 Overhang ................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.6.4 Stair-step effect ................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.7 Dimensional, form and positional accuracy ................................................................................................................... 7

5.8 Data quality, resolution, representation ........................................................................................................................... 7

6 Design guidelines for laser-based powder bed fusion of metals (PBF-LB/M) ......................................8

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.1.1 Selecting PBF-LB/M ...................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.1.2 Design and test cycles .................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.2 Material and structural characteristics .............................................................................................................................. 8

6.3 Support structures ............................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.4 Build orientation, positioning and arrangement ....................................................................................................11

6.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.4.2 Powder spreading ........................................................................................................................................................11

6.4.3 Support structures design ....................................................................................................................................12

6.4.4 Curl effect ............................................................................................................................................................................13

6.5 Anisotropy of the material characteristics...................................................................................................................14

6.6 Surface roughness .............................................................................................................................................................................14

6.7 Post-production finishing ...........................................................................................................................................................14

6.7.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................14

6.7.2 Surface finishing ............................................................................................................................................................15

6.7.3 Removal of powder residue .................................................................................................................................15

6.7.4 Removal of support structures .........................................................................................................................15

6.7.5 Adjusting geometric tolerances .......................................................................................................................15

6.7.6 Heat treatment................................................................................................................................................................15

6.8 Design considerations....................................................................................................................................................................16

6.8.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................16

6.8.2 Cavities ..................................................................................................................................................................................16

6.8.3 Gaps ..........................................................................................................................................................................................16

6.8.4 Wall thicknesses ............................................................................................................................................................16

6.8.5 Holes and channels .....................................................................................................................................................17

6.8.6 Integrated markings ..................................................................................................................................................17

6.9 Example applications .....................................................................................................................................................................17

6.9.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................17

6.9.2 Integral design (provided by CETIM — Technical Centre for Mechanical

Industry) ..............................................................................................................................................................................17

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6.9.3 Gear wheel design (provided by Fraunhofer IGCV) ........................................................................19

6.9.4 Impossible crossing (provided by TNO — The Netherlands Organisation

for applied scientific research) .........................................................................................................................20

Annex A (informative) Materials for PBF-LB/M .....................................................................................................................................22

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................23

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Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 261, Additive manufacturing, in

cooperation with ASTM F42, Additive Manufacturing Technologies, on the basis of a partnership

agreement between ISO and ASTM International with the aim to create a common set of ISO/ASTM

standards on additive manufacturing.
A list of all parts in the ISO 52911 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
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Introduction

Laser-based powder bed fusion of metals (PBF-LB/M) describes an additive manufacturing (AM)

process and offers an additional manufacturing option alongside established processes. PBF-LB/M has

the potential to reduce manufacturing time and costs, and increase part functionality. Practitioners

are aware of the strengths and weaknesses of conventional, long-established manufacturing processes,

such as cutting, joining and shaping processes (e.g. by machining, welding or injection moulding), and

of giving them appropriate consideration at the design stage and when selecting the manufacturing

process. In the case of PBF-LB/M and AM in general, design and manufacturing engineers only have

a limited pool of experience. Without the limitations associated with conventional processes, the

use of PBF-LB/M offers designers and manufacturers a high degree of freedom and this requires an

understanding about the possibilities and limitations of the process.

The ISO 52911 series provides guidance for different powder bed fusion (PBF) technologies. It is

intended that the series will include this document on PBF-LB/M, ISO 52911-2 on laser-based powder

bed fusion of polymers (PBF-LB/P), and ISO 52911-3 on electron beam powder bed fusion of metals

(PBF-EB/M). Each document in the series shares Clauses 1 to 5, where general information including

terminology and the PBF process is provided. The subsequent clauses focus on the specific technology.

This document is based on VDI 3405-3:2015. It provides support to technology users, such as design

and production engineers, when designing parts that need to be manufactured by means of PBF-LB/M.

It will help practitioners to explore the benefits of PBF-LB/M and to recognize the process-related

limitations when designing parts. It also builds on ISO/ASTM 52910 to extend the requirements,

guidelines and recommendations for AM design to include the PBF process.
1) Under preparation.
2) Under preparation.
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/ASTM 52911-1:2019(E)
Additive manufacturing — Design —
Part 1:
Laser-based powder bed fusion of metals
1 Scope

This document specifies the features of laser-based powder bed fusion of metals (PBF-LB/M) and

provides detailed design recommendations.

Some of the fundamental principles are also applicable to other additive manufacturing (AM) processes,

provided that due consideration is given to process-specific features.

This document also provides a state of the art review of design guidelines associated with the use of

powder bed fusion (PBF) by bringing together relevant knowledge about this process and by extending

the scope of ISO/ASTM 52910.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/ASTM 52900, Additive manufacturing — General principles — Fundamentals and vocabulary

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/ASTM 52900 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
3.1
curl effect
thermal and residual stress effect

dimensional distortion as the printed part cools and solidifies after

being built or by poorly evacuated heat input
3.2
downskin area
(sub-)area where the normal vector n projection on the z-axis is negative
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.
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3.3
downskin angle

angle between the plane of the build platform and the downskin area (3.2) where the value lies between

0° (parallel to the build platform) and 90° (perpendicular to the build platform)

Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.
3.4
upskin area
(sub-)area where the normal vector n projection on the z-axis is positive
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.
3.5
upskin angle

angle between the plane of the build platform and the upskin area (3.4) where the value lies between 0°

(parallel to the build platform) and 90° (perpendicular to the build platform)
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.
Key
δ downskin angle
normal vector
D downskin (left) area
U upskin (right) area
υ upskin angle
SOURCE VDI 3405-3:2015.
Figure 1 — Orientation of the part surfaces relating to the build platform
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
4.1 Symbols
The symbols given in Table 1 are used in this document.
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Table 1 — Symbols
Symbol Designation Unit
a overhang mm
D downskin area mm
I island mm
normal vector —
R mean roughness µm
R average surface roughness µm
U upskin area mm
δ downskin angle °
υ upskin angle °
4.2 Abbreviated terms
The following abbreviated terms are used in this document.
AM additive manufacturing
AMF additive manufacturing file format
CT computed tomography
DICOM digital imaging and communications in medicine
HIP hot isostatic pressing
MRI magnetic resonance imaging
PBF powder bed fusion
PBF-EB/M electron beam powder bed fusion of metals
PBF-LB laser-based powder bed fusion

PBF-LB/M laser-based powder bed fusion of metals (also known as, for example, laser beam melting,

selective laser melting)

PBF-LB/P laser-based powder bed fusion of polymers (also known as, for example, laser beam

melting, selective laser melting)
STL stereolithography format or surface tessellation language
5 Characteristics of powder bed fusion (PBF) processes
5.1 General

Consideration shall be given to the specific characteristics of the manufacturing process used in order

to optimize the design of a part. Examples of the features of AM processes which need to be taken into

consideration during the design and process planning stages are listed in 5.2 to 5.8. With regards to

metal processing, a distinction can be made between, for example, laser-based PBF (applied for metals

and polymers) and electron beam-based PBF (applied for metals only).

Polymers PBF uses, in almost every case, low-power lasers to sinter polymer powders together. As with

polymer powders PBF, metals PBF includes varying processing techniques. Unlike polymers, metals

PBF often requires the addition of support structures (see 6.4.3). Metals PBF processes may use low-

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power lasers to bind powder particles by only melting the surface of the powder particles or high-power

(approximately 200 W to 1 kW) beams to fully melt and fuse the powder particles together.

Electron beam-based melting and laser-based melting have similar capabilities, although the beam

energy transferred from the electron beam to the metal is of a higher intensity and the process

most commonly operates at higher temperatures than the laser counterpart, therefore typically also

supporting faster build rates at lower resolutions. In general, since the powder bed is preheated and

kept close to the melting temperature during the building operation, electron beam processes subject

parts to less thermal induced stresses and have faster build rates, but the trade-off often comes with

much longer times needed for the build chamber to cool down after the build cycle has been completed,

and in general larger minimum feature sizes and greater surface roughness than laser melting.

5.2 Size of the parts

The size of the parts is not only limited by the working area/working volume of the PBF-machine. Also,

the occurrence of cracks and deformation due to residual stresses can limit the maximum part size.

Another important practical factor that can limit the maximum part size is the cost of production having

a direct relation to the size and volume of the part. Cost of production can be minimized by choosing

part location and build orientation in a way that allows nesting of as many parts as possible. The cost of

the volume of powder required to fill the bed should be considered. Powder reuse rules impact this cost

significantly. If no reuse is allowed then all powder is scrapped regardless of volume solidified.

5.3 Benefits to be considered in regard to the PBF process

PBF processes can be advantageous for manufacturing parts where the following points are relevant.

— Integration of multiple functions in the same part.

— Parts can be manufactured to near-net shape (i.e. close to the finished shape and size).

— Degrees of design freedom for parts are typically high. Limitations of conventional manufacturing

processes do not usually exist, e.g. for:
— tool accessibility, and
— undercuts.
— A wide range of complex geometries can be produced, such as:
— free-form geometries, e.g. organic structures,

— topologically optimized structures, in order to reduce mass and optimize mechanical

properties, and
— infill structures, e.g. honeycomb.

— The degree of part complexity is largely unrelated to production costs, unlike most conventional

manufacturing.

— Assembly and joining processes can be reduced through part consolidation, potentially achieving

en bloc construction.

— Overall part characteristics can be selectively configured by adjusting process parameters locally.

— Reduction in lead times from design to part production.
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5.4 Limitations to be considered in reg
...

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