Industrial Symbiosis: Core Elements and Implementation Approaches

Industrial symbiosis is the use by one company or sector of underutilised resources broadly defined (including waste, by-products, residues, energy, water, logistics, capacity, expertise, equipment and materials) from another, with the result of keeping resources in productive use for longer. It presents a systems approach to a more sustainable and integrated industrial economy that identifies business opportunities to improve resource utilisation and productivity. The objectives of this CEN Workshop Agreement (CWA) are to support the mainstream adoption of good practice approaches proven through implementation by advancing the mutual understanding of actors (public, private, third sector, and community) currently using the term industrial symbiosis in different ways. This CWA is intended to help the above actors consider and implement industrial symbiosis.

Industrijska simbioza: Osnovni elementi in izvedbeni pristopi

Industrijska simbioza je uporaba premalo izkoriščenih virov, ki so široko opredeljeni (vključno z odpadki, stranskimi proizvodi, ostanki, energijo, vodo, logistiko, zmogljivostjo, strokovnim znanjem, opremo in materiali), med posameznimi podjetji ali sektorji za namene ohranjanja dolgotrajne produktivnosti virov. Zajema sistematski pristop k bolj trajnostni in integrirani industrijski ekonomiji, ki prepoznava poslovne priložnosti za izboljšanje izkoriščenosti ter produktivnosti virov. Cilj tega dogovora v okviru delavnice CEN (CWA) je podpreti prevzemanje pristopov dobre prakse, potrjene na podlagi izvajanja, s spodbujanjem medsebojnega razumevanja izvajalcev (javnih, zasebnih, tretjesektorskih in skupnostnih), pri katerih se izraz industrijska simbioza trenutno uporablja na različne načine. Namen tega dogovora je zgoraj navedenim izvajalcev ponuditi pomoč pri obravnavi in izvajanju industrijske simbioze.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
04-Dec-2018
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
05-Dec-2018
Completion Date
05-Dec-2018

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST CWA 17354:2019
01-januar-2019
Industrijska simbioza: Osnovni elementi in izvedbeni pristopi
Industrial Symbiosis: Core Elements and Implementation Approaches
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CWA 17354:2018
ICS:
13.020.20 Okoljska ekonomija. Environmental economics.
Trajnostnost Sustainability
SIST CWA 17354:2019 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST CWA 17354:2019
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SIST CWA 17354:2019
CEN
CWA 17354
WORKSHOP
December 2018
AGREEMENT
ICS 13.020.20
English version
Industrial Symbiosis: Core Elements and Implementation
Approaches

This CEN Workshop Agreement has been drafted and approved by a Workshop of representatives of interested parties, the

constitution of which is indicated in the foreword of this Workshop Agreement.

The formal process followed by the Workshop in the development of this Workshop Agreement has been endorsed by the

National Members of CEN but neither the National Members of CEN nor the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre can be held

accountable for the technical content of this CEN Workshop Agreement or possible conflicts with standards or legislation.

This CEN Workshop Agreement can in no way be held as being an official standard developed by CEN and its Members.

This CEN Workshop Agreement is publicly available as a reference document from the CEN Members National Standard Bodies.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland,

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2018 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Members.

Ref. No.:CWA 17354:2018 E
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Contents Page

European foreword ............................................................................................................................................ 3

Overview ................................................................................................................................................................ 5

1 Scope .......................................................................................................................................................... 7

2 Normative references .......................................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviation ............................................................................................. 9

3.1 Terms and definitions ......................................................................................................................... 9

3.2 Abbreviations ....................................................................................................................................... 12

4 Core Elements of Industrial Symbiosis ....................................................................................... 13

5 Drivers for Industrial Symbiosis ................................................................................................... 13

6 Approaches to Industrial Symbiosis NOTE ................................................................................ 15

7 Industrial Symbiosis Implementation: Good Practice ........................................................... 18

7.1 Factors Enabling Good Practice ..................................................................................................... 18

7.2 Actions Representing Good Practice ........................................................................................... 19

Bibliography ....................................................................................................................................................... 20

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European foreword

This Workshop has been proposed by 4 European projects working to advance the uptake of industrial

symbiosis across Europe and globally. Contribution to standardization activities has been specified as

one of the means for dissemination for the projects SHAREBOX (Secure Platform for the Flexible

Management of Shared Process Resources) and EPOS (Enhanced energy and resource efficiency and

Performance in process industry Operations via onsite and cross-sectorial Symbiosis) of the European

Commission’s Horizon 2020 programme, SPIRE Sustainable Process Industries PPP. Advancing policy to

stimulate industrial symbiosis is an objective of Interreg Europe projects TRIS (Transition Regions

towards Industrial Symbiosis) and SYMBI (Industrial Symbiosis for a Resource Efficient Economy).

CWA Industrial Symbiosis was developed in accordance with CEN-CENELEC Guide 29 “CEN/CENELEC

Workshop Agreements – The way to rapid agreement” and with the relevant provisions of CEN/CENELEC

Internal Regulations – Part 2. It was agreed on 2018-10-22 in a Workshop by representatives of interested

parties, approved and supported by CEN following a public call for participation made on 2018-01-24. It

does not necessarily reflect the views of all stakeholders that might have an interest in its subject matter.

The final text of CWA Industrial Symbiosis was submitted to CEN for publication on 2018-11-12. It was

developed and approved by:
International Synergies Limited
INEOS Group AG
University of Ghent
CEPI - Confederation of European Paper Industries
CEMBUREAU - the European Cement association
Motiva
University of Sussex
EIT RawMaterials
University of Cantabria
Ministry of Development, Turkey
Industrial Symbiosis Limited

ENEA - Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic

Development
Gorenje Surovina
BTC Company
Evonik Industries
DECHEMA - Expert network for chemical engineering and biotechnology
BSI Group
ACCIONA Construcción
UNE
AIDIMME - Technological Institute
Dr. Teresa Domenech, consultant
Giovanni Impoco, consultant

It is possible that some elements of the CWA Industrial Symbiosis may be subject to patent rights. The

CEN-CENELEC policy on patent rights is set out in CEN-CENELEC Guide 8 “Guidelines for Implementation

of the Common IPR Policy on Patents (and other statutory intellectual property rights based on

inventions)”. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

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The Workshop participants have made every effort to ensure the reliability and accuracy of the technical

and non-technical content of the CWA Industrial Symbiosis, but this does not guarantee, either explicitly

or implicitly, its correctness. Users of the CWA Industrial Symbiosis should be aware that neither the

Workshop participants, nor CEN can be held liable for damages or losses of any kind whatsoever which

may arise from its application. Users of CWA Industrial Symbiosis do so on their own responsibility and

at their own risk.
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Overview

The 2018 Amendment to the Waste Framework Directive (2008/98/EC) passed into law calls for member

states to promote sustainable use of resources and industrial symbiosis. As industrial symbiosis is further

integrated into the policies, reports and recommendations of the European Commission across multiple

DGs and various member states at the national, regional and local scale, the variety of terminologies used

in these documents can be confusing and sometimes misleading to those wishing to implement industrial

symbiosis. Such confusion dilutes the effectiveness of the approach to deliver resource efficiency,

greenhouse gas reduction and economic benefits.

Resource efficiency through industrial symbiosis offers economic opportunities for European industry.

This CEN Workshop Agreement (CWA) is intended to help organisations, governments and individuals

consider and implement industrial symbiosis. To support the effective adoption of industrial symbiosis

by the public and private sector and to advance toward mainstream adoption, this CWA provides a

consensus on the core elements of industrial symbiosis to enable its identification and on good practice

approaches to industrial symbiosis implementation across Europe and beyond. These common elements

and approaches can form the basis for policy, recommendations and widespread implementation.

Specifically, this CWA sets out the following:
1. Core elements of industrial symbiosis;
2. Drivers for industrial symbiosis;
3. Approaches to industrial symbiosis;
4. Industrial symbiosis implementation: good practice.

Industrial symbiosis is the use by one company or sector of underutilised resources broadly defined

(including waste, by-products, residues, energy, water, logistics, capacity, expertise, equipment and

materials) from another, with the result of keeping resources in productive use for longer. Core elements

of industrial symbiosis are the aspects that enable its identification. Elements considered core to

industrial symbiosis are:
• Returning underutilised resources (often called waste) to productive use;

• Information about opportunities (e.g., data on other organisations’ resources, or new technologies) is

required to be able to advance a synergy;

• Business conditions incentivising industrial symbiosis, which may be through market conditions or

through policies and regulations; and

Four common approaches to industrial symbiosis (that are not mutually exclusive) vary depending on

where the onus for identifying and advancing opportunities lies:

1. Self-organised: a bottom-up approach resulting from direct interaction among industrial actors,

without external coordination. Expertise resides within the organisations with resources and

opportunities; organisations identify, assess and advance opportunities themselves.

2. Facilitated: wherein a third-party intermediary coordinates the activity, working with organisations

to identify opportunities and help bring them to fruition. Facilitators (sometimes referred to as

practitioners) work with the companies to identify, assess and advance opportunities; often the onus

is on the facilitators to progress opportunities. Facilitator business models vary from commercial

brokers to public investment networks and any combination thereof.

3. ICT-supported: industrial symbiosis activity is supported by an ICT system to capture and manage

data on resource availability and potential synergies. The onus lies with the software users, be they

companies, other organisations or facilitators.
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4. Strategic or planned: a top-down approach where networks are formed following a central plan or

vision that includes attracting new businesses to regeneration sites or purpose-built developments.

The onus lies with the central body (often public sector) implementing the plan or vision.

Good practice implementation in any approach requires the following steps:

1. Fully characterising the resources available: thinking broadly about resources (including waste, by-

products, residues, energy, water, logistics, capacity, expertise, equipment and materials); and

reassessing waste for value as a resource.

2. Identifying and assessing opportunities to return underutilised resources to productive use:

statistically, most (not all) reuse opportunities are outside one’s own sector, so cross-sector

knowledge may be required.

Matching the available resource with the appropriate opportunity, addressing technical, economic, and

legal requirements. Intermediate transformation steps may also be required.
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1 Scope

Industrial symbiosis is the use by one company or sector of underutilised resources broadly defined

(including waste, by-products, residues, energy, water, logistics, capacity, expertise, equipment and

materials) from another, with the result of keeping resources in productive use for longer. It presents a

systems approach to a more sustainable and integrated industrial economy that identifies business

opportunities to improve resource utilisation and productivity. The objectives of this CEN Workshop

Agreement (CWA) are to support the mainstream adoption of good practice approaches proven through

implementation by advancing the mutual understanding of actors (public, private, third sector, and

community) currently using the term industrial symbiosis in different ways. This CWA is intended to help

the above actors consider and implement industrial symbiosis.
2 Normative references
The following standards-related references are central to this document:
• BS 8001: 2017 “Guidelines to a Circular Economy” and references therein

https://www.bsigroup.com/en-GB/standards/benefits-of-using-standards/becoming-more-

sustainable-with-standards/BS8001-Circular-Economy/
• IWA 27: 2017 “Guiding principle and framework for the sharing economy”
https://www.iso.org/standard/72643.html

The following related references (reports, policies) are central to this document:

There are multiple directives that mention industrial symbiosis and its relationship to resource efficiency

within the European Union, although few are specific to industrial symbiosis as a focus; rather, industrial

symbiosis is included as support to their primary aims. Some of the most relevant documents are listed

below:

• Official Journal of the European Union, Legislation L150, Volume 61, 14 June 2018 amendments to:

Directive 1999/31/EC Landfill of Waste; Directive 2008/98/EC on Waste; and Directive 94/62/EC

Packaging and Packaging of Waste.
https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=OJ%3AL%3A2018%3A150%3ATOC

• DG GROW, Cooperation fostering industrial symbiosis: market potential, good practice and policy

actions (2018)

http://publications.europa.eu/publication/manifestation_identifier/PUB_ET0517150ENN

• European Environment Agency: Circular Economy in Europe (2016)
https://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/circular-economy-in-europe
• European Resource Efficiency Platform: Short-term recommendations (2014)

http://ec.europa.eu/environment/resource_efficiency/documents/erep_manifesto_and_policy_reco

mmendations_31-03-2014.pdf

• European Commission Communication: GREEN ACTION PLAN FOR SMEs, Enabling SMEs to turn

environmental challenges into business opportunities (2014)

https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52014DC0440&from=EN

• European Commission Communication: A Stronger European Industry for Growth and Economic

Recovery, Industrial Policy Communication Update (2012) recommendation

https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52012DC0582&from=EN

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• DG Regions: Connecting Smart and Sustainable Growth through Smart Specialisation (2012)

http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/en/information/publications/guides/2012/connecting-smart-

and-sustainable-growth-through-smart-specialisation-a-practical-guide-for-erdf-managing-

authorities
• European Commission: Roadmap to a Resource Efficient Europe (2011)
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52011DC0571&from=EN

• DG Enterprise: Sustainable Industry: Going for Growth & Resource Efficiency (2011)

https://ec.europa.eu/docsroom/documents/5188/attachments/1/translations/en/renditions/pdf

• ETAP 10 Eco-Innovation Forum (2011)
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/archives/ecoinnovation2011/1st_forum/

• European Waste Framework Directive ‘Being Wise with Waste’ – Best Practice (2009)

http://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/pdf/WASTE%20BROCHURE.pdf

A review of how the term ‘industrial symbiosis’ is used in the European institutions’ documentation

(legislative and beyond) has produced the following examples:

─ Council of the European Union: Since 2013, there have been many references but only 2 occasions

whereby there is an attempt to describe the term: one as a ‘new business model’, and one as a ‘user-

driven innovation business model’.

─ European Parliament: There have been many references to industrial symbiosis since 2013. It is

referred to as ‘turning one industry’s by-product into another industry’s raw material.’ From the

European Parliamentary Research Service, ‘Industrial symbiosis engages different organisations in a

network to foster eco-innovation and long-term culture change. It provides mutually profitable

transactions for novel sourcing of required inputs, value-added destinations for non-product outputs,

and improved business and technical processes’ citing Lombardi and Laybourn (2012a).

─ European Commission – Findings are divided into the various Directorate-Generals:

o DG Environment: There are several mentions of the term industrial symbiosis. Referring to

NISP®, a facilitated industrial symbiosis activity: “It is a business opportunity programme that

develops mutually profitable links between traditionally separate companies from all industrial

sectors and of all sizes so that previously unused or discarded resources such as energy, water

and/or materials from one company can be recovered, reprocessed and re-used by other

companies in the industrial member network.” Further links to global agendas are made here:

“ …with respect to industrial symbiosis, knowledge transfer and the shift towards a circular and

green economy, particular attention should be given to resource efficient, environmentally-

sound performance of businesses, including the value chains, and on the harmonisation of the

methodology for measuring their ecological footprint.”
2 3

o DG Grow: also cites Lombardi and Laybourn (2012a) in its 2018 report to encourage

broader uptake of industrial symbiosis for economic benefit.

Lombardi DR and P Laybourn (2012a) Redefining Industrial Symbiosis: Crossing Academic-practitioner Boundaries.

Journal of Industrial Ecology 12(1): 28-37
Ibid

Domenech et al. (2018). Cooperation fostering Industrial Symbiosis, Report prepared for DG Grow. Available at:

https://publications.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/174996c9-3947-11e8-b5fe-

01aa75ed71a1/language-en
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o DG Regio: There is an indirect definition in one of its publications, ‘The Industrial Symbiosis

Network helps to identify opportunities to recover and reprocess waste products from one

industry that can then be re-used by other businesses. This, in turn, reduces the amount of waste

going to land fill, cuts carbon emissions and creates greener jobs. In essence, it is a brokerage

initiative to increase business opportunities and contribute to the sustainable growth of the

region.’

o DG Research describes industrial symbiosis in the text of the H2020 2014 call on waste:

‘Industrial symbiosis, whereby different actors derive mutual benefit from sharing utilities and

waste materials, requires large-scale systemic innovation with the aim of turning waste from

one industry into useful feedstock for another one.’

o DG Secretary General was responsible for coordinating the policy work that went into the

circular economy package. Industrial symbiosis is communicated as: ‘turning one industry’s

by-product into another industry’s raw material’. On a separate occasion industrial symbiosis

is referred to as ‘an innovative industrial process’.
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviation
3.1 Terms and definitions
3.1.1
alternative fuel
any fuel with a potential for long-term non-renewable fuel substitution

REFERENCE: Adapted from Communication from the Commission of 24 January 2013 entitled ‘Clean

Power for Transport: A European alternative fuels strategy’, available at https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-

content/EN/ALL/?uri=celex%3A52013PC0017.
3.1.2
by-product

substance or object, resulting from a production process, the primary aim of which is not the production

of that item fulfilling the following points:
(a) further use of the substance or object is certain;

(b) the substance or object can be used directly without any further processing other than normal

industrial practice;

(c) the substance or object is produced as an integral part of a production process;

(d) further use is lawful, i.e. the substance or object fulfils all relevant product, environmental and health

protection requirements for the specific use and will not lead to overall adverse environmental or

human health impacts.

REFERENCE: Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008

on waste and repealing certain Directives
https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:32008L0098
3.1.3
cascading use

in general, means a sequence of use phases with declining product value. Cascading allows the use of

resources (materials and water) to be extended. For instance, using biomass as a production material

first, then recycling it (several times) before finally recovering the energy content from the resulting

waste at the end of its lifecycle. Such cascading systems may provide general advantages for climate

change mitigation and ease land use pressure
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3.1.4
circular economy

where the value of products, materials and resources is maintained in the economy for as long as possible,

and the generation of waste minimised, making an essential contribution to the EU's efforts to develop a

sustainable, low carbon, resource efficient and competitive economy

REFERENCE: Closing the loop - An EU action plan for the Circular Economy. COM/2015/0614 final.

https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:52015DC0614
3.1.5
eco-innovation

refers to innovation that results in reduced environmental impact, no matter whether or not that effect

is intended. Eco-innovation is not limited to innovation in products, processes, marketing methods and

organisational methods, but also includes innovation in social and institutional structures. Eco-

innovation is seen as key to achieving the transition to a sustainable economy

REFERENCE: OECD, 2009. Eco-innovation in Industry: Enabling Green Growth. Available at:

https://read.oecd-ilibrary.org/environment/eco-innovation-in-industry_9789264077225-en

3.1.6
emission

the direct or indirect release of substances, vibrations, heat or noise from individual or diffuse sources

from an installation into the air, water or land
REFERENCE: The Environmental Permitting (England and Wales) Regulations 2010
https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukdsi/2010/9780111491423/body?view=plain
3.1.7
energy efficiency

refers to the ratio of output of performance, service, goods or energy, to input of energy

REFERENCE: Directive 2012/27/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2012

on energy efficiency, amending Directives 2009/125/EC and 2010/30/EU and repealing Directives

2004/8/EC and 2006/32/EC Text with EEA relevance. Available at: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-

content/EN/TXT/?qid=1539262877283&uri=CELEX:32012L0027
3.1.8
industrial ecology

the study of the means by which humanity can deliberately and rationally approach and maintain a

desirable carrying capacity, given continued economic, cultural, and technological evolution. The concept

requires that an industrial system be viewed not in isolation from its surrounding systems, but in concert

with them. It is a systems view in which one seeks to optimize the total materials cycle from virgin

material, to finished material, to component, to product, to obsolete product, and to ultimate disposal.

REFERENCE: Graedel T.E. and B.R. Allenby (1995) Industrial Ecology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

412 pp.
3.1.9
matchmaking

the process of identifying organisations with the potential to establish a synergy

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3.1.10
material stream

refers to the aspects of a stream as a substance mainly in terms of mass or volumetric flows

3.1.11
production residue

refers to a material that is not deliberately produced in a production process but may or may not be a

waste

REFERENCE: Guidance on the interpretation of key provisions of Directive 2008/98/EC on waste.

http://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/framework/pdf/guidance_doc.pdf)
3.1.12
raw material
the basic input material to make a product in an industrial facility
3.1.13
recycling

any recovery operation by which waste materials are reprocessed into products, materials or substances

whether for the original or other purposes. It includes the reprocessing of organic material but does not

include energy recovery and the reprocessing into materials that are to be used as fuels or for backfilling

operations

REFERENCE: Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008

on waste and repealing certain Directives
https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:32008L0098
3.1.14
resources

defined by UNEP and OECD as the naturally occurring assets that provide use benefits through the

provision of raw materials and energy used in economic activity (or that may provide such benefits one

day) and that are subject primarily to quantitative depletion through human use. They are subdivided

into four categories: mineral and energy resources, soil resources, water resources and biological

resources. Resources for a business are more inclusive than just materials and equipment, including also

(for example) human resources. This CWA uses ‘resources’ to have this breadth of interpretation

3.1.15
resource efficiency

about ensuring that natural resources are produced, processed and consumed in a more sustainable way,

reducing the environmental impact from the consumption and production of products over their full life

cycles. By producing more wellbeing with less material consumption, resource efficiency enhances the

means to meet human needs while respecting the ecological carrying capacity of the earth

REFERENCE: UNEP, ABC of SCP. http://www.uneptie.org/scp/marrakech/pdf/ABC%20of%20SCP%20-

%20Clarifying%20Concepts%20on%20SCP.pdf
3.1.16
SPIRE

refers to the Public-Private Partnership in the European process industries sectors of ceramics, cement,

non-ferrous metals, chemicals, minerals, steel, water and engineering
REFERENCE: https://www.spire2030.eu/
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3.1.17
synergy

the creation of an integrated whole that has a greater value than the addition of its parts. Industrial

symbiosis ‘synergies’ are transactions where one organisation acquires underutilised resources (by-

products, waste, materials, energy, water, equipment or other resources that are not the primary output

of the production process) from the organisation generating them, and integrates them as inputs into

their own production process. Synergies are predominantly bilateral (organisation to organisation) or

multi-lateral (between many organisations) but can also be within a single organisation

3.1.18
waste

any substance or object which the holder discards or intends or is required to discard

REFERENCE: Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008

on waste and repealing certain Directives
https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:32008L0098
3.1.19
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

otherwise known as the Global Goals, are a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet and

ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity. These 17 Goals build on the successes of

the Millennium Development Goals, while including new areas such as climate change, economic

inequality, innovation, sustainable consumption, peace and justice, among other priorities. The goals are

interconnected – often the key to success on one will involve tackling issues more commonly associated

with another

REFERENCE: UNDP, http://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/sustainable-development-

goals.html
3.2 Abbreviations
CSR Corporate Social Responsibility
CWA CEN Workshop Agreement
OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
SCP Sustainable Consumption and Production
SDG Sustainable Development Goals
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
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4 Core Elements of Industrial Symbiosis

Industrial symbiosis presents a systems approach to a more sustainable and integrated industrial

economy which identifie
...

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