Integrated circuits - Measurement of electromagnetic immunity, 150 kHz to 1 GHz - Part 5: Workbench Faraday cage method

This measurement procedure describes a measurement method to quantify the RF immunity of integrated circuits (ICs) mounted on a standardized test board or on their final application board (PCB), to electromagnetic conductive disturbances.

Integrierte Schaltungen - Messung der elektromagnetischen Störfestigkeit im Frequenzbereich von 150 kHz bis 1 GHz - Teil 5: Verfahren mit Faradayschem Arbeitskäfig

Circuits intégrés - Mesure de l'immunité électromagnétique, 150 kHz à 1 GHz - Partie 5: Méthode de la cage de Faraday sur banc de travail

Cette procédure de mesure décrit une méthode de mesure pour quantifier l'immunité RF des circuits intégrés (CI) montés sur une carte d'essai normalisée ou dans leur application finale de carte d'essai (PCB), aux perturbations électromagnétiques conductrices.

Integrirana vezja – Meritve elektromagnetne odpornosti od 150 kHz do 1 GHz – 5. del: Metoda s Faradayevo kletko (IEC 62132-5:2005)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
26-Jan-2006
Drafting Committee
Parallel Committee
Current Stage
6060 - Document made available
Start Date
27-Jan-2006
Completion Date
27-Jan-2006

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SLOVENSKI SIST EN 62132-5:2006
STANDARD
julij 2006
Integrirana vezja – Meritve elektromagnetne odpornosti od 150 kHz do 1 GHz –
5. del: Metoda s Faradayevo kletko (IEC 62132-5:2005)

Integrated circuits - Measurement of electromagnetic immunity, 150 kHz to 1 GHz -

Part 5: Workbench Faraday cage method (IEC 62132-5:2005)
ICS 31.200; 33.100.20 Referenčna številka
SIST EN 62132-5:2006(en)

© Standard je založil in izdal Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje ali kopiranje celote ali delov tega dokumenta ni dovoljeno

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 62132-5
NORME EUROPÉENNE
January 2006
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 31.200
English version
Integrated circuits –
Measurement of electromagnetic immunity, 150 kHz to 1 GHz
Part 5: Workbench Faraday cage method
(IEC 62132-5:2005)
Circuits intégrés – Integrierte Schaltungen –
Mesure de l'immunité électromagnétique, Messung der elektromagnetischen
150 kHz à 1 GHz Störfestigkeit im Frequenzbereich
Partie 5: Méthode de la cage de Faraday von 150 kHz bis 1 GHz
sur banc de travail Teil 5: Verfahren mit Faradayschem
(CEI 62132-5:2005) Arbeitskäfig
(IEC 62132-5:2005)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2005-12-01. CENELEC members are bound to comply

with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard

the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on

application to the Central Secretariat or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified

to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland

and United Kingdom.
CENELEC
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
Central Secretariat: rue de Stassart 35, B - 1050 Brussels

© 2006 CENELEC - All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC members.

Ref. No. EN 62132-5:2006 E
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
EN 62132-5:2006 - 2 -
Foreword

The text of document 47A/721/FDIS, future edition 1 of IEC 62132-5, prepared by SC 47A, Integrated

circuits, of IEC TC 47, Semiconductor devices, was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and was

approved by CENELEC as EN 62132-5 on 2005-12-01.
This standard is to be read in conjunction with EN 62132-1.
The following dates were fixed:
– latest date by which the EN has to be implemented
at national level by publication of an identical
national standard or by endorsement (dop) 2006-09-01
– latest date by which the national standards conflicting
with the EN have to be withdrawn (dow) 2008-12-01

This European Standard makes reference to International Standards. Where the International Standard

referred to has been endorsed as a European Standard or a home-grown European Standard exists, this

European Standard shall be applied instead. Pertinent information can be found on the CENELEC web

site.
__________
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 62132-5:2005 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.
__________
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
NORME CEI
INTERNATIONALE
IEC
62132-5
INTERNATIONAL
Première édition
STANDARD
First edition
2005-10
Circuits intégrés –
Mesure de l'immunité électromagnétique,
150 kHz à 1 GHz –
Partie 5:
Méthode de la cage de Faraday
sur banc de travail
Integrated circuits –
Measurement of electromagnetic immunity,
150 kHz to 1 GHz –
Part 5:
Workbench Faraday cage method
 IEC 2005 Droits de reproduction réservés  Copyright - all rights reserved

Aucune partie de cette publication ne peut être reproduite ni No part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any

utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including

électronique ou mécanique, y compris la photocopie et les photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from

microfilms, sans l'accord écrit de l'éditeur. the publisher.

International Electrotechnical Commission, 3, rue de Varembé, PO Box 131, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland

Telephone: +41 22 919 02 11 Telefax: +41 22 919 03 00 E-mail: inmail@iec.ch Web: www.iec.ch

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МеждународнаяЭлектротехническаяКомиссия
Pour prix, voir catalogue en vigueur
For price, see current catalogue
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
62132-5  IEC:2005 – 3 –
CONTENTS

FOREWORD...........................................................................................................................7

1 Scope.............................................................................................................................11

2 Normative references......................................................................................................11

3 Terms and definitions .....................................................................................................11

4 General ..........................................................................................................................13

4.1 Applicability ...........................................................................................................13

4.2 Measurement philosophy .......................................................................................13

4.3 Basic test set-up....................................................................................................15

4.4 Workbench concept...............................................................................................15

5 Test conditions ...............................................................................................................15

6 Test equipment...............................................................................................................17

7 Test set-up .....................................................................................................................17

7.1 General .................................................................................................................17

7.2 Shielding and ambient fields ..................................................................................19

7.3 Workbench set-up .................................................................................................19

7.4 Connections to the test board ................................................................................19

7.5 Common-mode points............................................................................................21

7.6 Workbench Faraday cage – Practical implementation.............................................23

7.7 Test board.............................................................................................................25

8 Test procedure ...............................................................................................................25

8.1 General .................................................................................................................25

8.2 Requirements for the workbench Faraday cage test ...............................................27

9 Test report......................................................................................................................27

Annex A (normative) Detailed specification of workbench Faraday cage (WBFC) ..................29

Annex B (informative) Theory of workbench Faraday cage method .......................................37

Annex C (informative) Common-mode impedances...............................................................39

Annex D (informative) RF immunity levels ............................................................................41

Bibliography ..........................................................................................................................45

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
62132-5  IEC:2005 – 5 –

Figure 1 – Conducted immunity measurement method − General set-up ................................15

Figure 2 – Set-up for RF immunity testing using the workbench Faraday cage .......................19

Figure 3 – Influence of selected number of common-mode points ..........................................21

Figure 4 – Position of common-mode points ..........................................................................23

Figure A.1 – Mechanical drawing of workbench Faraday cage................................................31

Figure A.2 – Mechanical drawing of workbench – Cover ........................................................31

Figure A.3 – Low-pass feed-through filter ..............................................................................33

Figure A.4 – Example of a construction of the 150 Ω network ................................................33

Figure A.5 – Example of the measured impedance of the 150 Ω network ...............................33

Figure A.6 – Metallic calibration jig for common mode impedance measurements ..................35

Figure B.1 – Workbench Faraday cage lumped elements model ............................................37

Table C.1 – Statistical values of radiation resistances measured on long cables ....................39

Table C.2 – CDN common-mode impedance parameters .......................................................39

Table D.1 – Test levels for immunity......................................................................................41

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
62132-5  IEC:2005 – 7 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
___________
INTEGRATED CIRCUITS –
MEASUREMENT OF ELECTROMAGNETIC IMMUNITY,
150 kHz TO 1 GHz –
Part 5: Workbench Faraday cage method
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC provides no marking procedure to indicate its approval and cannot be rendered responsible for any

equipment declared to be in conformity with an IEC Publication.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 62132-5 has been prepared by subcommittee 47A: Integrated

circuits, of IEC technical committee 47: Semiconductor devices.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
47A/721/FDIS 47A/728/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
62132-5  IEC:2005 – 9 –
This standard is to be read in conjunction with IEC 62132-1 .

IEC 62132 consists of the following parts, under the general title Integrated circuits –

Measurement of electromagnetic immunity, 150 kHz to 1 GHz:
Part 1: General conditions and definitions

Part 2: Measurement of Radiated Immunity – TEM-Cell and Wideband TEM-Cell Method

Part 3: Bulk Current Injection (BCI), 10 kHz to 1GHz
Part 4: Direct RF power injection method
Part 5: Workbench Faraday cage method

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until the

maintenance result date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
___________
To be published.
Under consideration.
In preparation.
To be published.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
62132-5  IEC:2005 – 11 –
INTEGRATED CIRCUITS –
MEASUREMENT OF ELECTROMAGNETIC IMMUNITY,
150 kHz TO 1 GHz –
Part 5: Workbench Faraday cage method
1 Scope

This measurement procedure describes a measurement method to quantify the RF immunity of

integrated circuits (ICs) mounted on a standardized test board or on their final application

board (PCB), to electromagnetic conductive disturbances.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For

dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of

the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

IEC 60050(131): International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV) – Chapter 131: Electric and

magnetic circuits

IEC 60050(161): International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV) – Chapter 161: Electro-

magnetic compatibility

IEC 62132-1: Integrated circuits – Measurement of electromagnetic immunity, 150 kHz to

1 GHz – Part 1: General conditions and definitions

IEC 61000-4-6: Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 4: Testing and measurement

techniques – Section 6: Immunity to conducted disturbances, induced by radio-frequency fields

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the definitions of IEC 62132-1, IEC 60050(131) and

IEC 60050(161), as well as the following, apply.
3.1
common-mode point

node in a circuit or at a PCB at which a single point is taken as signal terminal, the second

terminal being the signal’s reference (forming a 2-terminal port). As an example of a common-

mode point, the ground reference plane (V -plane) at an edge of a PCB is considered with

respect to an external reference, e.g. the bottom of the workbench Faraday cage.
___________
To be published.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
62132-5  IEC:2005 – 13 –
3.2
common-mode port

virtual node of a circuit or at a connector port at which the signal follows the vector sum of all

signals (including ground) at that port in relation to a reference port. As an example, the bottom

of the Workbench Faraday cage is considered an external reference. At a common-mode port

with multiple wires, this node can be established by using a passive summation network.

NOTE For a shielded (multi-wire) cable, the screen of that cable is used as common-mode port terminal. In this

case, the common-mode point is the screen of that cable.
4 General
4.1 Applicability

This standard applies to ICs that can perform "stand-alone" functions when used on a

physically small test board.

The RF immunity of these ICs can be measured under pre-defined conditions. In addition, the

method allows measurements on application boards. This gives the user an indication of the

expected immunity once the IC(s) is implemented.

This method makes it possible to classify ICs for dedicated functions where EMC constraints

are applicable. This might apply to ICs used with cordless telephones, other communication

devices and applications where EMC properties are important to obtain optimal operation e.g.

automotive, process measurement and control equipment and all other products that control

critical functions.
4.2 Measurement philosophy

The workbench method is derived from the IEC 61000-4-6. The method described in that

publication assumes that supply and signal cable(s) are attached to an electrically small test

board, with dimensions ≤ λ/2, i.e. 0,15 m at 1 GHz, see note. These connected cables become

the dominant antennas; the induced RF disturbance is injected to the test board via these

“antennas”.

NOTE The test board and its connected cables thereto should be partly supported by material with low dielectric

constant, as such ε = 1 is assumed, see also 7.7.

The connected cables will have functions such as supply, communication and other signal

interfaces and these cables are commonly not geometrically oriented in the same plane as the

other cables.
The antenna (common-mode) impedance per port has been normalised to 150 Ω with

tolerances in the various frequency bands. By injecting either a voltage in series or a current

through these common-mode impedances, the RF immunity test is established.

Direct injection of RF disturbance to the IC package is very small, see also IEC 62132-2 as an

additional measurement method, and often negligible compared to the disturbance injected

through the connected cable(s). Due to the fact that induced currents will flow through the

reference of the test board, indirect coupling between the voltages and currents through the

package are also established.

Because of the concept chosen, the workbench method shows the effect of the test board

layout, the IC supply decoupling, the RF performance of the used discrete components

(capacitors, inductors) as well as the measures taken on the IC (e.g. on-chip decoupling,

filtered inputs and Schmitt-triggers used, etc.). Similar modes of operation (by software or

function) shall be used for the various ICs to be tested to allow comparison. In addition, various

modes of operation with one IC allow comparison i.e. determination of contribution of individual

blocks within the IC.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
62132-5  IEC:2005 – 15 –
4.3 Basic test set-up

The RF immunity measurements shall take place above a metallic reference plane, see

Figure 1 for an open set-up (according to IEC 61000-4-6). With common-mode impedances

defined by using the coupling and decoupling networks (CDNs), relations between the applied

disturbance voltage, while testing against RF immunity, and the locally created E/H fields can

be calculated.
4.4 Workbench concept

In principle coupling and decoupling is similar to the method given in IEC 61000-4-6; see

Figure 1. With this workbench method, a small Faraday cage is used. Discrete resistors,

connected to several common-mode points (to the PCB ground) or ports (as referred to the

signals) of the test board are implemented to represent the coupling.
RF power amplifier
RF signal generator
50 Ω
Equipment
termination resistor
under test
(EUT)
Coupling/ Coupling/
Auxillary
decoupling decoupling
equipment
network network
Measuring
Non-metal support
Reference plane
height
IEC 1310/05

RF source (generator and power amp) connected to one of the CDNs in turn. All other coupling and decoupling

networks CDNs need to be terminated with 50 Ω.
Figure 1 – Conducted immunity measurement method − General set-up

The decoupling of supply and/or other I/O lines takes place via inductances built on ferrite

cores representing impedances >> 150 Ω at the frequencies of interest and feed-through filters

installed on the wall of the cage. The workbench basic set-up is shown in Subclause 7.3.

5 Test conditions
The test conditions shall be as described in IEC 62132-1.

The workbench method can be used for either absolute or comparative testing of ICs, either on

the predefined, standardised test board, or for the measurement of definitive application

boards.

When measurements are carried out using a test board other than defined in IEC 62132-1, that

test board shall be described such that repetition of the measurement remains possible. When

necessary, a copy of the layout and circuit diagram shall be added to the test report.

---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
62132-5  IEC:2005 – 17 –
6 Test equipment
The test equipment shall meet the requirements as described in IEC 62132-1.

For the purpose of the RF immunity test, the open-circuit test generator voltage is defined.

Adding series resistance (100 Ω with the coupling network) does not affect this open-circuit

test generator voltage. As such no compensation shall be applied during the immunity test.

The test generator used shall meet the following requirements:

• RF generator capable of covering the whole frequency range of interest, and or being

amplitude-modulated by a 1 kHz sine wave with a modulation depth of 80 %. The RF
generator shall have an automatic sweep capability and /or manual control.

NOTE 1 The 80 % modulation depth can also be applied while maintaining the peak RF level, see

IEC 62132-1.

• Attenuator T1 (typically 0 dB – 40 dB) of adequate frequency rating, to control the

disturbing test source level. T1 may be, and often is, included in the RF generator, see

Figure 2.

• RF switch S1 is used to switch the disturbing signal during immunity testing. S1 may be

included in the RF generator, and is optional, see Figure 2.

• Power amplifier (PA) may be necessary to amplify the signal if the output of the RF

generator is insufficient. PA shall have an appropriate frequency to cover the range of

interest. The distortion shall be at least 20 dB below the amplitude of the carrier level.

• When a circuit with a mixed analogue/digital function is implemented on the test board,

harmonics and sub-harmonics of the RF generator and RF power amplifier, appearing

inside the functional frequency range of application, shall be suppressed by appropriate

filters.

• Low-pass/high-pass filters shall be applied when necessary, to prevent interaction of

functional signals with the measured voltages. The applied filters shall be described in the

test report.

• Attenuator T2 (fixed at 6 dB, Z = 50 Ω), with sufficient power rating. T2 is provided to

reduce the mismatch from the generator or power amplifier (50 Ω) to the coupling devices

(150 Ω). T2 shall be located as close as possible to the coupling device.

NOTE 2 T2 may be included in the coupling device, and can be left out if the output of the generator or power

amplifier remains within the specification under the given load condition.
The physical size of the workbench is described in Annex A.
7 Test set-up
7.1 General
The set-up shall conform to the IEC 62132-1.
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
62132-5  IEC:2005 – 19 –
7.2 Shielding and ambient fields

The workbench Faraday cage is a shielded set-up. As such, no additional shielding will be

necessary. The required shielding effectiveness of the workbench cage is ≥ 40 dB, over a

range of 10 MHz to 1 GHz [5] .

NOTE A non-shielded set-up equal to IEC 61000-4-6 can also be used when the resulting fields generated by the

set-up are such that disturbance to other equipment does not occur.
7.3 Workbench set-up

The workbench set-up for carrying out the RF immunity measurement is shown in Figure 2.

The test board under test or the test board as described in IEC 62132-1 is placed on an

insulating support horizontally at 30 mm above the bottom plate with the IC(s) to be tested

facing the bottom plate.
7.4 Connections to the test board

All functional connections, like power supply and auxiliary equipment, to the test board under

test or the dedicated test board are fed through dedicated filters mounted on the wall of the

cage. All wires from these filters need to be wrapped on ferrite ring cores to create a high

common-mode impedance (ZL ≥ 300 Ω at 150 kHz) between the test board and the
reference (wall/ bottom) of the cage.
*)
Test generator
Supply
Power Matching
source
network
RF source amplifier
Time domain
d.c.
analyser (TDA)
Signal
22 Ω
50 Ω
source
F FF F
F Feed-through filter
Supply Output
Input
PCB under test (PUT)
Shall be interchanged at each port
Workbench Faraday cage (WBFC)
**)
Ferrite impedance >>150 Ω
IEC 1311/05
Figure 2 – Set-up for RF immunity testing using the workbench Faraday cage
___________
The figures between brackets refer to the bibliography.
**)
Ferrite
100 Ω
50 Ω
100 Ω
**)
50 Ω
Ferrite
100 Ω
**)
Ferrite
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
62132-5  IEC:2005 – 21 –
7.5 Common-mode points
7.5.1 General

For the sake of repeatability, the common-mode points selected shall be unambiguous, as the

resulting current distribution will depend on the location of the common-mode points. As a

result of the test generator’s signal, E, H-field and common impedance coupling will occur with

the application.

The test generator shall be connected to the injection ports successively. The worst-case

reaction (detection, jitter, DC-offset) of the EUT shall be registered. In turn, the test board shall

be rotated by 90°, whereafter the two measurements shall be repeated again. As such, a worst-

case figure shall be the result.
150 Ω
150 Ω
150 Ω
DUT
150/(n–1)Ω
150 Ω
Equivalent circuit for
150 Ω
immunity measurement
IEC 1312/05
I =
150 + 150 /(n − 1)
Figure 3 – Influence of selected number of common-mode points

With the measurements, the number of common-mode points 2, 3 or 4 which are used shall be

recorded in the test report, as this number will influence the measured result substantially, see

Figure 3. An error of 4 dB is estimated between applications where 2 or 4 ports are terminated.

As such, a set-up with only 2 ports connected is recommended while all other connections are

left open or decoupled by using the ferrite cores, see Figure 4.
7.5.2 Comparison testing

In the case of comparative measurements, using the standardised test board, four measure-

ments shall be carried out using the two common-mode points at the opposite sides of the test

board in turn. The first two measurements shall be as shown in Figure 4. The voltages shall be

injected in series with each 100 Ω load, while a 50 Ω resistance terminates the other one. The

other measurements will be similar, but with the test board rotated by 90° and with the two

common-mode points connected at the adjacent sides of the test board. The responses during

the various injections in all orientations shall be recorded.
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
62132-5  IEC:2005 – 23 –
Common-mode points
BNC bulkhead
100 Ω 100 Ω
PCB
BNC bulkhead
Faraday cage
IEC 1313/05
Figure 4 – Position of common-mode points
7.5.3 Definitive application

The number and position of common-mode points shall be set in such a way that they

represent the final application. Typical connections of common-mode points on the test board

are on the PCB ground plane near or at the signal input, power supply and signal output (see

also Figures 2 and 4). At least two points, i.e. one for disturbance signal injection and the other

for termination, shall be used which
...

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