Amendment 2 - Methods of measurement for radio equipment used in the mobile services - Part 1: General definitions and standard conditions of measurement

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Status
Published
Publication Date
26-May-1999
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Start Date
27-May-1999
Completion Date
27-May-1999
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IEC 60489-1:1983/AMD2:1999 - Amendment 2 - Methods of measurement for radio equipment used in the mobile services - Part 1: General definitions and standard conditions of measurement
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INTERNATIONAL IEC
STANDARD
60489-1
1983
AMENDMENT 2
1999-05
Amendment 2
Methods of measurement for radio equipment
used in the mobile services –
Part 1:
General definitions and standard conditions
of measurement
Amendement 2
Méthodes de mesure applicables
au matériel de radiocommunication
utilisé dans les services mobiles –
Partie 1:
Définitions générales et conditions
normales de mesure
 IEC 1999  Copyright - all rights reserved
International Electrotechnical Commission 3, rue de Varembé Geneva, Switzerland
Telefax: +41 22 919 0300 e-mail: inmail@iec.ch IEC web site http://www.iec.ch
Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
PRICE CODE
International Electrotechnical Commission
For price, see current catalogue
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
– 2 – 60489-1 Amend. 2 © IEC:1999(E)
FOREWORD

This amendment has been prepared by IEC technical committee 102: Equipment used in radio

communications for mobile services and for satellite communication systems.
The text of this amendment is based on
FDIS Report on voting
102/41/FDIS 102/49/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this amendment can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.
A bilingual version of this amendment may be issued at a later date.
___________

Add the following reference to the list of "Other IEC publications quoted in this standard":

IEC 60489-8:1984, Methods of measurement for radio equipment used in the mobile services –

Part 8: Antennas
Page 54
Add the following Annex A after figure 3.
Annex A
(normative)
Guide for the use of test sites and radio-frequency
coupling devices (RFCDs)
A.1 General

Test sites are basic means to perform radiation measurements. Radio-frequency coupling

devices (RFCDs) are means generally designed to perform many equipment radiation

measurements economically, using the same measuring method as equipment with antenna

terminals.

This annex describes low reflection test sites (LRTS) and anechoic chambers (AC) for upper

frequency limit extension and interference-free measurements, as well as random field

measurement sites for measurements similar in the real field and for measurement equipment

with a diversity antenna. TEM cells and GTEM cells are also described for wideband upper-

frequency limit extension and interference-free measurements.

The evaluation measurement of a test site is the method to judge whether a test site

construction satisfies the required conditions and is introduced for LRTS, AC and RFM sites in

this annex. The evaluation measurement for OATS was studied, but not introduced because

the available evaluation measurement required important measurement condition changes.

---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
60489-1 Amend. 2 © IEC:1999(E) – 3 –

The calibration method for a test site is the process for determining the numerical relationship

between equipment radiation power and the observed output of a radio-frequency signal

generator which replaces the EUT during the substitution measurement, or the numerical

relationship between the field strength where the EUT is placed and the indication of the

selective measuring device with the calibration antenna.

RFCDs were originally used only for ratio measurement of equipment receiving radio-frequency

electromagnetic energy. The radiation sensitivity measured in the RFCD was called "the

reference sensitivity (RFCD)" and defined as the level of RFCD input signal in microvolts (μV).

This annex also describes calibration methods. Calibration is the procedure for determining the

numerical relationship between RFCD input or output voltage and the equivalent field strength

where the EUT is placed, or the radiated power of the EUT. RFCDs should be principally

calibrated. Therefore, RFCDs need no evaluation measurement.

Test site overview and overview of RFCDs are shown in tables A.1 and A.2 respectively.

Table A.1 – Test site overview
Test sites Advantages Disadvantages
OATS: Open area test site Low construction cost Needs a lot of space
Available for large size EUT Interference from others
Includes ground reflection effects Weather dependency
Measurement fluctuation is
relatively high at frequencies higher
than 1 GHz

LRTS: Low reflection test site Clear and flexible evaluation Does not reflect reality

criterion
Is affected by absorber size
Possible to reduce error
Interference from others
Wide frequency range
Available for large size EUT
No influence of ground reflections
AC: Anechoic chamber No interference Limited lower frequency
No weather dependency Limited EUT size
No influence of ground reflections Expensive, especially for low
frequency

RFM: Random field measurement Few construction site requirements Needs many measurement values

site (anywhere) and their calculation
Evaluation of real world antenna
efficiency
Clear and flexible evaluation
criterion
Available for the evaluation of
diversity antenna
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 4 – 60489-1 Amend. 2 © IEC:1999(E)
Table A.2 – Overview of radio-frequency coupling devices (RFCDs)
RFCDs Maximum size of EUT [mm] Features
Narrowband RFCD ---------- Available in small size
Test fixture (Only for specific EUT) Not expensive
Only for specific EUT
Only for specific or approximate
frequency
Wideband RFCDs More than twice frequency range

Stripline arrangement 200 l × 200 b × 250 h for maximum Can be constructed with detailed

frequency of 200 MHz information
400 l × 400 b × 500 h for maximum Influence of surroundings
frequency of 100 MHz
Limited frequency range
TEM cell 100 l × 150 b × 50 h for maximum No influence from surroundings
frequency of 500 MHz
Limited frequency range
200 l × 300 b × 100 h for maximum
frequency of 250 MHz
GTEM cell 300 l × 300 b × 200 h to greater No influence from surroundings
than 5 GHz
Wide frequency range
or 1 000 l × 1 000 b × 500 h to
greater than 5 GHz

NOTE – A certain manufacturer specifies d.c. to 17 GHz for the frequency range of a GTEM cell.

A.1.1 Abbreviations:
AC Anechoic chamber
ETSI European Telecommunication Standards Institute
EUT Equipment under test
GTEM GHz TEM
LRTS Low reflection test site
OATS Open area test site
RFCD Radio-frequency coupling device
RFM Random field measurement
TEM Transverse electromagnetic mode
A.2 Test sites
A.2.1 Introduction, outline and selection of test sites

The radiation characteristics of equipment are measured at test sites. Both equipment emitting

radio-frequency electromagnetic energy and equipment receiving it can be measured. Emission

measurements can be made for all radio-frequency parameters pertaining to radiated radio-

frequency electromagnetic energy, for example, transmitter radiated power, transmitter

radiated spurious power, receiver radiated spurious power. Receiver measurements can be

made for all radio-frequency parameters pertaining to received radio-frequency electro-

magnetic energy, for example, receiver radiation sensitivity.

OATSs are the classic test sites and have been left as before. ACs are already widely used,

and the new evaluation measurement has been introduced. LRTS and RFM site are newly

introduced test sites. Both LRTS and RFM sites have clear and flexible evaluation criteria

which allow for easy appraisal of conformity to construction requirements.
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
60489-1 Amend. 2 © IEC:1999(E) – 5 –

All test sites use the substitution method for emission measurements and this reduces

measurement error. The EUT is to be substituted with a half-wave dipole antenna and a radio-

frequency signal generator. The field strength in receiver measurements is to be measured by

the calibration antenna and the selective measuring device.
A guide for the selection of test sites is shown in table A.1.
A.2.2 Open area test site (OATS)
A.2.2.1 General

Open area test sites are applicable to all kinds of measurements on mobile radio equipment in

areas where no interfering radio services are operating, and no other radio services may

interfere with the propagation of the measuring frequencies power used on the test site. In

other cases indoor test sites are recommended.

On an OATS, the measuring antenna or the calibration antenna receives the combination of a

direct wave and a ground reflected wave. By contrast, the measuring antenna or the calibration

antenna on the LRTS receives only a direct wave, while the ground reflection is suppressed.

Measuring distances of 3 m and 30 m are applied for OATS.

Emission measurements can be made on any measuring distance for all radio parameters

concerning radiated electromagnetic energy, for example, transmitter radiated power,

transmitter radiated spurious power, receiver radiated spurious power. The shorter measuring

distance test site can measure low power. The longer one can measure a large size of EUT

and lower frequency.

Receiver measurements can be made only on 30 m test site for all radio parameters

concerning received electromagnetic energy, for example, receiver radiation sensitivity. The

3 m test site has great field gradient in higher frequencies.
A.2.2.2 Test site characteristics
Characteristics Limits for a 3 m test site
Useful frequency range 100 MHz to 1 000 MHz
Nominal site attenuation 12 dB to 38 dB for 100 MHz
Nominal site attenuation 32 dB to 58 dB for 1 000 MHz
Equipment size limits 0,6 m maximum, including the antenna

NOTE - The nominal attenuation of the test site for a half-wave dipole is 18 dB for

100 MHz and 38 dB for 1 000 MHz. The actual attenuation may vary due to ground
reflections.
Characteristics Limits for a 30 m test site
Useful frequency range 25 MHz to 1 000 MHz
Nominal site attenuation 20 dB to 46 dB for 25 MHz
Nominal site attenuation 52 dB to 78 dB for 1 000 MHz
Equipment size limits 6 m, including the antenna

NOTE - The nominal attenuation of the test site for a half-wave dipole is 26 dB for

25 MHz and 58 dB for 1 000 MHz. The actual attenuation may vary due to ground
reflections.
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– 6 – 60489-1 Amend. 2 © IEC:1999(E)
A.2.2.3 Basic measuring procedure
A.2.2.3.1 Transmitter emission measurements

a) Place the transmitter under test on the platform. Orientate the measuring antenna so that it

has the same polarization as the transmitter. Orientate the transmitter so that an intended

direction is perpendicular to the direction of the measuring antenna and operate the

transmitter.
b) Tune the selective measuring device to the radiated power component.

c) Raise and lower the measuring antenna to obtain the maximum indication on the selective

measuring device. Note the maximum indication.

d) Substitute the auxiliary antenna and the radio-frequency signal generator for the transmitter

under test. Adjust the measuring antenna height to the maximum point where reading in the

selective measuring device can be obtained.

e) Adjust or calculate the radio-frequency signal generator output level to the level obtained in

step c). This level is the radiated power of the transmitter under test for an intended

direction.

NOTE 1 – The selection of the measuring distance and the connection of the equipment in the test site are not

included in the above steps.

NOTE 2 – The measuring antenna height in step c) and step d) may vary. The measuring antenna height in step c)

for another intended direction may differ from the original.
A.2.2.3.2 Receiver measurement receiving radio-frequency electromagnetic energy

a) Calibrate the radio-frequency signal generator level to the electromagnetic field strength

received by the calibration antenna and the selective measuring device. It should be

confirmed that the transmitting antenna is less dependent upon small changes in antenna

height before the calibration.

b) Replace the calibration antenna and the selective measuring device by a receiver under

test. Orientate the receiver so that an intended direction is perpendicular to the direction of

the transmitting antenna and operate the receiver.

c) Adjust the signal generator level to the level which just satisfies the receiver radiation

sensitivity according to the sensitivity measurement procedure.

d) Read or calculate the average of signal generator level and convert it to the calibrated

level. This level is the radiation sensitivity of the receiver in an intended direction.

NOTE – Connection of the equipment in the test site is not included in the above steps. The measuring distance is

30 m.
A.2.2.4 Construction of a radiation test site

The measuring arrangement for equipment emitting radio-frequency electromagnetic energy is

shown in figure A.1. The measuring arrangement for equipment receiving electromagnetic

energy is shown in figure A.2.

The radiation test site shall be on ground level having uniform electrical characteristics and

being free from reflecting objects over an area as wide as possible, to ensure that the

extraneous electromagnetic fields do not affect the accuracy and repeatability of the test

results.
A.2.2.4.1 3 m test site

A continuous ground screen (either sheet metal or wire mesh having openings no greater than

10 mm, which should maintain good electrical contact between the wire) shall be used to

establish a uniformly conducting earth over part of the test site. The turntable shall be metallic

and shall be flush with the ground screen. The minimum ground screen area is shown in

figure A.3.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
60489-1 Amend. 2 © IEC:1999(E) – 7 –
A.2.2.4.2 30 m test site

The minimum boundary of the test site shall be an ellipse having a major axis equal to 60 m

and a minor axis equal to 52 m. The EUT and the measuring antenna or the transmitting

antenna shall be located at the foci.

No extraneous conducting objects having any dimensions in excess of 50 mm shall be in the

immediate vicinity of either the EUT or the antennas.

The test site shall have a turntable and a support for the measuring antenna. The measuring

distance is the distance in the horizontal plane between the central vertical axis of the turntable

and the central vertical axis of the measuring antenna. A shelter may be provided for the whole

or a part of the test site. All such constructions having any dimensions greater than 50 mm

should be of wood, plastic, or other non-conducting material. Wood shall be impregnated to

ensure minimum water absorption.

All test equipment, if located above ground, shall be powered preferably by batteries. If the

equipment is powered by mains, each of the supply cables shall be provided with a suitable

radio-frequency filter. The cable connecting the filter and the measuring equipment shall be as

short as possible and shielded. The cable connecting the filter and mains shall either be

shielded and grounded, or buried to a depth of approximately 300 mm.
A.2.2.5 Position of the EUT

The equipment with its cabinet or housing in which it is normally operated shall be placed on a

horizontal platform, the upper side of which is 1,50 m above the ground. The platform and its

support shall be made of non-conductive material.

For equipment with an integral antenna, the equipment shall be placed on the platform in a

position which is closest to that in normal use.

Equipment having a rigid external antenna shall be mounted so that the antenna is in a vertical

position. Equipment having a non-rigid external antenna shall be mounted vertically, using a

non-conducting support.

It shall be possible to rotate the equipment around the central vertical axis of its antenna. It is

recommended that a turntable, preferably remotely controlled, be used for this purpose. If the

equipment has a power cord, it should extend down to the turntable, and any excess should be

coiled on it.

For information on the use of alternative test mounting arrangements for equipment which is

hand-carried or carried on a person in normal operation, see clause A.4.
A.2.2.6 Measuring antenna

The measuring antenna shall be suitable for the reception of linearly polarized waves. It may

consist of a half-wave dipole, the length of which is adjusted for the frequency concerned. For

practical reasons, however, to increase the sensitivity and to attenuate remaining reflections, a

more complex antenna, having high directivity and broad bandwidth, is preferred. For low

frequencies short dipoles are recommended.

The measuring antenna shall be mounted at the end of a horizontal boom supported by a

vertical pole, both made of non-conducting materials. The boom shall project at least 1 m from

the pole in the direction to the EUT and shall be arranged so that it may be raised and lowered

from 1 m to 4 m. The mounting shall permit the antenna to be positioned for measuring both

horizontal and vertical components of the electric field. The mount shall permit the antenna to

be tilted so as to permit simultaneous inclusion of both the direct and reflected rays. The lower

end of the antenna, when oriented for vertical polarization and placed at its lowest position,

shall be at least 0,3 m above the ground.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 8 – 60489-1 Amend. 2 © IEC:1999(E)

The antenna cable shall be routed along the horizontal boom for at least 2 m, preferably at

ground level. Suitable antenna clearance is recommended. Alternatively, the cable may be

routed underground.
A.2.2.7 Transmitting antenna

The transmitting antenna shall be suitable for the radiation of linearly polarized waves. It may

consist of a half-wave dipole, the length of which is adjusted for the frequency concerned. For

practical reasons, however, to increase the sensitivity and to attenuate remaining reflections, a

more complex antenna having high directivity and broad bandwidth is preferred. For low

frequencies short dipoles are recommended.

The transmitting antenna shall be mounted at the end of a horizontal boom supported by a

vertical pole, both made of non-conducting material. The boom shall project at least 1 m from

the pole in the direction of the equipment under test and shall be arranged so that the centre of

the antenna is 3 m ± 0,2 m above the ground. The mounting shall permit the antenna to be

positioned for the same polarization as that of the receiver antenna.

The antenna cable shall be routed along the horizontal boom for at least 2 m, preferably at

ground level. Suitable antenna clearance is recommended. Alternatively, the cable may be

routed underground.

At some frequencies, an appreciable variation of signal level occurs for a small change in

antenna height due to ground reflections. Where this occurs, the transmitting antenna should

be moved up or down by an amount that will place the antenna in a region of small height

sensitivity and make the test site calibration less dependent upon small changes in antenna

position.
A.2.2.8 Auxiliary antenna

The auxiliary antenna substitutes for the equipment under test during calibration. The auxiliary

antenna shall be a half-wave dipole and shall be arranged in a manner similar to that of the

measuring antenna, except that the centre of the auxiliary antenna should coincide

approximately with the normal position of the centre of radiation of the equipment under test. A

broadband antenna also may be used as the substitution antenna.

At frequencies below about 60 MHz, the above condition may be impossible to achieve for

vertical polarization. In this case, the lower end of the antenna should be placed 0,3 m above

the ground, and the EUT shall be positioned to satisfy the above listed conditions.

A.2.2.9 Calibration antenna

The calibration antenna replaces the EUT during calibration of the receiver receiving

electromagnetic energy measurement. The calibration antenna shall be an antenna for which

the available power output has been calibrated in field strength. The centre of the calibration

antenna is located so that this point coincides with the centre of the radiation centre of the

EUT.

The antenna, including the cable, shall be matched to the input impedance of the selective

measuring device.

At frequencies below about 60 MHz, the above condition may be impossible to achieve when

the antenna is arranged for vertical polarization. In this case, the lower end of the antenna

should be placed 0,3 m above the ground and the EUT shall be positioned to satisfy the above

conditions.
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60489-1 Amend. 2 © IEC:1999(E) – 9 –
A.2.2.10 Radio-frequency signal generator

A well-shielded radio-frequency signal generator, with a matching or combining network (if

required) and its associated output cable, shall be placed so that it will not affect the accuracy

of the results, and shall be connected to and matched to the auxiliary antenna.
A.2.2.11 Selective measuring device

The selective measuring device should be a calibrated field strength meter or a spectrum

analyzer (with preselector), and shall be placed, together with its associated input cable, in a

position where it will not affect the accuracy of the test results.
A.2.2.12 Calibration method for OATS
A.2.2.12.1 General

The test site calibration is the procedure for determining the numerical relationship between

the EUT radiated power and the selective measuring device indication in an emission

measurement site, or the field strength where the EUT is placed, and the radio-frequency

signal generator equivalent output voltage in a receiver measurement site.

Measurement distance is not so important for the substitution method. Only the adjustment of

the radiation centre of the EUT at the measurement distance to that of the auxiliary antenna for

substitution is meaningful.

The radiation centre of the receivers is not recognized and the radiation centre of the

calibration antenna may differ from that of the receivers. This means that the field strength

measured by the calibration antenna might be different from the field strength at the radiation

centre of the receivers.
A.2.2.12.2 Calibration for measurement of equipment emitting radio-frequency
electromagnetic energy

This method is applicable to the radiated radio-frequency power of transmitters and the

radiated spurious components of receivers.

a) Connect the equipment as illustrated in the chosen test site with the auxiliary antenna and

the measurement antenna oriented to provide the polarization intended for the
measurement.

b) Adjust the auxiliary antenna (if applicable) to the correct length for the frequency to be

measured and adjust the frequency of the radio-frequency signal generator to the same

frequency.

c) Adjust the measurement antenna (if applicable) to the correct length for the frequency to be

measured and tune the selective measuring device to the operating frequency of the radio-

frequency signal generator.

d) Adjust the output level of the radio-frequency signal generator to –10 dBm (103 dBμV).

e) Raise and lower the measuring antenna to obtain the maximum indication on the selective

measuring device. Record the indication level of the selective measuring device.

f) The radiated radio-frequency power for other values of the selective measuring device

indication is given by:

radiated power = (new indication level in decibels (dB)) – (indication level in step e) in

decibels (dB)) – 10 dBm

NOTE – The calibration is only valid for the frequency, antennas, polarization, and antenna position used in the

calibration procedure. If any of these change, the site should be recalibrated.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 10 – 60489-1 Amend. 2 © IEC:1999(E)
A.2.2.12.3 Calibration for measurement of equipment receiving radio-frequency
electromagnetic energy in a 30 m test site

a) Connect the equipment as illustrated in the chosen test site with the transmitting antenna

and the calibration antenna oriented to provide the polarization intended for the receiver

under test.

b) Adjust the frequency of the radio-frequency signal generator to the operating frequency of

the receiver.

c) Adjust the calibration antenna (if applicable) to the correct length for the frequency to be

measured and tune the selective measuring device to the operating frequency of the radio-

frequency signal generator.

d) Adjust the output level of the radio-frequency signal generator to produce a reading of

100 μV/m (40 dBμV/m) on the selective measuring device. Record the output of the radio-

frequency signal generator in microvolts.

e) The field strength for other values of the radio-frequency signal generator output is given

by:
new output level
field strength = × 100 μV/m
output level recorded in step d)
field strength in dBμV/m = 40 + 20 lg (new output level in microvolts)
–20 lg (output level in microvolts recorded in step d).

NOTE 1 – The calibration is only valid for the frequency, antennas, polarization, and antenna position used in the

calibration procedure. If any of these change, the site should be recalibrated.

NOTE 2 – Measurement distance is not so important for the substitution method, but the radiation centre

coincidence between calibration antenna and the receiver under test is very important because the radiation centre

difference between them means a calibration error. To reduce this error, a longer measurement distance is

recommended because it has a lesser degree of field strength variation than a shorter measurement distance.

Especially at high frequency, this becomes severe, for example an 8 dB variation with 100 mm height difference is

observed at 900 MHz at a measurement distance of 3 m. Therefore, a 3 m test site for equipment receiving radio-

frequency electromagnetic energy is not recommended.
A.2.3 Low reflection test sites (LRTS, reduced ground reflections)
A.2.3.1 Introduction

The open area test sites (OATS) are widely used and popular test sites. Recently, upper

frequency limitation improvement became necessary and some studies were made. One of the

effective improvement methods is to suppress the ground-reflected waves. It also improves the

measurement repeatability.

On an OATS, the measuring antenna or the calibration antenna receives the combination of a

direct wave and a ground reflected wave. By contrast, the measuring antenna or the calibration

antenna on the LRTS receives only a direct wave, while the ground reflection is suppressed.

The suppression of ground-reflected waves makes the characteristics of the test site similar to

those of anechoic chambers and not to those of OATS.

LRTS have simple and clear evaluation criteria which can be adapted to any level of measuring

error or repeatability requirements. LRTS require no specific construction requirements and

can be applied to any measuring distance, for example, 3 m, 5 m, 10 m or 30 m.

For suppression of ground-reflected waves, use of a high directivity antenna and any other

means are recommended. However, the quality of the construction is to be judged only by the

evaluation criterion. (see A.2.3.4 and A.2.3.5)

NOTE – ETSI indoor test site is involved in LRTS. It requires a specific construction and a specific evaluation

criterion.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
60489-1 Amend. 2 © IEC:1999(E) – 11 –
A.2.3.2 Test site characteristics

Measuring distances of 3 m to 30 m can be used in combination with ground-reflected wave

suppression described in A.2.3.4. Longer distance sites are unusual. Only the lowest frequency

to be used and the largest dimension of the equipment under test require a longer measuring

distance. LRTS characteristics are very similar to those of an anechoic chamber. The anechoic

chamber can be used as an LRTS. The useful frequency range is extended to 18 GHz
(depending on site performance).
As an example, a measuring distance of 3 m is shown below.
Characteristics Limits for a distance of 3 m
Useful frequency range 100 MHz to 18 GHz
Nominal site attenuation 32 dB to 44 dB for 1 000 MHz
Equipment size limits 0,6 m maximum
A.2.3.3 Basic measuring procedure
A.2.3.3.1 Transmitter emission measurements

a) Place the transmitter under test on the platform. Orientate the measuring antenna so that it

has the same polarization as the transmitter. Orientate the transmitter so that an intended

direction is perpendicular to the direction of the measuring antenna and operate the

transmitter.
b) Tune the selective measuring device to the radiated power component.

c) Raise and lower the measuring antenna around the same height as the transmitter under

test, to obtain the maximum indication on the selective measuring device. Note the

maximum indication.

d) Substitute the auxiliary antenna and the radio-frequency signal generator for the transmitter

under test. Adjust the auxiliary antenna height to the maximum reading point in the

selective measuring device.

e) Adjust or calculate the radio-frequency signal generator output level to the level obtained in

step c). This level is the radiated power of the transmitter under test for an intended

direction.

NOTE 1 – Selection of the measuring distance, connection of the equipment in the test site and the evaluation

measurements are not included in the above steps.

NOTE 2 – The measuring antenna height, the transmitter radiation centre and the auxiliary antenna will be the

same.
A.2.3.3.2 Receiver measurement receiving radio-frequency electromagnetic energy

a) Calibrate the radio-frequency signal generator level to the electromagnetic field strength

received by the calibration antenna and the selective measuring device.

b) Replace the calibration antenna and the selective measuring device by a receiver under

test. Orientate the receiver so that an intended direction is perpendicular to the direction of

the transmitting antenna and operate the receiver.

c) Adjust the signal generator level to the level which just satisfies the receiver radiation

sensitivity according to the sensitivity measurement procedure.

d) Read or calculate the average of the signal generator level and convert it to the calibrated

...

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