Human exposure to radio frequency fields from hand-held and body-mounted wireless communication devices - Human models, instrumentation, and procedures - Part 2: Procedure to determine the specific absorption rate (SAR) for wireless communication devices used in close proximity to the human body (frequency range of 30 MHz to 6 GHz)

IEC 62209-2:2010 is applicable to any wireless communication device capable of transmitting electromagnetic fields (EMF) intended to be used at a position near the human body, in the manner described by the manufacturer, with the radiating part(s) of the device at distances up to and including 200 mm from a human body, i.e. when held in the hand or in front of the face, mounted on the body, combined with other transmitting or non-transmitting devices or accessories (e.g. belt-clip, camera or Bluetooth add-on), or embedded in garments. For transmitters used in close proximity to the human ear, the procedures of IEC 62209-1:2005 are applicable. IEC 62209-2:2010 is applicable for radio frequency exposure in the frequency range of 30 MHz to 6 GHz, and may be used to measure simultaneous exposures from multiple radio sources used in close proximity to human body. Definitions and evaluation procedures are provided for the following general categories of device types:
- body-mounted,
- body-supported,
- desktop,
- front-of-face,
- hand-held,
- laptop,
- limb-mounted,
- multi-band,
- push-to-talk,
- clothing-integrated. The types of devices considered include but are not limited to mobile telephones, cordless microphones, auxiliary broadcast devices and radio transmitters in personal computers. IEC 62209-2:2010 gives guidelines for a reproducible and conservative measurement methodology for determining the compliance of wireless devices with the SAR limits. The contents of the corrigendum of June 2010 have been included in this copy.

Exposition humaine aux champs radiofréquence produits par les dispositifs de communications sans fils tenus à la main ou portés près du corps - Modèles de corps humain, instrumentation et procédures - Partie 2: Procédure de détermination du débit d'absorption spécifique produit par les appareils de communications sans fil utilisés très près du corps humain (gamme de fréquences de 30 MHz à 6 GHz)

La CEI 62209-2:2010 s'applique à tout appareil de communication sans fils pouvant émettre des champs électromagnétiques (EMF) et destiné à une utilisation près du corps humain, de la manière décrite par le fabricant, la ou les parties rayonnantes de l'appareil étant situées à des distances inférieures ou égales à 200 mm du corps humain, c'est-à-dire lorsque l'appareil est tenu à la main ou devant le visage, porté près du corps, combiné à d'autres appareils ou accessoires émetteurs ou non (comme un clip de ceinture, une caméra ou un périphérique Bluetooth), ou intégré à des vêtements. Pour les émetteurs utilisés très près de l'oreille, les procédures de la CEI 62209-1:2005 sont applicables. La CEI 62209-2:2010 s'applique à l'exposition aux radiofréquences dans la gamme de fréquences de 30 MHz à 6 GHz, et elle peut être utilisée pour mesurer les expositions simultanées aux multiples sources radio utilisées très près du corps humain. Des définitions et des procédures d'évaluation sont fournies pour les catégories générales suivantes de types de dispositifs:
- portés près du corps,
- appareil posé sur le corps,
- appareil de bureau,
- appareil devant le visage,
- appareil tenu à la main,
- appareil portable,
- appareil fixé à un membre,
- appareil multibande,
- appareil poussoir de conversation,
- appareil intégré aux vêtements. Les types d'appareils pris en compte comprennent notamment les téléphones mobiles, les microphones sans fils, les appareils de diffusion auxiliaires et les émetteurs radio intégrés dans les ordinateurs. La CEI 62209-2:2010 fournit des recommandations pour une méthode de mesure reproductible et conservatrice afin de déterminer la conformité des appareils sans fils aux limites du DAS. Le contenu du corrigendum de juin 2010 a été pris en considération dans cet exemplaire.

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IEC 62209-2:2010 - Human exposure to radio frequency fields from hand-held and body-mounted wireless communication devices - Human models, instrumentation, and procedures - Part 2: Procedure to determine the specific absorption rate (SAR) for wireless communication devices used in close proximity to the human body (frequency range of 30 MHz to 6 GHz)
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IEC 62209-2
Edition 1.0 2010-03
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Human exposure to radio frequency fields from hand-held and body-mounted
wireless communication devices – Human models, instrumentation, and procedures –
Part 2: Procedure to determine the specific absorption rate (SAR) for wireless
communication devices used in close proximity to the human body (frequency
range of 30 MHz to 6 GHz)
Exposition humaine aux champs radiofréquence produits par les dispositifs de
communications sans fils tenus à la main ou portés près du corps – Modèles de
corps humain, instrumentation et procédures –

Partie 2: Procédure de détermination du débit d'absorption spécifique produit par

les appareils de communications sans fil utilisés très près du corps humain
(gamme de fréquences de 30 MHz à 6 GHz)
IEC 62209-2:2010
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 62209-2
Edition 1.0 2010-03
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Human exposure to radio frequency fields from hand-held and body-mounted
wireless communication devices – Human models, instrumentation, and procedures –
Part 2: Procedure to determine the specific absorption rate (SAR) for wireless
communication devices used in close proximity to the human body (frequency
range of 30 MHz to 6 GHz)
Exposition humaine aux champs radiofréquence produits par les dispositifs de
communications sans fils tenus à la main ou portés près du corps – Modèles de
corps humain, instrumentation et procédures –

Partie 2: Procédure de détermination du débit d'absorption spécifique produit par

les appareils de communications sans fil utilisés très près du corps humain
(gamme de fréquences de 30 MHz à 6 GHz)
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
PRICE CODE
INTERNATIONALE
CODE PRIX
ICS 33.050.10 ISBN 978-2-88910-642-4
® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – 62209-2 © IEC:2010
CONTENTS

FOREWORD...........................................................................................................................5

INTRODUCTION.....................................................................................................................7

1 Scope...............................................................................................................................8

2 Normative references .......................................................................................................8

3 Terms and definitions .......................................................................................................9

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms......................................................................................12

4.1 Physical quantities ................................................................................................12

4.2 Constants..............................................................................................................12

4.3 Abbreviations ........................................................................................................12

5 Measurement system specifications ...............................................................................13

5.1 General requirements............................................................................................13

5.2 Phantom specifications – shell and liquid ..............................................................14

5.2.1 General requirements ................................................................................14

5.2.2 Phantom material, shape and size .............................................................14

5.2.3 Tissue-equivalent liquid material properties ...............................................15

5.3 Measurement instrumentation system specifications .............................................17

5.3.1 General requirements ................................................................................17

5.3.2 Scanning system .......................................................................................17

5.3.3 Probes.......................................................................................................17

5.3.4 Probe calibration .......................................................................................17

5.3.5 Specifications for fixture(s) to hold the DUT in the test position .................17

6 Protocol for SAR evaluation............................................................................................18

6.1 Measurement preparation......................................................................................18

6.1.1 General preparation...................................................................................18

6.1.2 System check ............................................................................................18

6.1.3 Preparation of the device under test ..........................................................18

6.1.4 Position of the device under test in relation to the phantom .......................20

6.1.5 Test frequencies........................................................................................30

6.2 Tests to be performed ...........................................................................................30

6.2.1 General requirements ................................................................................30

6.2.2 Test reductions..........................................................................................30

6.2.3 General test procedure ..............................................................................31

6.2.4 Fast SAR evaluations ................................................................................32

6.3 Measurement procedure........................................................................................34

6.3.1 General procedure.....................................................................................34

6.3.2 Procedures for testing of DUTs with simultaneous multi-band

transmission ..............................................................................................35

6.4 Post-processing ....................................................................................................37

6.4.1 Interpolation ..............................................................................................37

6.4.2 Probe offset extrapolation..........................................................................37

6.4.3 Definition of averaging volume...................................................................37

6.4.4 Searching for the maxima ..........................................................................38

7 Uncertainty estimation ....................................................................................................38

7.1 General considerations..........................................................................................38

7.1.1 Concept of uncertainty estimation..............................................................38

7.1.2 Type A and type B evaluations ..................................................................38

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
62209-2 © IEC:2010 – 3 –

7.1.3 Degrees of freedom and coverage factor ...................................................39

7.2 Components contributing to uncertainty.................................................................40

7.2.1 General .....................................................................................................40

7.2.2 Contribution of the measurement system (probe and associated

electronics)................................................................................................40

7.2.3 Contribution of mechanical constraints ......................................................46

7.2.4 Contribution of physical parameters...........................................................49

7.2.5 Contribution of post-processing .................................................................53

7.2.6 Standard source offset and tolerance ........................................................57

7.3 Uncertainty estimation...........................................................................................58

7.3.1 Combined and expanded uncertainties ......................................................58

7.3.2 Maximum expanded uncertainty ................................................................58

8 Measurement report .......................................................................................................64

8.1 General .................................................................................................................64

8.2 Items to be recorded in the measurement report....................................................64

Annex A (informative) Phantom rationale .............................................................................66

Annex B (normative) SAR measurement system verification ................................................69

Annex C (informative) Fast SAR testing ...............................................................................78

Annex D (informative) Standard sources and phantoms for system validation ......................80

Annex E (informative) Example recipes for phantom tissue-equivalent liquids ......................86

Annex F (normative) SAR correction for deviations of complex permittivity from targets.......89

Annex G (informative) Hands-free kit testing........................................................................91

Annex H (informative) Skin enhancement factor...................................................................94

Annex I (informative) Tissue-equivalent liquid dielectric property measurements and

measurement uncertainty estimation.....................................................................................98

Annex J (informative) Testing compliance for the exposure of the hand ............................. 100

Annex K (informative) Test reduction .................................................................................102

Annex L (normative) Power scaling procedure ................................................................... 104

Annex M (informative) Rationale for probe parameters ...................................................... 106

Bibliography........................................................................................................................108

Figure 1 – Dimensions of the elliptical phantom ....................................................................15

Figure 2 – Definition of reference points ...............................................................................21

Figure 3 – Measurements by shifting of the device at the phantom .......................................22

Figure 4 – Test positions for a generic device .......................................................................23

Figure 5 – Test positions for body-worn devices ...................................................................24

Figure 6 – Device with swivel antenna (example of desktop device)......................................24

Figure 7 – Test positions for body supported devices............................................................26

Figure 8 – Test positions for desktop devices .......................................................................27

Figure 9 – Test positions for front-of-face devices.................................................................28

Figure 10 – Test position for limb-worn devices ....................................................................29

Figure 11 – Test position for clothing-integrated wireless devices .........................................30

Figure 12 – Block diagram of the tests to be performed ........................................................33

Figure 13 – Orientation of the probe with respect to the normal of the phantom surface........35

Figure B.1 – Set-up for the system check..............................................................................71

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – 62209-2 © IEC:2010

Figure D.1 – Mechanical details of the reference dipole ........................................................82

Figure D.2 – Dimensions of the flat phantom set-up used for deriving the minimal

dimensions for W and L ........................................................................................................83

Figure D.3 – FDTD predicted uncertainty in the 10 g peak spatial-average SAR as a

function of the dimensions of the flat phantom compared with an infinite flat phantom ..........84

Figure D.4 – Standard waveguide source..............................................................................85

Figure G.1 – Configuration of a wired personal hands-free headset ......................................91

Figure G.2 – Configuration without a wired personal hands-free headset ..............................92

Figure H.1 – SAR and temperature increase (ΔT) distributions simulated for a three-

layer (skin, fat, muscle) planar torso model...........................................................................94

Figure H.2 –Statistical approach to protect 90 % of the population........................................95

Figure H.3 – Spatial-average SAR skin enhancement factors................................................96

Figure J.1 – Test position for hand-held devices, not used at the head or torso .................. 100

Table 1 – Dielectric properties of the tissue-equivalent liquid material ..................................16

Table 2 – Example uncertainty template and example numerical values for relative

permittivity (ε′ ) and conductivity (σ) measurement; separate tables may be needed

for each ε′ and σ.................................................................................................................50

Table 3 – Parameters for reference function f .....................................................................54

Table 4 – Reference SAR values in watts per kilogram used for estimating post-

processing uncertainties .......................................................................................................55

Table 5 – Measurement uncertainty evaluation template for DUT SAR test ...........................59

Table 6 – Measurement uncertainty evaluation template for system validation ......................61

Table 7 – Measurement uncertainty evaluation template for system repeatability..................63

Table B.1 – Numerical reference SAR values for reference dipoles and flat phantom −

All values are normalized to a forward power of 1 W.............................................................76

Table B.2 – Numerical reference SAR values for reference matched waveguides in

contact with flat phantom (from reference [53]) .....................................................................77

Table D.1 – Mechanical dimensions of the reference dipoles ................................................81

Table D.2 – Parameters used for calculation of reference SAR values in Table B.1 ..............84

Table D.3 – Mechanical dimensions of the standard waveguide ............................................85

Table E.1 – Suggested recipes for achieving target dielectric parameters .............................87

Table F.1 – Root-mean-squared error of Equations (F.1) to (F.3) as a function of the

maximum change in permittivity or conductivity [13]..............................................................90

Table H.1 – Spatial-average SAR correction factors..............................................................96

Table I.1 – Parameters for calculating the dielectric properties of various reference

liquids...................................................................................................................................

Table I.2 – Dielectric properties of reference liquids at 20 °C................................................99

Table M.1 – Minimum probe requirements as a function of frequency and parameters

of the tissue equivalent liquid..............................................................................................106

Table M.2 – Extrapolation and integration uncertainty of the 10 g peak spatial average

SAR (k=2) for homogeneous and graded meshes ...............................................................107

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
62209-2 © IEC:2010 – 5 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
HUMAN EXPOSURE TO RADIO FREQUENCY FIELDS FROM HAND-HELD
AND BODY-MOUNTED WIRELESS COMMUNICATION DEVICES –
HUMAN MODELS, INSTRUMENTATION, AND PROCEDURES –
Part 2: Procedure to determine the specific absorption rate (SAR)
for wireless communication devices used in close proximity
to the human body (frequency range of 30 MHz to 6 GHz)
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 62209-2 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 106:

Methods for the assessment of electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields associated with

human exposure.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
106/195/FDIS 106/200/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – 62209-2 © IEC:2010
The French version of this standard has not been voted upon.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts of the IEC 62209 series, published under the general title Human exposure

to radio frequency fields from hand-held and body-mounted wireless communication devices –

Human models, instrumentation, and procedures, can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the stability date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
The contents of the corrigendum of June 2010 have been included in this copy.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct

understanding of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a

colour printer.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
62209-2 © IEC:2010 – 7 –
INTRODUCTION

The IEC work item “Evaluation of the Human Exposure to Radio Fields from Hand-Held and

Body-Mounted Wireless Communication Devices in the Frequency range 30 MHz to 6 GHz

(Human Models, Instrumentation, Procedures),” has the objective to measure the human

exposure from devices intended to be used at a position near the human body. This standard

was developed to provide procedures to evaluate exposures due to any electromagnetic field

(EMF) transmitting device when held in the hand or in front of the face, mounted on the body,

combined with other transmitters within a product, or embedded in garments. The types of

devices dealt with include but are not limited to mobile telephones, cordless telephones,

cordless microphones, auxiliary broadcast devices and radio transmitters in personal

computers. For transmitters used in close proximity to the human ear, specific absorption rate

(SAR) measurements should be performed using the procedures of IEC 62209-1:2005.

TC 106 has the scope to prepare international standards on measurement and calculation

methods used to assess human exposure to electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields.

The task includes assessment methods for the exposure produced by specific sources. It

applies to basic restrictions and reference levels. Although the establishment of exposure

limits is not within the scope of TC 106, the results of assessments performed in accordance

with TC 106 standards can be compared with the basic restrictions of relevant standards and

guidelines. Conformity assessment depends on the policy of national regulatory bodies.

A Category D liaison in IEC involves organizations that can make an effective technical

contribution and participate at the working group level or specific project level of the IEC

technical committees or subcommittees. Obvious goals are standards harmonization and

minimizing duplication of effort. The work of IEC technical committee 106 (TC 106) and IEEE

International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety (ICES SCC39), technical committee 34

(TC 34), is an example where two international committees worked together informally

through common membership to achieve the goal of harmonization, specifically between IEC

Project Team 62209 (PT 62209) on the “Procedure to Measure the Specific Absorption Rate

(SAR) for Hand-Held Mobile Telephones” and IEEE/SCC39-ICES/TC34 on IEEE Std

1528-2003 “IEEE Recommended Practice for Determining the Peak Spatial-Average Specific

Absorption Rate (SAR) in the Human Head from Wireless Communications Devices:
Measurement Techniques” [3 2] .

IEEE/SCC39-ICES/TC34 has a similar project. Because the project is more advanced in IEC,

a Category D liaison was sought in order to avoid divergence of standards and duplication of

work. Thus, rather than developing two separate standards (IEC and IEEE), the IEEE

committee felt it would be more efficient to develop a single IEC standard with direct input

from the members of IEEE/SCC39-ICES/TC34, many of whom are also members of PT 62209

or are from the same organizations that send delegates to participate in the work of

PT 62209. The Category D liaison is
...

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