Determining the peak spatial-average specific absorption rate (SAR) in the human body from wireless communications devices, 30 MHz to 6 GHz - Part 3: Specific requirements for using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method for SAR calculations of mobile phones

IEC/IEEE 62704-3:2017 defines the concepts, techniques, benchmark phone models, validation procedures, uncertainties and limitations of the finite difference time domain (FDTD) technique when used for determining the peak spatial-average specific absorption rate (SAR) in standardized head and body phantoms exposed to the electromagnetic fields generated by wireless communication devices, in particular pre-compliance assessment of mobile phones, in the frequency range from 30 MHz to 6 GHz. It recommends and provides guidance on the numerical modelling of mobile phones and benchmark results to verify the general approach for the numerical simulations of such devices. It defines acceptable modelling requirements, guidance on meshing and test positions of the mobile phone and the phantom models.
This document does not recommend specific SAR limits since these are found in other documents, e.g. IEEE C95.1-2005 and ICNIRP
Key words: Mobile Phone, Spatial-Average Specific Absorption Rate, Finite-Difference Time-Domain, Human Body

Détermination du débit d'absorption spécifique (DAS) maximal moyenné dans le corps humain, produit par les dispositifs de communication sans fil, 30 MHz à 6 GHz - Partie 3: Exigences spécifiques pour l'utilisation de la méthode des différences finies dans le domaine temporel (FDTD) pour les calculs de DAS des téléphones mobiles

IEC/IEEE 62704-3:2017 définit les concepts, techniques, modèles de téléphones de référence, procédures de validation, incertitudes et limites de la méthode des différences finies dans le domaine temporel (FDTD) lorsqu'ils permettent de déterminer le débit d'absorption spécifique (DAS) maximal moyenné dans les fantômes normalisés de la tête et du corps exposés aux champs électromagnétiques engendrés par les dispositifs de communication sans fil, notamment l'évaluation de préconformité des téléphones mobiles, dans la plage de fréquences comprises entre 30 MHz et 6 GHz. Le présent document recommande et fournit un guide sur la modélisation numérique des téléphones mobiles, ainsi que des résultats de référence qui permettent de vérifier l'approche générale des simulations numériques de ces dispositifs. Il spécifie des exigences de modélisation et un guide acceptables sur le maillage et les positions d'essai des modèles de téléphones mobiles et de fantômes.
Le présent document ne recommande pas de valeurs limites de DAS spécifiques dans la mesure où celles-ci peuvent être consultées dans d'autres documents, par exemple, IEEE C95.1-2005[1] et ICNIRP[2].
Mots clés: téléphones mobiles, début d'absorption spécifique maximal moyenné, différences finies dans le domaine temporel, corps humain

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IEC/IEEE 62704-3:2017 - Determining the peak spatial-average specific absorption rate (SAR) in the human body from wireless communications devices, 30 MHz to 6 GHz - Part 3: Specific requirements for using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method for SAR calculations of mobile phones
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IEC/IEEE 62704-3
Edition 1.0 2017-10
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Determining the peak spatial-average specific absorption rate (SAR) in the
human body from wireless communications devices, 30 MHz to 6 GHz –
Part 3: Specific requirements for using the finite difference time domain (FDTD)
method for SAR calculations of mobile phones
Détermination du débit d'absorption spécifique (DAS) maximal moyenné dans
le corps humain, produit par les dispositifs de communication sans fil, 30 MHz
à 6 GHz –
Partie 3: Exigences spécifiques pour l'utilisation de la méthode des différences
finies dans le domaine temporel (FDTD) pour les calculs de DAS des téléphones
mobiles
IEC/IEEE 62704-3:2017-10(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC/IEEE 62704-3
Edition 1.0 2017-10
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Determining the peak spatial-average specific absorption rate (SAR) in the
human body from wireless communications devices, 30 MHz to 6 GHz –
Part 3: Specific requirements for using the finite difference time domain (FDTD)
method for SAR calculations of mobile phones
Détermination du débit d'absorption spécifique (DAS) maximal moyenné dans
le corps humain, produit par les dispositifs de communication sans fil, 30 MHz
à 6 GHz –
Partie 3: Exigences spécifiques pour l'utilisation de la méthode des différences
finies dans le domaine temporel (FDTD) pour les calculs de DAS des téléphones
mobiles
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 17.220.20 ISBN 978-2-8322-4772-3

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC/IEEE 62704-3:2017
© IEC/IEEE 2017
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 5

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 7

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 8

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 8

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 9

4 Abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................... 9

5 Simulation procedure ..................................................................................................... 10

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 10

5.2 General considerations ......................................................................................... 10

5.3 General mesh settings .......................................................................................... 10

5.4 Simulation parameters .......................................................................................... 10

5.5 DUT model ............................................................................................................ 10

5.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 10

5.5.2 Antenna ......................................................................................................... 12

5.5.3 RF source ...................................................................................................... 12

5.5.4 PCB ............................................................................................................... 13

5.5.5 Screen ........................................................................................................... 13

5.5.6 Battery and other larger metallic components ................................................ 14

5.5.7 Casing ........................................................................................................... 14

5.6 SAR calculation using phantom models................................................................. 14

5.6.1 General ......................................................................................................... 14

5.6.2 Head phantom model ..................................................................................... 15

5.6.3 Body phantom model ..................................................................................... 18

5.6.4 Phantom mesh generation ............................................................................. 18

5.7 Recording of results .............................................................................................. 18

5.8 Peak spatial-average SAR calculation ................................................................... 19

6 Benchmark models ........................................................................................................ 19

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 19

6.2 Generic metallic box phone for 835 MHz and 1 900 MHz ....................................... 19

6.3 GSM/UMTS mobile phone ..................................................................................... 21

6.4 Generic multi-band patch antenna mobile phone ................................................... 22

6.5 Neo Free Runner mobile phone ............................................................................ 24

7 Computational uncertainty ............................................................................................. 25

7.1 General considerations ......................................................................................... 25

7.2 Uncertainty of the test setup with respect to simulation parameters ...................... 26

7.3 Uncertainty of the developed numerical model of the DUT .................................... 26

7.4 Validation of the developed numerical model of the DUT....................................... 26

7.5 Uncertainty budget ................................................................................................ 26

8 Reporting simulation results .......................................................................................... 27

8.1 General considerations ......................................................................................... 27

8.2 DUT ...................................................................................................................... 27

8.3 Simulated configurations ....................................................................................... 27

8.4 Numerical simulation tool ...................................................................................... 28

8.5 Results of the benchmark models ......................................................................... 28

8.6 Uncertainties......................................................................................................... 28

8.7 SAR results ........................................................................................................... 28

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC/IEEE 62704-3:2017 – 3 –
© IEC/IEEE 2017

Annex A (informative) Additional results for the generic mobile phone with integrated

multiband antenna ................................................................................................................ 29

Annex B (informative) Additional results for the Neo Free Runner mobile phone .................. 31

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 35

Figure 1 – An example of a multi-band antenna consisting of two metallic elements for

the GSM and UMTS frequency bands ................................................................................... 12

Figure 2 – An example of a source gap position that is inserted in replacement of a

real-life feeding spring pin..................................................................................................... 13

Figure 3 – An example of a microstrip feed line..................................................................... 13

Figure 4 – Orientation of the mobile phone model prior to positioning against the head

or the body phantom ............................................................................................................. 15

Figure 5 – Orientation of the SAM phantom prior to positioning against the DUT shown

in Figure 4 ............................................................................................................................ 16

Figure 6 – Suggested steps for the cheek position of the DUT against the SAM

phantom ............................................................................................................................... 16

Figure 7 – Tilt position of the DUT against the SAM phantom ................................................ 17

Figure 8 – Example of the full model space that includes the DUT and the SAM

phantom for the numerical simulations for the right cheek position ........................................ 17

Figure 9 – Example of the model space for the DUT/body phantom calculation setup .......... 18

Figure 10 – The SAM head phantom and the generic metallic box phone ............................. 19

Figure 11 – Physical dimensions of the generic metallic box phone ..................................... 20

Figure 12 – Generic GSM/UMTS mobile phone ..................................................................... 21

Figure 13 – Generic mobile phone with integrated multiband patch antenna ........................ 23

Figure 14 – CAD model of the Neo Free Runner mobile phone ............................................. 24

Figure A.1 – Real part of the input impedance of the antenna obtained with three

different commercially available software products................................................................ 29

Figure A.2 – Imaginary part of the input impedance of the antenna obtained with three

different commercially available software products................................................................ 30

Figure B.1 – Basic version of the Neo Free Runner CAD model ........................................... 31

Figure B.2 – Intermediate version of the Neo Free Runner CAD model ................................ 31

Figure B.3 – Full version of the Neo Free Runner CAD model .............................................. 32

Figure B.4 – Interlaboratory comparison results of the free space reflection coefficient

for the basic CAD model ....................................................................................................... 32

Figure B.5 – Interlaboratory comparison results of the free space reflection coefficient

for the intermediate CAD model ............................................................................................ 33

Figure B.6 – Interlaboratory comparison results of the free space reflection coefficient

for the full CAD model ........................................................................................................... 33

Table 1 – Dielectric parameters of the materials of the generic phone................................... 20

Table 2 – Peak spatial-average SAR for 1 g and 10 g of the benchmark ............................... 21

Table 3 – Dielectric properties of the materials of the generic GSM/UMTS mobile

phone ................................................................................................................................... 22

Table 4 – Peak 1 g and 10 g SAR results of the GSM/UMTS mobile phone ........................... 22

Table 5 – Limits of the output parameters for the generic multi-band mobile phone ............... 23

Table 6 – Peak 1 g and 10 g SAR results of the GSM/UMTS mobile phone ........................... 24

Table 7 – Dielectric properties of the materials of the Neo Free Runner mobile phone .......... 25

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC/IEEE 62704-3:2017
© IEC/IEEE 2017

Table 8 – Peak 1 g and 10 g SAR results of the Neo Free Runner mobile phone .................. 25

Table 9 – Overall uncertainty budget ..................................................................................... 27

Table B.1 – Frequency limits of the −6 dB reflection coefficient for the three different

versions of the Neo Free Runner mobile phone ..................................................................... 34

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC/IEEE 62704-3:2017 – 5 –
© IEC/IEEE 2017
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
DETERMINING THE PEAK SPATIAL-AVERAGE SPECIFIC ABSORPTION
RATE (SAR) IN THE HUMAN BODY FROM WIRELESS
COMMUNICATIONS DEVICES, 30 MHz TO 6 GHz –
Part 3: Specific requirements for using the finite difference time domain
(FDTD) method for SAR calculations of mobile phones
FOREWORD

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---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC/IEEE 62704-3:2017
© IEC/IEEE 2017

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International Standard IEC/IEEE 62704-3 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 106:

Methods for the assessment of electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields associated with

human exposure, in cooperation with International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety of

the IEEE Standards Association , under the IEC/IEEE Dual Logo Agreement between IEC and

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This publication is published as an IEC/IEEE Dual Logo standard.
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A list of all parts in the IEC/IEEE 62704 series, published under the general title Determining

the peak spatial-average specific absorption rate (SAR) in the human body from wireless

communications devices, 30 MHz to 6 GHz, can be found on the IEC website.

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---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC/IEEE 62704-3:2017 – 7 –
© IEC/IEEE 2017
INTRODUCTION

The increasing complexity of assessing product compliance with exposure standards

according to specific absorption rate (SAR) limits calls for new compliance or pre-compliance

techniques. Currently standardized experimental SAR compliance assessments of wireless

communication devices are time-consuming and costly. Computational techniques have

reached a level of maturity which allows their use in the pre-compliance assessments of

wireless communication devices such as mobile phones. For example, pre-compliance testing

is important for mobile phone manufacturers in their product development phase where this

document may be applied. The benefits to the users and manufacturers include standardized

and accepted protocols, validation techniques, benchmark results, reporting format and

means for estimating the overall uncertainty in order to produce valid, repeatable, and

reproducible data.

The results obtained by following the protocols specified in this document represent a

conservative estimate of the peak spatial-average SAR induced in the standard human body

models due to mobile phones. The protocols set forth herein produce results subject to

modelling, simulations and other uncertainties that are defined in this document.

It is not the intent of this document to provide a result representative of the absolute

maximum SAR value possible under every conceivable combination of human body and

mobile phone usage. The following items are described in detail: simulation concepts,

simulation techniques, finite difference time domain (FDTD) numerical method, benchmark

results, standardized numerical models of the human body. Procedures for validating the

numerical tools used for SAR simulations and assessing the SAR simulation uncertainties are

provided. This document is intended primarily for use by engineers and other specialists who

are familiar with electromagnetic (EM) theory, numerical methods, and, in particular, FDTD

techniques. This document does not recommend specific SAR limit values since these are

found in other documents.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC/IEEE 62704-3:2017
© IEC/IEEE 2017
DETERMINING THE PEAK SPATIAL-AVERAGE SPECIFIC ABSORPTION
RATE (SAR) IN THE HUMAN BODY FROM WIRELESS
COMMUNICATIONS DEVICES, 30 MHz TO 6 GHz –
Part 3: Specific requirements for using the finite difference time
domain (FDTD) method for SAR calculations of mobile phones
1 Scope

This part of IEC/IEEE 62704 defines the concepts, techniques, benchmark phone models,

validation procedures, uncertainties and limitations of the finite difference time domain

(FDTD) technique when used for determining the peak spatial-average specific absorption

rate (SAR) in standardized head and body phantoms exposed to the electromagnetic fields

generated by wireless communication devices, in particular pre-compliance assessment of

mobile phones, in the frequency range from 30 MHz to 6 GHz. It recommends and provides

guidance on the numerical modelling of mobile phones and benchmark results to verify the

general approach for the numerical simulations of such devices. It defines acceptable

modelling requirements, guidance on meshing and test positions of the mobile phone and the

phantom models. This document does not recommend specific SAR limits since these are

found in other documents, e.g. IEEE C95.1-2005[1] and ICNIRP[2].
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.

IEC 60050 (all parts), International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV) (available at:

www.electropedia.org)

IEC 62209-1, Measurement procedure for the assessment of specific absorption rate of

human exposure to radio frequency fields from hand-held and body-mounted wireless

communication devices – Part 1: Devices used next to the ear (Frequency range of 300 MHz

to 6 GHz)

IEC 62209-2, Human exposure to radio frequency fields from hand-held and body-mounted

wireless communication devices – Human models, instrumentation, and procedures – Part 2:

Procedure to determine the specific absorption rate (SAR) for wireless communication

devices used in close proximity to the human body (frequency range of 30 MHz to 6 GHz)

IEC/IEEE 62704-1:2017, Determining the peak spatial-average specific absorption rate (SAR)

in the human body from wireless communications devices, 30 MHz to 6 GHz – Part 1: General

requirements for using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for SAR calculations

IEEE Std 1528, IEEE recommended practice for determining the peak spatial-average specific

absorption rate (SAR) in the human head from wireless communications devices:
measurement techniques
IEEE Standards Dictionary Online
___________
Numbers in square brackets refer to the Bibliography.
Subscription available at: http://dictionary.ieee.org.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC/IEEE 62704-3:2017 – 9 –
© IEC/IEEE 2017
3 Terms and defi
...

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