Industrial automation systems and integration — Physical device control — Data model for computerized numerical controllers — Part 17: Process data for additive manufacturing

This document specifies the process data for additive manufacturing. This document describes additive manufacturing at the micro process plan level without making a commitment to particular machines, processes or technologies.

Systèmes d'automatisation industrielle et intégration — Commande des dispositifs physiques — Modèle de données pour les contrôleurs numériques informatisés — Partie 17: Données de processus pour la fabrication additive

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Published
Publication Date
18-Mar-2020
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
19-Mar-2020
Completion Date
19-Mar-2020
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 14649-17
First edition
2020-03
Industrial automation systems and
integration — Physical device control
— Data model for computerized
numerical controllers —
Part 17:
Process data for additive
manufacturing
Systèmes d'automatisation industrielle et intégration — Commande
des dispositifs physiques — Modèle de données pour les contrôleurs
numériques informatisés —
Partie 17: Données de processus pour la fabrication additive
Reference number
ISO 14649-17:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 14649-17:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
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Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 14649-17:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 General process data ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Header and references ..................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.3 General types and definitions .................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.3.1 Measure units ..................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.4 Additive manufacturing entities .............................................................................................................................................. 2

4.4.1 AM workpiece ..................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.4.2 AM workingstep ............................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.4.3 AM feature ............................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.4.4 AM compound feature ................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.4.5 AM simple feature ........................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.4.6 AM gradient feature ...................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.4.7 AM heterogeneous feature ...................................................................................................................................... 6

4.4.8 AM heterogeneous atom ........................................................................................................................................... 7

4.4.9 AM machine functions................................................................................................................................................. 7

4.4.10 AM operation ...................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.4.11 AM twoD operation........................................................................................................................................................ 8

4.4.12 AM oneD operation ........................................................................................................................................................ 8

4.4.13 AM construction ............................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.4.14 AM solid ................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.4.15 AM infill .................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.4.16 AM patterns .......................................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.5 End of schema .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

Annex A (informative) EXPRESS expanded listing ..............................................................................................................................10

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................12

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 14649-17:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 184, Automation systems and integration,

Subcommittee SC 1, Physical device control.
A list of all parts in the ISO 14649 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 14649-17:2020(E)
Introduction

Modern manufacturing enterprises are built from facilities spread around the globe, which contain

equipment from hundreds of different manufacturers. Immense volumes of product information

need to be transferred between the various facilities and machines. Today’s digital communications

standards have solved the problem of reliably transferring information across global networks. For

mechanical parts, the description of product data has been standardized by ISO 10303. This leads

to the possibility of using standard data throughout the entire process chain in the manufacturing

enterprise. Impediments to realising this principle are the data formats used at the machine level. Most

computer numerical control (CNC) machines are programmed in the ISO 6983 “G and M code” language.

Programmes are typically generated by computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) systems that use

computer-aided design (CAD) information. However, ISO 6983 limits programme portability for three

reasons. Firstly, the language focuses on programming the tool centre path with respect to machine

axes, rather than the machining process with respect to the part. Secondly, ISO 6983 defines the syntax

of programme statements, but in most cases leaves the semantics ambiguous. Thirdly, vendors usually

supplement the language with extensions that are not covered in the limited scope of ISO 6983.

ISO 14649 is a new model of data transfer between CAD/CAM systems and CNC machines, which replaces

ISO 6983. It remedies the shortcomings of ISO 6983 by specifying machining processes rather than

machine tool motion, using the object-oriented concept of workingsteps. Workingsteps correspond to

high-level machining features and associated process parameters. CNCs are responsible for translating

workingsteps to axis motion and tool operation. A major benefit of ISO 14649 is its use of existing data

models from ISO 10303. As ISO 14649 provides a comprehensive model of the manufacturing process, it

can also be used as the basis for a bi- and multi-directional data exchange between all other information

technology systems.

ISO 14649 represents an object-oriented, information- and context-preserving approach for NC-

programming that supersedes data reduction to simple switching instructions or linear and circular

movements. As it is object- and feature-oriented and describes the machining operations executed

on the workpiece, and not machine-dependent axis motions, it will be running on different machine

tools or controllers. This compatibility will spare all data adaptations by postprocessors, if the new

data model is correctly implemented on the NC-controllers. If old NC programmes in ISO 6983 are to

be used on such controllers, the corresponding interpreters need to be able to process the different NC

programme types in parallel.

A gradual evolution is envisioned from ISO 6983 programming to portable feature-based programming.

Early adopters of ISO 14649 will certainly support data input of legacy “G and M codes” manually or

through programmes, just as modern controllers support both command-line interfaces and graphical

user interfaces. This will likely be made easier as open-architecture controllers become more

prevalent. ISO 14649 does not include legacy programme statements, which would otherwise dilute its

effectiveness.

This document extends the suite of processes covered by ISO 14649 for physical device control. The data

model focuses on device control and expression of requirements for the results of the additive process

rather than technology specific constructs. For the shape of the manufactured part, ISO 14649 takes the

exact geometry to be made and avoids the necessity of the user having to decide on an approximation

without necessarily knowing the precision and details of the process. The exact geometry is also

important when additive manufacturing is used together with other processes in order to avoid having

multiple representations of the same shape.

This document differentiates between explicit data and derived data. Support structures, for example,

depend on the shape and process and need to be derived when the process and the machine are

chosen in order to achieve maximum flexibility. The workingstep structure is sufficiently flexible to

allow support structures to be added explicitly, if they are required. Assemblies can be described with

different elements, with different materials, in different workingsteps. Additive manufacturing can be

sequential or parallel and there is the possibility to define explicit parallel features.

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 14649-17:2020(E)
Industrial automation systems and integration — Physical
device control — Data model for computerized numerical
controllers —
Part 17:
Process data for additive manufacturing
1 Scope

This document specifies the process data for additive manufacturing. This document describes additive

manufacturing at the micro process plan level without making a commitment to particular machines,

processes or technologies.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 14649-1:2003, Industrial automation systems and integration — Physical device control — Data

model for computerized numerical controllers — Part 1: Overview and fundamental principles

ISO 14649-10:2004, Industrial automation systems and integration — Physical device control — Data

model for computerized numerical controllers — Part 10: General process data

ISO 14649-11:2004, Industrial automation systems and integration — Physical device control — Data

model for computerized numerical controllers — Part 11: Process data for milling

ISO 10303-242, Industrial automation systems and integration — Product data representation and

exchange — Part 242: Application protocol: Managed model-based 3D engineering
ISO/ASTM 52900, Additive manufacturing — General principles — Terminology
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 14649-1, ISO 14649-10,

ISO 14649-11, ISO 10303-242, ISO/ASTM 52900 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
feature
geometric entity of a workpiece which has semantic significance
Note 1 to entry: In the context of ISO 14649, manufacturing features are used.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 14649-17:2020(E)
4 General process data
4.1 General
The full schema is given in EXPRESS format in Annex A.
4.2 Header and references

The following listing gives the header and the list of entities which are referenced within this schema.

SCHEMA additive_manufacturing_schema;
REFERENCE FROM geometry_schema (*ISO10303-42e3*)
(axis2_placement_3d, direction, elementary_surface);
REFERENCE FROM aic_advanced_brep (*ISO10303-514*)
(advanced_brep_shape_representation);
REFERENCE FROM mathematical_function_schema (*ISO10303-50*)
(function_application);
REFERENCE FROM measure_schema (* ISO10303-41e3 *)
(length_measure);
REFERENCE FROM presentation_resource_schema (*ISO10303-46e3*)
(colour);
REFERENCE FROM machining_schema (* ISO 14649-10 *)

(in_process_geometry, machine_functions, manufacturing_feature, material, operation,

property_parameter, workpiece, workingstep);
REFERENCE FROM milling_schema (* ISO 14649-11 *)
(approach_retract_strategy);
4.3 General types and definitions
4.3.1 Measure units

The types of units supported by ISO 14649 are SI units as well as derived or conversion-based units as

defined in ISO 10303-41. If no units are given, the following units are assumed:
length_measure millimetres [mm].
4.4 Additive manufacturing entities

The additive manufacturing entities were developed to support both users and machine operators

by providing information at a high level. Additive manufacturing is defined in ISO/ASTM 52900. The

additive processes include both processes which make a part or parts from nothing and those processes,

such as cladding, which can be used to add to existing parts. The information model caters for single,

graded and heterogenous materials and colours and an arbitrary base geometry on which the part is

built. The entities in the descriptions define what is to be made so that the detailed control information

for the processes can be derived from that. In this way, both legacy machines and new machines are

supported.
4.4.1 AM workpiece

The AM workpiece is a description of a volumetric element to be made. The AM workpiece structure

can be quite complex depending on the shape of this element. With some processes there can also be a

base part onto which material is added. It is also possible that AM workpieces are added onto other AM

workpieces (using the inherited its_raw_piece attribute), creating a manufacturing hierarchy.

2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 14649-17:2020(E)
ENTITY am_workpiece (* m1 *)
SUBTYPE OF (workpiece);
END_ENTITY;
4.4.2 AM workingstep

In order to incorporate additive operations within a workplan and also to enable hybrid manufacturing,

the entity AM_workingstep is defined as a subtype of workingstep to contain the information required

for an atomic transformation in the additive build process. Using the workpiece geometry allows the

exact geometry of the part to be defined, with no approximations like those in ISO/ASTM 52915 being

necessary.
ENTITY am_workingstep (* m1 *)
SUBTYPE OF (workingstep);
its_effect: OPTIONAL in_process_geometry;
its
...

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