Imaging materials -- Permanence -- Vocabulary

This document establishes a vocabulary of terms and definitions used in respect of the permanence of imaging materials, related storage materials and digital storage media. In most cases these terms and definitions are generic and are applicable to the entire imaging industry. For terms and definitions specific to particular applications, refer to industry standards. However, in some cases the definition of a term is still evolving and/or is used by different user groups in different ways. In this case a definition fit for use in Imaging Materials – Permanence work is given and a note to this effect is included.

Matériaux pour l'image -- Permanence -- Vocabulaire

Slikovni materiali - Trajnost - Slovar

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
12-Dec-2021
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
13-Nov-2021
Completion Date
12-Nov-2021

RELATIONS

Buy Standard

Standard
ISO 18913:2022
English language
36 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview
e-Library read for
1 day

Standards Content (sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 18913:2022
01-maj-2022
Slikovni materiali - Trajnost - Slovar
Imaging materials - Permanence - Vocabulary
Matériaux pour l'image - Permanence - Vocabulaire
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 18913:2021
ICS:
01.040.37 Slikovna tehnologija (Slovarji) Image technology
(Vocabularies)
37.040.20 Fotografski papir, filmi in Photographic paper, films
fotografske plošče. Filmski and plates. Cartridges
zvitki
SIST ISO 18913:2022 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18913:2022
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18913:2022
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18913
Third edition
2021-12
Imaging materials — Permanence —
Vocabulary
Matériaux pour l'image — Permanence — Vocabulaire
Reference number
ISO 18913:2021(E)
© ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18913:2022
ISO 18913:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18913:2022
ISO 18913:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................30

iii
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18913:2022
ISO 18913:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.
This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 42, Photography.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 18913:2012), which has been technically

revised.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18913:2022
ISO 18913:2021(E)
Introduction

This document is one of a series dealing with the physical properties and stability of imaging materials.

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18913:2022
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18913:2022
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 18913:2021(E)
Imaging materials — Permanence — Vocabulary
1 Scope

This document establishes a vocabulary of terms and definitions used in respect of the permanence of

imaging materials, related storage materials and digital storage media.

In most cases these terms and definitions are generic and are applicable to the entire imaging industry.

For terms and definitions specific to particular applications, refer to industry standards. However, in

some cases the definition of a term is still evolving and/or is used by different user groups in different

ways. In this case a definition fit for use in Imaging Materials – Permanence work is given and a note to

this effect is included.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
abrasion

loss of material from a surface or deformation of a surface, with changes in gloss, colour, or density, due

to frictional forces as a result of rubbing
Note 1 to entry: Surface deformations can result in changes in gloss and colour.

Note 2 to entry: See also mar resistance (3.122), rub resistance (3.186), scuff (3.190), smudge (3.201), and wet rub

(3.238).
3.2
absolute humidity
mass of water vapour per unit volume of wet gas

Note 1 to entry: It is a measure of the amount of water present as part of the chemical analysis of the space, i.e.,

how much water is available for chemical activity.
Note 2 to entry: See also dew point (3.56) and relative humidity (3.181).
3.3
accelerated ageing

procedure to simulate normal ageing process by subjecting a product to stresses (3.216) that are more

severe or more frequent than normal environmental or operational stresses, thus shortening the test

period relative to the normal ageing period
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18913:2022
ISO 18913:2021(E)
3.4
acid-free adhesive

adhesive material that does not release acidic species, such that the cold extraction pH is equal to or

greater than the reference water minus 0,5 and less than 10,0

Note 1 to entry: ISO 18902 provides a cold extraction pH test method, which may be used to establish a

specification for acid-free adhesive materials for intended photographic applications.

Note 2 to entry: An adhesive may contain acids, but the cold extraction pH test only measures acidic species

released into water to determine pH.
3.5
acid-free paper or paperboard

paper or paperboard materials that do not release acidic species, such that the cold extraction pH is

equal to or greater than the reference water minus 0,5 and less than 10,0

Note 1 to entry: ISO 18902 provides a cold extraction pH test method, which may be used to establish a

specification for acid-free or alkaline paper and paperboard materials for intended photographic applications.

Note 2 to entry: A paper or paperboard may contain acids, but the cold extraction pH test only measures acidic

species released into water to determine pH.
3.6
album

binder or book structure having front and back covers in which pages are bound along one edge either

by plastic straps, gluing, sewing, metal posts or rings, and in which photographs are attached and

related contents may be included
3.7
albumen plate

glass sheet bearing a silver halide/albumen layer which yields a visible image after exposure and

processing
3.8
ambient conditions
conditions of the affecting environment

Note 1 to entry: For preservation (3.164) purposes these may or may not be the same as the storage environment

(3.214).
3.9
ambrotype plate

glass plate collodion positive, i.e. glass sheet bearing a thin silver halide/cellulose nitrate layer which

yields a visible image after exposure and processing

Note 1 to entry: The processed negative (3.134) silver image appears as a positive when backed by a dark field.

3.10
analogue print
print where the image is printed from the analogue domain

Note 1 to entry: In graphic printing, the marking information of an analogue print is generated by means of an

off-line produced forme with which the ink is printed on the media. Examples of traditional forme-based ink

printing as defined in ISO 12637-1 are flexographic, letterpress, letterset, (offset) lithographic, gravure, intaglio,

pad-transfer printing, screen, and stencil printing.

Note 2 to entry: Ambiguous use also for chromogenic (silver-halide) print, where image information is exposed

conventionally (“analogue”) through a film negative (3.134) or positive, or actual scene images are exposed

through camera lenses.
Note 3 to entry: See also digital print (3.58).
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18913:2022
ISO 18913:2021(E)
3.11
anti-blocking agent

additive or component which prevents sticking (3.211) or fusing of adjacent surfaces

EXAMPLE Talc, silicates or matte beads.
Note 1 to entry: See ISO 18902.
Note 2 to entry: See blocking (3.20)
3.12
aperture card

card of standard dimensions with one or more openings into which a microfilm frame or frames can be

mounted or inserted
3.13
aperture window

opening in the flange (3.80) of a cassette that is used to facilitate threading of magnetic tape on the hub

(3.46) and inspection of the wind (3.240)
3.14
archival

medium (3.124) that can be expected to preserve images at a stated level of quality or usefulness for a

specified extended period of years
3.15
Arrhenius plot

plot of the logarithm of the time for a given change in a characteristic proportional to the reaction rate

versus the reciprocal of the temperature expressed in K (Kelvin)

Note 1 to entry: The Arrhenius plot can be used to predict behaviour at a temperature lower than that at which a

test is run, as described in ISO 18924.

Note 2 to entry: Changes in characteristics may include dye loss, tensile strength change, D (3.55) yellowing,

min
etc.
3.16
artificial accelerated weathering
artificial weathering
laboratory weathering

exposure of a material in a laboratory weathering device to conditions which may be cyclic and may be

intensified compared with conditions encountered in outdoor or in-service exposure

Note 1 to entry: The purpose of artificial accelerated weathering is to accelerate changes in the material that can

correspond to changes observed after long-term, continuous, natural or end-use exposure.

3.17
base

support in a recording material (3.176) on which the image receiving/recording layers or magnetic layer

(and, if necessary, the back layer) are coated

Note 1 to entry: Substrate (3.218) is the preferred term for the physical support of a receiving layer. The term

'base' should be used only in reference to pH.
3.18
blister
localized delamination (3.54) of a multilayer assembly that looks like a bubble
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18913:2022
ISO 18913:2021(E)
3.19
block error rate
BLER

ratio of erroneous blocks to total blocks on an optical disc (3.142) measured at the input of the first (C1)

decoder (before any error correction is applied)

Note 1 to entry: The more commonly reported value for BLER is the number of erroneous blocks per second

measured at the input of the C1-decoder during playback at the standard (1X) data rate.

3.20
blocking
undesired adherence between sheets of printed material

Note 1 to entry: Blocking can occur under a variety of pressures, temperatures, and humidity conditions, while

in storage or in use.

Note 2 to entry: Blocking effects include delamination (3.54), paper splitting, tearing, gloss changes, physical

image transfer, permanent bonding to adjacent materials and prints, and edge deformation.

Note 3 to entry: See also anti-blocking agent (3.11).
3.21
blue print

defect resulting from a drastic reduction in the light stability of the yellow dye in a chromogenic print

(3.32)

Note 1 to entry: Be aware that “blue print” is not to be confused with “blueprint”.

Note 2 to entry: A common cause in the case of a blue print is when a print has been lacquered in a very humid

environment or was not thoroughly dried before lacquering.
3.22
book printing

printing of books and publishing of monographs (reference books, photo-books, comic, paperback,

textbooks and directories)

Note 1 to entry: See also commercial printing (3.38), newspaper and periodical printing (3.135), package printing

(3.146), sign printing (3.195), and transactional and direct mail printing (3.228).

3.23
brittleness

property of a material that causes it to crack or break when deformed by bending or flexing

3.24
buffered

characteristic of paper or paperboard materials containing a certain amount of alkali reserve

to neutralize future attacks by acidic species, either from atmospheric pollutants or released from

material degradations in the ageing process

Note 1 to entry: See ISO 10716 for a standard test method to determine the amount of alkaline reserve in paper

materials.

Note 2 to entry: See ISO 18902 for specifications for alkaline reserve in paper and paper boards for albums,

framing, and storage materials.
3.25
can

metal or plastic container (3.44) for a roll of recording material (3.176), such as

photographic film or magnetic tape
3.26
carrier
medium (3.124) upon which information is recorded
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18913:2022
ISO 18913:2021(E)
3.27
cartridge

housing for a roll of recording media, such as photographic film or magnetic tape,

wound on a single hub (3.46) or reel (3.178)

Note 1 to entry: The term “cartridge” is also used in some cases to describe a colorant (e.g., ink, toner) container.

Note 2 to entry: See also cassette (3.28).
3.28
cassette

housing for a roll of recording material (3.176), such as photographic film or

magnetic tape, whose ends are attached to two hubs or reels
Note 1 to entry: See also cartridge (3.27).
3.29
cellulose-acetate base

base for recording materials (3.176) composed mainly of cellulose esters of acetic acid

3.30
cellulose-ester base

base for recording materials (3.176) composed mainly of cellulose esters of acetic, propionic, or butyric

acid, or mixtures thereof
3.31
cellulose-nitrate base

base for recording materials (3.176) composed mainly of cellulose esters of nitric acid with a plasticizer

(3.157) such as camphor
3.32
chromogenic print

gelatin print in which the colour image is composed of cyan, magenta, and yellow dye layers formed by

a coupling reaction between the dye couplers (dye precursors) in the emulsion layers (3.69) as a result

of silver development

Note 1 to entry: During development of exposed silver halide, the resulting oxidized colour developer molecules

will react with the dye couplers (dye precursors, typically incorporated in the emulsion layers during

manufacture but could be added during development), forming microdroplets of cyan, magenta, and yellow dyes.

The silver image is then bleached and dissolved via a bleach-fix bath and then is washed away, and the colour

image remains.

Note 2 to entry: To further distinguish chromogenic prints, note that in chromolytic prints, which use the

silver dye bleach process typical for positive printing (as in Cibachrome and Ilfochrome), the dyes are already

incorporated during the production process and present before exposure. During development the latent silver

image is processed to develop silver. Next the silver dye bleach reaction destroys the dye into colourless products

and dissolves the silver. Finally, the layer sequence in chromolytic prints is different from that of chromogenic

prints, the chromolytic dye layers top to bottom are yellow, magenta, cyan.

Note 3 to entry: See also blue print (3.21), cyan spots (3.50), red print (3.177), and yellow print (3.244).

3.33
class 100 000 clean room

controlled environment in which the level of airborne contaminates meets standard requirements

Note 1 to entry: See ISO 14644-1 for the requirements to meet.
3.34
cockle

deformation of a sheet of paper due to unequal shrinkage giving it a planar distortion in the form of

waves or ripples
Note 1 to entry: See also edge fluting (3.67) and waviness (3.236).
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18913:2022
ISO 18913:2021(E)
3.35
collodion plate
collodion wet or dry plate

glass sheet bearing a thin silver halide/cellulose nitrate layer which yields a visible image after exposure

and processing
3.36
colorant
dye or pigment

Note 1 to entry: Colorant is typically a component of transfer ribbon, chromogenic material, toner or ink.

3.37
colour screen plate

glass sheet bearing a colour screen consisting of dyed elements in contact with a silver halide/gelatin

layer which yields a visible image after exposure and processing
3.38
commercial printing

printing for graphic products for commercial application such as catalogue, advertisement (flyer,

pamphlet, leaflet, direct marketing, free magazines), and others (manuals)

Note 1 to entry: See also book printing (3.22), newspaper and periodical printing (3.135), package printing (3.146),

sign printing (3.195), and transactional and direct mail printing (3.228).
3.39
compact disc

CD-ROM (3.40) optical disc (3.142) format in which the information layer is located at one surface of a

substrate (3.218) and the data can be read by an optical beam
Note 1 to entry: Described in IEC 60908.

Note 2 to entry: See also rewritable compact disc (3.185), compact disc-recordable (3.41), and read-only-medium

compact disc (3.173).
3.40
compact disc read-only memory
CD-ROM

optical disc (3.142) to which information is transferred during manufacture to certain areas in the

compact disc format
Note 1 to entry: The information can be read many times.

Note 2 to entry: See also rewritable compact disc (3.185), compact disc (3.39), compact disc-recordable (3.41), and

read-only-medium compact disc (3.173).
3.41
compact disc-recordable
CD-R

recordable optical disc (3.142) in which information can be recorded to certain areas in compact disc

format
Note 1 to entry: Information can be recorded one time and read many times.

Note 2 to entry: The term "compact disc-write once" (CD-WO) has also been used to describe this type of disc.

Note 3 to entry: See also compact disc read-only memory (3.40), rewritable compact disc (3.185), compact disc

(3.39), and read-only-medium compact disc (3.173).
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18913:2022
ISO 18913:2021(E)
3.42
conditioning

exposure of a specimen to air at a given relative humidity (3.181) and temperature until equilibrium is

reached
3.43
conservation

all activities taken toward the long-term preservation (3.164) of cultural heritage, including examination,

documentation, treatment, and preventive care, supported by research and education

3.44
container

box, can (3.25), or carton used for storage and shipping of recording materials

(3.176)

EXAMPLE The box into which a reel (3.178), cassette (3.28), cartridge (3.27), optical disc (3.142) or shell

(3.192) is placed.

Note 1 to entry: Reels (3.178), cassettes (3.28), cartridges (3.27), and shells (3.192) are not containers.

3.45
copy
reproduction of the information from a master

Note 1 to entry: A copy is a reproduction that may be on a different media and in a different size or format than

the master, whereas a duplicate (3.64) is an identical reproduction.
3.46
core
hub

metal or plastic cylinder on which recording material (3.176) is wound

Note 1 to entry: See also flange (3.80), reel (3.178), slot (3.200), and tape pack (3.220).

3.47
crazing

network of fine cracks on the surface of a print or film that is the result of environmental stresses on

the surface layer
3.48
cupping

departure of film or paper from physical flatness characterized by the condition where the four corners

of a rectangular sheet turn up, but the edges do not
3.49
curl

departure of film, paper or magnetic tape from physical flatness with the tendency to curve into a

cylindrical shape
Note 1 to entry: See ISO 11556.
3.50
cyan spots

defect that results when the ultraviolet absorber in an older technology chromogenic print (3.32)

crystallises and permits the back-scattering of light
3.51
dark stability

ability of a print, negative (3.134), or transparency (3.230) to resist fading or staining due to ambient

environmental factors in the absence of light
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18913:2022
ISO 18913:2021(E)
3.52
daylight filter

optical filter (or set of filters) used to modify the spectral irradiance (3.203) of a light source to simulate

outdoor terrestrial daylight
3.53
daylight through window glass filter
window glass filter

optical filter (or set of filters) used to modify the spectral irradiance (3.203) of a light source to simulate

outdoor terrestrial daylight transmitted through standard architectural window glass

3.54
delamination

separation of a laminated assembly into its constituent layers, either in whole or in part

3.55
density minimum
minimum density
min

density corresponding to the maximum transmittance, in the case of film, or reflectance, in the case of

paper, that a photographic product can achieve
3.56
dew point

temperature at which moisture begins to condense on a surface, corresponding to saturation for a given

absolute humidity (3.2)

EXAMPLE The higher the absolute humidity of air, the higher the dew-point temperature of the air. See also,

relative humidity (3.181).
3.57
differential dimensional change

difference between the dimensional change (3.60) or dimensional change after ageing (3.61) of a material

in the two principal directions of length and width

Note 1 to entry: Polyester-based films frequently have maximum and minimum dimensional changes in directions

other than the length or width. These can be determined by rotating and viewing the uncoated base between a

pair of crossed polarizers. When the direction corresponding to either the maximum or minimum dimensional

change is coincident with the optical axis of one polarizer, there is minimum light transmission through the base.

3.58
digital print
print where the image is printed directly from the digital domain

Note 1 to entry: Digital print is a print made directly from digital data in a process such that the image forming

mechanisms are refreshed for each impression, thus each impression can have different content.

Note 2 to entry: Offset printing in its various forms as defined in the ISO 12647 (all parts) is typically categorized

as “analogue printing” even though data may stem from the digital domain as in the case of computer-to-plate

systems. See analogue print (3.10)

Note 3 to entry: There is substantial confusion around the definition of this term by users, particularly in the

consumer market where it may be taken to mean a print where the original image is produced or manipulated in

the digital domain.
3.59
digital versatile disc
DVD

optical disc (3.142) format in which one or more information layers are located between two substrates

(3.218) and the data can be read by an optical beam
Note 1 to entry: Formerly called digital video disc.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 16 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18913:2022
ISO 18913:2021(E)
3.60
dimensional change
permanent change in dimension caused by photographic processing alone

Note 1 to entry: This can be the conventional wet chemical processing, vapour processing, or heat processing. The

dimensional change is measured after conditioning (3.42) at the same relative humidity (3.181) and temperature

as used for the original measurement and is expressed as a percentage.

Note 2 to entry: See also differential dimensional change (3.57), dimensional change after ageing (3.61), and

dimensional hysteresis (3.62).
3.61
dimensional change after ageing
dimensional change due to processing plus ageing

permanent dimensional change (3.60) that occurs as a result of processing plus ageing of the processed

material

Note 1 to entry: It is measured after conditioning (3.42) of the processed, aged film or paper at the same relative

humidity (3.181) and temperature as used for the original measurement and is expressed as a percentage.

3.62
dimensional hysteresis

difference in the absolute dimensions of a specimen in equilibrium with air at a given relative humidity

(3.181), when conditioned from a higher relative humidity and when conditioned from a lower relative

humidity

Note 1 to entry: See also differential dimensional change (3.57) and dimensional change (3.60).

3.63
direct spectral irradiance

irradiation from a source without shading, scattering, or additional filtering at a specific wavelength

over a narrow bandwidth, or as a function of wavelength; also, the derivative with respect to wavelength

-2 -1
of irradiance, represented as Eλ or E(λ)[W·m ·nm ]

Note 1 to entry: In the context of solar irradiance, an alternative use of the term pertains to the radiation that is

not scattered by the atmosphere (water vapor and other constituents). Its counterpart is “diffuse” radiation. The

total of direct and diffuse equals what is called “global” radiation.
Note 2 to entry: See also spectral irradiance (3.203).
3.64
duplicate
identical (1:1) reproduction of a master, comprised of the same media and size

Note 1 to entry: A duplicate is an identical reproduction whereas a “copy”, as defined in this document, is a

reproduction that may be on a different media and in a different size or format than the master.

3.65
durability

resistance of an image print to physical, mechanical, and environmental stresses

3.66
dye diffusion thermal transfer (D2T2) print

digital print (3.58) made using thermal print heads controlled by digital data and using donor ribbons

coated with dye-based colorants that diffuse due to heating to reproduce images on an image receiving

layer of a substrate (3.218)

Note 1 to entry: This process is sometimes known as “dye sub”, short for "dye sublimation". This is a misnomer

as the dyes melt to form a liquid which is transferred to the substrate rather than subliming through the vapour

phase. The misnomer arises from a similarity to an earlier textile printing process.

Note 2 to entry: See ISO 12637-1.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 17 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18913:2022
ISO 18913:2021(E)
3.67
edge fluting

wave-shaped deformation along the edges of cut sheets, which may be caused by an expansion of the

edge of the material, particularly when the edge is exposed to greater variations in temperature and

humidity than the centre of the sheet
Note 1 to entry: See also cockle (3.34) and waviness (3.236).
3.68
electrophotographic print

print made from electrostatically charged toner particles or droplets that are transferred from a

photoconductive medium (3.124)
3.69
emulsion layer(s)

image or image-forming layer(s) of silver halide photographic films (3.152), papers, and plates

3.70
encapsulation

process of placing a document between two sheets of plastic (usually polyester), which are sealed at the

edges, in order to provide support and protect it from handling and the atmosphere

Note 1 to entry: Usually done using protective sheets that are larger in dimension than the specimen and then

sealing at the overlaps.

Note 2 to entry: See also irreversible encapsulation (3.102) and reversible encapsulation (3.184).

3.71
enclosure
box, case, cartridge, folder, e
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.