The test method in this document is intended to be used to characterize and compare the degradation of a set of print materials under exposure to particular light sources, eventually including optical filter combinations, under museum environmental conditions. The document covers typical types of indoor light sources commonly found in a museum including indoor daylight, LED, and incandescent light. This document is applicable to analogue and digital reflection photographic prints. NOTEÂ Â Â Â Â Examples of photographic prints covered by this document are prints made with digital printing technologies such as inkjet, electrophotography, and thermal dye transfer, as well as prints made on silver halide colour paper but not prints made on black and white silver halide paper.

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This document specifies test methods to determine the rub resistance of analogue and digital prints. This includes photographic as well as graphic and office prints on all substrates. ISOÂ 18947-1 provides information and general guidance relevant to the selection and operation of abrasion test methods and also describes general performance requirements for abrasion test devices used.

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This document describes the procedures for evaluation of colour variation in the printing of photographic reflection colour prints. The following procedures are described to evaluate colour variation in printing within a consecutive print job, between several print jobs, or between multiple photographic images printed in different areas of a large sheet: a) test targets for small and large photographic prints; b) printing procedures and conditions; c) sampling in correspondence to the production scale; d) measurement of colour; e) calculation and analysis of colour variation and f) reporting. The procedures presented in this document are applicable for prints with a size of available picture area ranging from 35 cm2 (e.g. 5 cm × 7 cm) to 5 400 cm2 (e.g. 60 cm × 90 cm). This document is applicable to any of the photographic printing technologies, including inkjet, thermal dye transfer, electrophotography and silver halide (chromogenic) technologies.

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This document specifies the nominal sizes of photographic glass plates, together with cutting dimensions and their tolerances. It also specifies the nominal substrate thicknesses and their tolerances, as well as providing a cross-reference for sheet films being used in newly manufactured holders for 19th century glass plate cameras.

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This document specifies tests to determine the abrasion resistance of photographic images for typical use in indoor context that is characterized by mild abrasive conditions. Examples are flipping of pages in an album, careful manual handling of prints (stacking, shifting) or use of magnets for attachment to a board. Photographic images refer to individual prints or prints in albums, which can be produced by a wide range of printing technologies, including silver halide, electrophotography, inkjet, dye diffusion thermal transfer, commonly known as dye sublimation, and dye transfer processes. Photographic images require “photo-grade” media, including coated or surface treated print materials, which are prerequisite to obtain photographic quality with aforementioned printing technologies. Test procedures are limited to (quasi-) linear, reciprocal abrasion test devices. For other printing technologies (e.g. offset lithography and other photomechanical printing processes) or non-photo-grade media or other levels of rubbing representative of other application profiles, different test methods and/or device options may be considered (see ISO 18947‑1). Heavy duty abrasive conditions, such as floor tiles, floor graphics, abrasive cleaning and vehicle graphics, are out of scope of this document.

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This document provides information and examples of measurement methods for evaluating the image quality of digital photographic reflection prints, including prints produced by ink jet, thermal dye transfer, electrophotography and silver halide (chromogenic) technologies. These measurement methods are intended especially to be applicable to small prints with a size of available picture area ranging from 35 mm × 45 mm to 360 mm × 450 mm, a popular and basic application of photographic print technology. NOTE The definition of "digital print" here is print made directly from digital data when there is no intermediate image carrier, or when the image carrier is refreshed for each impression, and thus each impression can be different in content if desired.

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This document describes test methods for determining the long-term dark storage stability of colour photographic images. It is applicable to colour photographic images made with traditional photographic materials. These images are generated with systems such as chromogenic, silver dye-bleach, dye transfer, dye-diffusion-transfer "instant", and similar systems. The test method specified in this document also covers the dark-stability of digital colour images produced with dry- and liquid-toner electrophotography, thermal dye transfer (sometimes called "dye sublimation"), and inkjet printing systems.

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This document describes the equipment, methods and procedures for generating a known ozone exposure and the subsequent measurement and quantification of the amount of change produced within both digitally printed hardcopy images and traditional analogue photographic colour print images due to that exposure. The test method described in this document uses increased levels of ozone to achieve an accelerated test. If the principal "gas fading" mechanism for a system is not ozone, this method might not be suitable and might give misleading results as to resistance of the test image to polluted air.

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This document describes test equipment and procedures for measuring the light stability of colour photographic reflection prints designed for display, when subjected to a filtered xenon-arc light source simulating daylight through windows at specified temperatures and relative humidity. This document is applicable to photographic reflection prints, made with analogue and digital print processes. The recommended test methods can be applied to both colour and black-and-white photographic prints. This test method assesses colour and density change.

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This document defines use profiles for commercial prints in terms of typical environmental stress factors and any mechanical and chemical stress factors to be considered additionally in their application. Methods and principles defined in this document apply to the various product classes of "commercial prints" that, following the terminology of ISO/TS 19300, include commercial production prints (flyers, brochures), transactional and stationary prints, signage, newspapers and periodical prints, book printing as well as packaging printing. These commercial prints often contain combinations of text, pictorial images and/or artwork. Prints for non-commercial use, including prints use and display in consumer home environments and prints exhibited or stored in museum context, are outside the scope of this document. For each use profile a set of suitable accelerated test methods for the leading environmental and/or mechanical or chemical stress factors is defined for representative testing. Guidance is given for translation of test results into suitable image permanence performance claims considering the variability of actual use in comparison to reference use profiles. The test methods and guiding principle described in this document apply to both, analogue and digitally printed matter, and the corresponding test targets from the ISO 12647 series are used. Methods and principles apply to both colour and monochrome prints.

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This document describes the test method for light stability and ozone stability for commercial prints, which are displayed in indoor bright places in or near to windows, especially in display windows with air conditioning. This document also provides guidelines for data analysis. This document is applicable to the various product classes of "commercial prints" that, following the terminology of ISO/TR 19300, include commercial production prints (flyers, brochures), transactional and stationary prints, signage, newspapers and periodical prints, book printing as well as packaging printing. These commercial prints often contain combinations of text, pictorial images and/or artwork. Prints for non-commercial use, including prints used and displayed in consumer home environments and prints exhibited or stored in museum context, are outside the scope of this document. This document is applicable to both analogue and digitally printed matter. Methods and principles apply to both, colour and monochrome prints.

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This document describes test methods to evaluate reflection colour photographic prints with regard to changes in image appearance resulting from exposure to low relative humidity. The observed changes relate primarily to substrate yellowing. Other observed humidity related physical damage factors such as curl, cockle, cracking, or delamination due to humidity cycling are also within the scope of this test method.

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This document specifies requirements and recommendations for the digital test file content, printer setups and printing procedures that are used to generate target prints for test method standards and specifications for image stability in the context of reflection colour photographic prints. Furthermore, this document defines measurement procedures of the test patches as well as how changes of colour attributes are calculated in the course of a given image stability test. Definition of the statistical procedure for data reduction and the translation of those changes into psychophysical end point levels does not belong to the scope of this document, but results obtained with the methods defined in this document can feed into the appropriate statistical evaluation and end point systems of a print life specification defined in other documents.

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This International Standard specifies recommended storage conditions for unprocessed photographic materials. It is not applicable to processed films and prints. This International Standard is applicable to black-and-white and colour photographic materials (negative films, positive films, reversal films, positive papers, and X-ray films), as well as to safety films.

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This International Standard establishes a vocabulary of terms and definitions used in relation to the permanence of imaging materials, related storage materials and digital storage media. In most cases these terms and definitions are generic and are applicable to the entire imaging industry. For terms and definitions specific to particular applications, industry standards are applicable. However, in some cases the definition of a term is still evolving and/or is used by different user groups in different ways. In these cases, a definition related to permanence of imaging materials work is given and a note to this effect is included.

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This International Standard specifies dark storage conditions, storage facilities and procedures for the handling and inspection of reflection prints of all types and sizes. This International Standard is applicable to prints on the following opaque supports: a) fibre-base paper; b) RC (resin coated) paper; c) pigmented and other types of plastic supports, e.g. polyester, cellulose acetate; d) fabric, e.g. canvas, linen. This International Standard is applicable to the following processed black-and-white silver gelatine prints: 1) wet-processed, including those that have been chemically treated to improve the permanence of the silver image and/or to modify its colour, e.g. with gold, selenium or sulphur formulations; 2) diffusion transfer, e.g. Polaroid and Fuji Photo Film instant prints1); 3) stabilization-processed (which contain the silver image as well as invisible, chemically stabilized silver halides). This International Standard is applicable to the following processed multicolour and monochrome colour photographic prints: i) chromogenic, washed and stabilized; ii) silver dye bleach; iii) dye transfer; iv) diffusion transfer, e.g. Polaroid and Fuji Photo Film instant prints1), peel-apart or integral; v) pigmented gelatine, e.g. carbon, carbro. This International Standard is applicable to black-and-white and colour prints made with the following systems: - thermal dye transfer (commonly referred to as dye sublimation); - thermal wax transfer; - electro-photographic; - dye and pigmented ink jet; - swellable and porous-coated media supports; - diazo.

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ISO 18902:2013 specifies the principal physical and chemical requirements for album, storage and framing materials to prevent damage to processed or printed imaging materials over time. It covers requirements for: paper and paperboard; plastics; metals; writing instruments; adhesives; tapes; self-adhesive labelling materials; stamping inks and pads; framing and glazing materials used as, or in the construction of, storage and display materials for black-and-white or colour reflection prints or negatives made with traditional silver-halide and silver dye bleach photographic materials; dye- and pigment-based inkjet, dye diffusion thermal transfer ("dye sublimation"), and liquid- and dry-toner electrophotographic digital prints.

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ISO 18928:2013 specifies recommended storage conditions for unprocessed photographic materials. ISO 18928:2013 is applicable to black-and-white and colour photographic materials (negative films, positive films, reversal films, positive papers, and X-ray films), as well as to safety films.

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ISO 18914:2013 specifies a laboratory test method for determining the resistance of photographic emulsions or gelatin backings to abrasion damage during processing. This method may be used to determine the effects of variations in processing solutions, gelatin layer properties, processing solution temperatures and times, or a combination of these factors, on the wet scratch resistance of gelatin layers. This method is applicable to the determination of the physical integrity of photographic emulsions when wet.

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ISO 18924:2013 specifies a test method for the prediction of certain physical or chemical property changes of imaging materials. ISO 18924:2013 is applicable to the Arrhenius test portion of ISO 18901, ISO 18905, ISO 18909, ISO 18912 and ISO 18919. ISO 18924:2013 is applicable to the prediction of the optical-density (D) loss or gain of imaging materials. Photographic dye images may be produced by chromogenic processing, by formation of diazo dyes, or by non-chromogenic methods such as dye diffusion and silver dye-bleaching processing. ISO 18924:2013 also covers density changes caused by residual coupler changes in dye images, excess residual processing chemicals in silver black-and-white materials, temperature effects on thermally processed silver images. This International Standard is applicable to the prediction of support degradation.

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ISO 18907:2013 specifies a method for determining and expressing quantitatively the brittleness of photographic film and papers. The method is applicable to films with or without a gelatin backing and to fibre-based or resin-coated (RC) photographic papers. It may also be applied to either raw or processed materials.

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ISO 18913:2012 establishes a vocabulary of terms and definitions used in relation to the permanence of imaging materials, related storage materials and digital storage media.

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ISO 18929:2012 establishes the specifications for silver-gelatin photographic reflection prints intended for dark storage. It covers silver-gelatin print types of all weights. ISO 18929:2012 applies to wet-processed black-and-white silver-gelatin photographic prints, including those that have been chemically treated (with a gold, selenium, sulfur, or other chemical treatment bath) to improve the permanence of the silver image. It also applies to silver-gelatin prints processed by a monobath, which includes thiosulfate as a fixing agent followed by a conventional wash.

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ISO 18946:2012 describes test methods for evaluating reflection colour photographic prints with regard to changes in image appearance resulting from exposure to both low and high relative humidity. The observed changes relate to colour, tone and loss of sharpness caused by horizontal and vertical diffusion of colorants from exposure to elevated humidity levels. Other humidity-related factors are outside the scope of this test method. The method and procedures described in ISO 18946:2012 are particularly appropriate to systems where the colorants are applied by a mechanism involving the diffusion of colorant into image-receiving layers and to certain types of inkjet media that are susceptible to Dmin yellowing.

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ISO 18920:2011 specifies dark storage conditions, storage facilities and procedures for the handling and inspection of reflection prints of all types and sizes. ISO 18920:2011 is applicable to: · prints on opaque supports, · processed black-and-white silver gelatine prints, · processed multicolour and monochrome colour photographic prints, · black-and-white and colour prints. ISO 18920:2011 is applicable to medium-term and extended-term storage conditions.

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This International Standard provides recommendations concerning the storage conditions, storage facilities, handling and inspection for all processed safety photographic films in roll, strip, aperture-card or sheet format, regardless of size. This International Standard is applicable to extended-term and medium-term storage of photographic film. This International Standard is applicable to photographic film records intended as storage copies, which are not in frequent use. It does not apply to “work” or “use” copies (see Annex A). This International Standard, while intended for materials that are properly processed, is also of considerable value in prolonging the useful life of photographic film whose processing conditions are unknown, or which has been toned or retouched, or has markings with materials of uncertain or unknown stability. This International Standard is applicable only to safety photographic film (see ISO 18906). Nitrate-base films are not covered by this International Standard.

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This International Standard describes test methods for determining the long-term dark storage stability of colour photographic images and the colour stability of such images when subjected to certain illuminants at specified temperatures and relative humidities.
This International Standard is applicable to colour photographic images made with traditional, continuous-tone photographic materials with images formed with dyes. These images are generated with chromogenic, silver dye-bleach, dye transfer, and dye-diffusion-transfer instant systems. The tests have not been verified for evaluating the stability of colour images produced with dry- and liquid-toner electrophotography, thermal dye transfer (sometimes called dye sublimation), ink jet, pigment-gelatine systems, offset lithography, gravure and related colour imaging systems.
This International Standard does not include test procedures for the physical stability of images, supports or binder materials. However, it is recognized that in some instances, physical degradation such as support embrittlement, emulsion cracking or delamination of an image layer from its support, rather than image stability, will determine the useful life of a colour film or print material.

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Discusses devices in photographic standardization that are used as hygrometers and humidistats in the measurement and control of relative humidity (RH) in test chambers and storage areas.

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This International Standard describes test methods for determining the long-term dark storage stability of colour photographic images and the colour stability of such images when subjected to certain illuminants at specified temperatures and relative humidities. This International Standard is applicable to colour photographic images made with traditional, continuous-tone photographic materials with images formed with dyes. These images are generated with chromogenic, silver dye-bleach, dye transfer, and dye-diffusion-transfer instant systems. The tests have not been verified for evaluating the stability of colour images produced with dry- and liquid-toner electrophotography, thermal dye transfer (sometimes called dye sublimation), ink jet, pigment-gelatine systems, offset lithography, gravure and related colour imaging systems. This International Standard does not include test procedures for the physical stability of images, supports or binder materials. However, it is recognized that in some instances, physical degradation such as support embrittlement, emulsion cracking or delamination of an image layer from its support, rather than image stability, will determine the useful life of a colour film or print material.

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This International Standard specifies a method for determining the dimensional change of photographic films and papers caused by: . variations in equilibrium moisture content due to change in the relative humidity (RH) of the atmosphere (humidity coefficient of expansion); - change in temperature (thermal coefficient of expansion); - processing; - ageing. This International Standard deals with the moisture content and thermal history of the specimens before measurement, the atmospheric conditions during measurement, and the treatment of the data. It does not describe the various experimental techniques used to make the measurements.

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This International Standard establishes specifications for the stability of polyester-base safety film which has a heat-processed vesicular photographic image formed by nitrogen bubbles. It is applicable only to vesicular photographic film intended and used as LE-10 and LE-100 storage copies, which shall be stored in accordance with ISO 18902 and ISO 18911. This document characterizes only the inherent keeping behaviour of the film. However, the suitability of a film record after extended storage depends on both the inherent ageing characteristics of the film and the original image quality. The latter is discussed in annex C. This International Standard is applicable to photographic film in which the image layer is a discrete layer attached to a transparent support, and it applies to roll film and sheet film.

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This part of ISO 18055 establishes a classification of photo-grade inkjet papers and films with regard to nomenclature, formats and thickness/grammage. It does not include non-photo-grade media, non-paper/film media, or media intended solely for laser printing.

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  • Standard
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This International Standard specifies the nominal sizes and aim dimensions, with their cutting tolerances, of photographic films in rolls and sheets for use in general photographic applications. It also specifies perforating dimensions and selected core dimensions and includes a section on package marking. NOTE Films used for specific photographic applications, such as radiography, graphic arts, micrography, aerial photography , documentary reproduction and on recording instruments, are specified in other International Standards.

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  • Standard
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This International Standard describes a method for determining the intrinsic root mean square granularity (rms-granularity) of photographic films. Intrinsic rms-granularity refers to those density fluctuations produced solely by the distribution of developed image forming centres in the photographic emulsion. Continuous-tone monochrome (silver absorbing species) and colour (dye absorbing species) materials coated on a transmitting support can be measured by the procedures described in this International Standard. This International Standard is intended for imaging systems with viewing magnifications between 5and 12(see Annex A).
The following kinds of granularity measurements are not covered by this International Standard, even though they are photographically important:
⎯reflecting materials (photographic papers);
⎯materials having emulsion coated on both sides of the support (e.g. some X-ray films);
⎯the estimation of the noise power spectrum (Wiener spectrum).

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Describes a method for determining the speed and average gradient of black-and-white negative films used in aerial photography. Depending on the processing conditions, a single film product may have several speed and gradient values. The specifications do not apply to infrared aerial films.

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The colour negatives obtained with these films are assumed to be primarily used for making reflection-type colour prints but may also be used to make colour transparencies. The specifications do not apply to colour negative films for motion-picture and aerial photography.

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This International Standard specifies the aim and tolerance values for the nominal widths of rolls of black-and-white and colour photographic papers for use in contact and projection printers.
It also specifies splice parameters, core dimensions, requirements for winding, and package marking.

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  • Standard
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The colour negatives obtained with these films are assumed to be primarily used for making reflection-type colour prints but may also be used to make colour transparencies. The specifications do not apply to colour negative films for motion-picture and aerial photography.

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  • Standard
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  • Standard
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This International Standard specifies the nominal sizes and aim dimensions, with their cutting  tolerances, of black-and-white and colour photographic Papers in sheets (negative-positive or reversal processes) for pictorial use. lt also specifies a method for checking the squareness of the sheets and straightness of their edges, and establishes a rule for package marking. The term “pictorial” means use in amateur, commercial and Portrait photography, and excludes specific uses such as  documentary reproduction, photocomposition or graphic arts. In this International Standard, metric units are Prime.

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ISO 18911:2010 provides recommendations concerning the storage conditions, storage facilities, handling and inspection for all processed safety photographic films in roll, strip, aperture‑card or sheet format, regardless of size. ISO 18911:2010 is applicable to extended‑term and medium‑term storage of photographic film. ISO 18911:2010 is applicable to photographic film records intended as storage copies, which are not in frequent use. It does not apply to “work” or “use” copies. ISO 18911:2010, while intended for materials that are properly processed, is also of considerable value in prolonging the useful life of photographic film whose processing conditions are unknown, or which has been toned or retouched, or has markings with materials of uncertain or unknown stability. ISO 18911:2010 is applicable only to safety photographic film (see ISO 18906). Nitrate-base films are not covered by ISO 18911:2010. The storage of photographic prints and photographic plates requires different considerations. They are not covered in ISO 18911:2010, but are described respectively in ISO 18920 and ISO 18918.

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ISO 18901:2010 establishes the specifications for photographic films intended for the storage of records. ISO 18901:2010 is applicable specifically to films with a base of safety cellulose ester or polyester having silver-gelatin emulsions, processed to produce a black-and-white silver image by negative or full-reversal processing. It applies to film processed using a monobath that includes thiosulfate as the fixing agent, followed by a conventional wash. It also is applicable to silver films given a stabilizing treatment by partial or full conversion to silver sulfide, silver selenide or gold. ISO 18901:2010 is applicable to films having ultrasonic or dielectric (induction-heated) splices. It does not cover films with splices made of adhesive tape or solvent-type spIices. ISO 18901:2010 is not applicable to films with chromogenic black-and-white images, colour images of any type, or to films with a magnetic recording track. It does not apply to films with silver images produced by dry or thermal processing or by diffusion-reversal processing, or to films that have been processed by a monobath using means other than a thiosulfate-type fixing solution. It is not applicable to films where the silver salts are removed by means other than thiosulfate solutions. ISO 18901:2010 is not applicable to films to which lacquers have been applied.

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ISO 5-4:2009 specifies the geometric conditions for the definition of ISO 5 standard reflection density. It also recommends tolerances on geometric conditions that can be used in the design of instruments. The spectral conditions are specified in ISO 5-3. ISO 5-4:2009 also specifies the requirements for polarization (if that feature is included) and for backing material, and makes recommendations regarding accuracy and linearity. Although intended primarily for use in the measurement of the reflection characteristics of photographic and graphic arts materials, ISO 5-4:2009 is also applicable to the measurement of these characteristics for other materials.

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ISO 5-3:2009 specifies spectral conditions and computational procedures for the definition of several types of ISO 5 standard densities used in imaging applications in photography and graphic technology.

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ISO 5-1:2009 establishes terms, symbols, functional notations and a coordinate system to describe geometric and spectral conditions for the measurement of the degree to which a specimen modulates radiant flux for applications in photography, graphic technology, and radiometry. ISO 5-1:2009 primarily provides a system for describing methods of measuring or specifying the transmission and reflection properties of photographic and graphic arts materials. The geometric and spectral conditions associated with such measurement are specified in ISO 5-2, ISO 5-3 and ISO 5-4.

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ISO 5-2:2009 specifies the geometric conditions for measuring ISO 5 standard diffuse and ƒ/4,5 and ƒ/1,6 projection transmittance densities. ISO 5 standard diffuse density is primarily applicable to measurements of photographic images to be viewed on a transparency illuminator, or viewing box, to be contact printed, or to be projected with a system employing diffuse illumination. ISO 5 standard projection density is primarily applicable to measurements of photographic images to be projected with systems employing optical condensers. Although primarily intended for the measurement of photographic images, the densitometric methods specified in ISO 5-2:2009 are often applied to optical filters and other transparent materials.

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  • Standard
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ISO 10505:2009 describes a method for determining the intrinsic root mean square granularity (rms‑granularity) of photographic films. Intrinsic rms-granularity refers to those density fluctuations produced solely by the distribution of developed image forming centres in the photographic emulsion. Continuous-tone monochrome (silver absorbing species) and colour (dye absorbing species) materials coated on a transmitting support can be measured by the procedures described in ISO 10505:2009. ISO 10505:2009 is intended for imaging systems with viewing magnifications between 5x and 12x (see Annex A). The following kinds of granularity measurements are not covered by ISO 10505:2009, even though they are photographically important: reflecting materials (photographic papers); materials having emulsion coated on both sides of the support (e.g. some X-ray films); the estimation of the noise power spectrum (Wiener spectrum).

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  • Standard
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ISO 18909:2006 describes test methods for determining the long-term dark storage stability of colour photographic images and the colour stability of such images when subjected to certain illuminants at specified temperatures and relative humidities. ISO 18909:2006 is applicable to colour photographic images made with traditional, continuous-tone photographic materials with images formed with dyes. These images are generated with chromogenic, silver dye-bleach, dye transfer, and dye-diffusion-transfer instant systems. The tests have not been verified for evaluating the stability of colour images produced with dry- and liquid-toner electrophotography, thermal dye transfer (sometimes called dye sublimation), ink jet, pigment-gelatine systems, offset lithography, gravure and related colour imaging systems.

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This International Standard describes test methods for determining the long-term dark storage stability of colour photographic images and the colour stability of such images when subjected to certain illuminants at specified temperatures and relative humidities.
This International Standard is applicable to colour photographic images made with traditional, continuous-tone photographic materials with images formed with dyes. These images are generated with chromogenic, silver dye-bleach, dye transfer, and dye-diffusion-transfer instant systems. The tests have not been verified for evaluating the stability of colour images produced with dry- and liquid-toner electrophotography, thermal dye transfer (sometimes called dye sublimation), ink jet, pigment-gelatine systems, offset lithography, gravure and related colour imaging systems.
This International Standard does not include test procedures for the physical stability of images, supports or binder materials. However, it is recognized that in some instances, physical degradation such as support embrittlement, emulsion cracking or delamination of an image layer from its support, rather than image stability, will determine the useful life of a colour film or print material.

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ISO 18909:2006 describes test methods for determining the long-term dark storage stability of colour photographic images and the colour stability of such images when subjected to certain illuminants at specified temperatures and relative humidities. ISO 18909:2006 is applicable to colour photographic images made with traditional, continuous-tone photographic materials with images formed with dyes. These images are generated with chromogenic, silver dye-bleach, dye transfer, and dye-diffusion-transfer instant systems. The tests have not been verified for evaluating the stability of colour images produced with dry- and liquid-toner electrophotography, thermal dye transfer (sometimes called dye sublimation), ink jet, pigment-gelatine systems, offset lithography, gravure and related colour imaging systems.

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