Smart community infrastructures — Guidance on smart transportation by Electric, Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (eCAVs) and its application to on-demand responsive passenger services with shared vehicles

This document provides guidance on the staged implementation of Electric, Connected and Autonomous Vehicle (eCAV) passenger and delivery services, with a special focus on on-demand responsive passenger services with shared vehicles. This document aims to accelerate innovation and deliver smart transportation by eCAV, in and between cities. Note 1 to entry: This document does not designate the technical details of eCAVs, including pods, which are Low-Speed Autonomous Transport System (L-SAT) vehicles. These technical details are provided by ISO 22737. Note 2 to entry: This document targets on-demand responsive passenger services with shared vehicles. ISO 37181 also mentions the advantages of eCAV applications to public transportation.

Infrastructures urbaines intelligentes — Recommandations relatives au transport intelligent par véhicules électriques, connectés et autonomes et application aux services de transport de passagers à la demande avec des véhicules partagés

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Status
Published
Publication Date
13-Jun-2022
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Due Date
28-Nov-2022
Completion Date
14-Jun-2022
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ISO 37168:2022 - Smart community infrastructures — Guidance on smart transportation by Electric, Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (eCAVs) and its application to on-demand responsive passenger services with shared vehicles Released:14. 06. 2022
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 37168
First edition
2022-06
Smart community infrastructures —
Guidance on smart transportation by
Electric, Connected and Autonomous
Vehicles (eCAVs) and its application
to on-demand responsive passenger
services with shared vehicles
Infrastructures urbaines intelligentes — Recommandations relatives
au transport intelligent par véhicules électriques, connectés et
autonomes et application aux services de transport de passagers à la
demande avec des véhicules partagés
Reference number
ISO 37168:2022(E)
© ISO 2022
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 37168:2022(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2022

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

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© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO 37168:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Common considerations for smart transportation by autonomous buses ............................................1

4.1 Goals of smart transportation .................................................................................................................................................. 1

4.2 Basic characteristics of eCAVs .................................................................................................................................................. 2

4.3 eCAV as integrated intelligent mobility ........................................................................................................................... 3

4.3.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

4.3.2 Examples of development of autonomous technologies .................................................................. 3

4.3.3 Framework of four features ..................................................................................................................................... 3

4.4 Key considerations .............................................................................................................................................................................. 4

4.4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

4.4.2 Role of transport authorities ................................................................................................................................... 4

4.4.3 Legal and regulatory framework ................................... ...................................................................................... 4

4.4.4 Service typology ................................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.4.5 Public engagement and the dissemination of findings ..................................................................... 5

4.5 Applicable city issues and expected advantages ..................................................................................................... 6

4.6 Service issues and challenges ................................................................................................................................................... 7

5 Technical requirements for adoption of eCAV transportation........................................................................... 7

5.1 Target operating environments .............................................................................................................................................. 7

5.2 Technical objectives ........................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.3 Technical prerequisites .................................................................................................................................................................. 9

5.4 Procedure to adopt smart transportation .................................................................................................................. 10

5.5 Continuous oversight and governance ........................................................................................................................... 11

6 Quality maintenance of smart transportation by autonomous buses ....................................................11

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 11

6.2 Parameters to be observed....................................................................................................................................................... 11

7 Long-term arrangements for the accommodation of smart transportation by

autonomous buses ...........................................................................................................................................................................................12

Annex A (informative) Interventions needed to make contextual features fit for eCAV

services .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................13

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................14

iii
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO 37168:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 268, Sustainable cities and communities,

Subcommittee SC 2, Sustainable cities and communities - Sustainable mobility and transportation.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO 37168:2022(E)
Introduction

Public transport using Electric, Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (eCAVs) will be a solution to a

range of problems, including passenger need for flexible, demand-responsive transport options and a

shortage of drivers in ageing societies.

5G cellular and WLAN technologies provide the necessary vehicle-to-network (V2N), vehicle-to-vehicle

(V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications that assist the navigation of autonomous

buses.

However, autonomous buses that are wirelessly connected and driverless also address key

environmental and road safety considerations in busy and polluted urban areas and therefore are likely

to have a significant role in a future transport system. In particular, they can:

— provide comfortable and convenient transport for everyone, especially the young, elderly and

disabled;
— reduce congestion and time lost to slow moving traffic, increasing efficiency;
— manage travel demand, relieve parking and optimise the use of road space;

— reduce carbon emissions, pollution and noise in and between cities, promoting health and well-

being;
— make cities more attractive and productive places, able to grow sustainably.

Technology that supports small autonomous vehicles such as pods, one of the Low-Speed Autonomous

Transport Systems (L-SATS), for intra-city passenger transport also lends itself to local delivery

services. Autonomous delivery pods are designed to carry parcels, groceries and food, making local

distribution faster and more cost-efficient.

Key obstacles to the introduction of autonomous bus and delivery pod services include the ability to

introduce autonomous vehicles among regular bus services and manually driven vehicles. Therefore,

many autonomous experiments have been increasingly sophisticated bus services on fixed, short routes

around safe, off- and on-road spaces.

While trials and pilot schemes exist, they have not been at a scale that really demonstrates the extent to

which eCAVs can form the basis of a genuine public transport service.

Nevertheless, a strategic city focus plus open innovation should form the basis of intelligent demand-

responsive mobility that offers seamless journeys across multi-modal travel options that include

autonomous buses. Key advantages of such transport systems, include:
— adaptability, i.e. eCAVs fit the environment and travel needs of passengers;
— flexible routing and demand responsive journeys;
— real-time information across transport infrastructures;
— city-scale functionality and integration;
— safer and more accessible public transportation.

Rapidly developing pilot projects on autonomous buses can serve the development of smart

transportation that helps reach these goals. This document aims to signpost the way towards these

goals and offer some focus for the collaborative development of international standards for autonomous

public transport services.

ISO Guide 82 has been taken into account in the development of this document with regards to

addressing sustainability issues.
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 37168:2022(E)
Smart community infrastructures — Guidance on smart
transportation by Electric, Connected and Autonomous
Vehicles (eCAVs) and its application to on-demand
responsive passenger services with shared vehicles
1 Scope

This document provides guidance on the staged implementation of Electric, Connected and Autonomous

Vehicle (eCAV) passenger and delivery services, with a special focus on on-demand responsive

passenger services with shared vehicles. This document aims to accelerate innovation and deliver

smart transportation by eCAV, in and between cities.

Note 1 to entry This document does not designate the technical details of eCAVs, including pods, which are Low-

Speed Autonomous Transport System (L-SAT) vehicles. These technical details are provided by ISO 22737.

Note 2 to entry This document targets on-demand responsive passenger services with shared vehicles.

ISO 37181 also mentions the advantages of eCAV applications to public transportation.

2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
autonomous bus

shared vehicle used for public transport services for passengers provided by Electric, Connected and

Autonomous Vehicles (eCAVs)

Note 1 to entry: A taxi vehicle is hired and can, if local regulations permit, be shared by different passenger

groups. In contrast, a bus vehicle is shared and can be chartered.

Note 2 to entry: A pod, which is a Low-Speed Autonomous Transport System (L-SAT) vehicle and is characterized

by being a small vehicle with low capacity, autonomously transports passengers in different or the same groups

and delivers items. Thus, a pod is a bus vehicle.
4 Common considerations for smart transportation by autonomous buses
4.1 Goals of smart transportation

Automobile transportation is on the cusp of the biggest revolution in public roads since the advent

of the internal combustion engine. eCAVs will spearhead the development of radically new mobility

services. Vehicle-to-everything connectivity improves road safety, enables collaboration between CAVs

and allows authorities to orchestrate traffic flow in real time via wireless connectivity with strict

assurance for security and privacy.
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ISO 37168:2022(E)

This vision of ubiquitous autonomous public transport services requires fully fledged autonomous

driving technologies and legal frameworks that are still years away.

However, in the meantime, there is a demand for a set of guidelines and standard approaches:

— to enable both the commercial development and public deployment of eCAVs;

— to provide a policy framework for the provision of tailored and on-demand responsive transportation

services using eCAVs;
— to establish broad use cases for eCAVs such as:
— low speed urban transit;

NOTE eCAV is one suitable vehicle that is adaptable to smart transportation for compact cities

designated in ISO 37157.
— intercity transfers;

— tailored transport solutions to suit the needs of the young, elderly and people with disabilities

and special needs;

— to promote optimal and efficient public transport and delivery services through the shared use of

eCAVs that can act in either a conventional mode, such as scheduled bus and freight services, or a

demand-responsive mode, such as taxis and couriers;

— to understand the roles and responsibilities of transport authorities in the planning and development

of eCAVs;

— to focus on control systems necessary for eCAV services, including the exchange and interoperability

of shared vehicle and passenger data;

— to accelerate the development and integration of supporting digital and physical infrastructures;

— to assure approaches to passenger and pedestrian safety and the security of personal data and build

public trust;
— to offer an overview of recent developments;

— to shape and influence testing to ensure that trials also complement other key objectives of city

transport strategies, such as active travel and greater reliance upon public and shared transport.

Smart transportation aims to satisfy the following United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (UN

SDGs): goal 3 “Good Health and Well-being”, goal 7 “Affordable and Clean Energy”, goal 8 “Decent Work

and Economic Growth”, goal 9 “Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure”, goal 11 “Sustainable Cities

and Communities”, goal 12 “Responsible Consumption and Production”, goal 13 “Climate Change” and

goal 15 “Life on Land”.
4.2 Basic characteristics of eCAVs
eCAV services take many forms:
— large vehicles (conventionally sized buses);
— smaller vehicles for typically 6 to 14 passengers;

— urban pods for 2 to 6 passengers for intracity transit in compact cities and centres;

— autonomous saloon cars for intercity transit (e.g. provision of snacks and drinks for long distance

travel, sightseeing);
— eCAV freight that has a particular application in compact urban centres;
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ISO 37168:2022(E)
— small-delivery vehicles, designed for pavements and home delivery.

A critical aim of autonomous buses is the ability to offer an on-demand responsive passenger service

in dense urban spaces, while larger intercity buses can continue providing a scheduled service.

Autonomous public transport in urban spaces is in its very early stages of development. Therefore, to

shape the implementation and the transformative impact upon urban life, deep engagement with all

relevant transport stakeholders, citizens and passengers should be a priority.

Much collaborative discussion and public engagement will be required to understand the future of road

design, traffic management and the adaptation of the rules of the road that would support the adoption

of autonomous bus services. It is important to take account of new autonomous technologies and

develop user-friendly interaction with the public, leading to trust and acceptance among passengers.

4.3 eCAV as integrated intelligent mobility
4.3.1 General

eCAVs combine three key characteristics that are driverless, electric-powered and remotely connected.

These characteristics reflect critical changes ongoing in the automobile market. Cars are increasingly

connected for purposes of geo-positioning, navigation and the monitoring of driving quality. Responding

to public concern about air quality, particularly in urban environments, vehicles are increasingly

electric powered. And while not yet a consumer trend, around the world much work and investment

support the development of autonomous and robotic technologies that drive vehicles autonomously.

4.3.2 Examples of development of autonomous technologies
4.3.2.1 Pods in Milton Keynes, UK

As part of the UK autodrive project, self-driving pods have been undergoing trials on pavements in

Milton Keynes. The Milton Keynes Council has been working to test out a new first/last mile transport

solution for local people, shoppers and visitors to the city.

The pods can travel up to 24 km per hour and last up to 100 km off one charge, operating in the city

centre from the central railway station. There are plans for the pods to continue to operate in the city,

with a service being offered to residents.
4.3.2.2 Driverless taxi service

What autonomous taxi services have demonstrated is the potential for this technology to develop into

a public transport service. This can enable first and last mile mobility options that can help people

move around for their business in an efficient and safe way with improved travel options for those who

cannot drive or can find it difficult to either use regular buses, cycle or walk.

4.3.3 Framework of four features

These trials bring together the electric, connected and driverless characteristics, but they also have to

take into account the context in which they must operate. That framework consists of four features:

human behaviour, vehicle requirements, digital infrastructure, and the design and state of roads.

The interventions needed to make these contextual features fit for eCAV services are indicated in

Figure A.1, and cover:

— data management and exchange, which are central to the connected characteristic, and relevant to

human behaviour and digital infrastructure;

— establishing the mobile connectivity and a suitable operating environment, which are relevant to

the road and digital infrastructure;
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ISO 37168:2022(E)

— the safe operation and insurance of vehicles bring together aspects of human behaviour and

technical vehicle safety of eCAVs.
Therefore, relevant interventions can include rules on:
— personal data protection and privacy;
— security standards on the exchange of data;

— ensuring sufficient fibre backhaul networks to support the edge computing and IoT roadside

infrastructures;

— safety standards for autonomous buses and the insurance and liability rules underpinning their

services.

Putting in place the right interventions that address the context in which eCAV services operate should

support the public and commercial development of autonomous buses and public acceptance of this

paradigm shift in urban mobility.
4.4 Key considerations
4.4.1 General

For the development and trials of eCAV transportation services in an actual city, key considerations

include the role of transport authorities, legal and regulatory frameworks and service typologies.

4.4.2 Role of transport authorities

Governments (e.g. city, state, nation) are often the providers of ‘infrastructure’ and facilitator of trials,

particularly when it comes to granting permissions and licenses for eCAV activities and installations.

The development and operation of vehicles is driven largely by industry and technology, often in

collaboration with centres of research and expertise, such as universities with specialities in robotics

and artificial intelligence.

Universities also provide objective impact assessments and technical and non-technical advice based

upon a pool of expertise and experience, for example, simulating eCAV impacts on existing transport

networks.

The collaborative research and development between industry and universities also supports the

development of business cases and implementation plans.

There will be a critical role for transport authorities to guide and lead the development of autonomous

public transport:
— to be up to date and engaged in all trial activities;
— to provide assurance with regards to safety and testing;

— to shape development of eCAVs to complement other urban transport policy objectives.

Fiscal measures and tax incentives can be offered by governments to encourage research and

development and make viable the production of eCAVs for public transport.
4.4.3 Legal and regulatory framework

Essential elements of the legal regulatory requirements are insurance and liability issues, especially

who is liable for an accident involving an eCAV and what are the ‘meet and greet’ rules of the road.

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ISO 37168:2022(E)

Common and consistent rules of the road are necessary to enable the widespread commercial

development and adoption of services:

— the legal framework for autonomous public transport should be consistent everywhere albeit

developed to take account of different terrains and environments and applied technologies in

different places;

— regulators and testing organisations need to ensure vehicles are road legal and insured;

— a suitably trained and licenced test driver or test operator should supervise the vehicle at all times

and be able to over-ride automated operation if necessary.
4.4.4 Service typology

Services morph and grow over time as a result of innovation and passenger preferences, however, in the

short-term, services that are likely to develop include:
— testing, maintenance and repair facilities
— safe spaces in which to develop and test vehicles;
— autonomous bus services

NOTE ISO 37154 describes passenger services provided by smart transportation in a general meaning.

— fixed short routes, e.g. last mile journeys into and out of urban centres that can be scheduled or

demand responsive;

— autonomous, shared, demand-responsive, safe and user-friendly passenger services

— hop on and hop off at designated points and times based upon algorithmic routes that respond

to passenger requests;
— intercity autonomous journeys

— faster scheduled vehicles between city pick up and drop off points, which connect with local

autonomous services;
— pods

— subscription-based services for small vehicles to pick up and drop off passengers at various

locations;
— autonomous taxi services

— on-demand transport services supported by a learning algorithm into which road data are fed.

4.4.5 Public engagement and the dissemination of findings

Dissemination of findings from the early adoption of eCAV services, along with public engagement,

is another key role that should be led by authorities related to or in charge of transportation, public

roads and city governments. They should work closely with private and public stakeholders in wider

communications to inform people about the introduction of such innovation.

eCAVs co-exist with conventional vehicles on public roads. This means that eCAVs are operated under

the current regulations and rules (e.g. highway codes, road traffic rules, traffic signs, signals and

facilities).
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ISO 37168:2022(E)
4.5 Applicable city issues and expected advantages

To promote the holistic planning and uptake of eCAV services, it is important to have a comprehensive

understanding of their long-term benefits and impacts. The benefits and impacts of autonomous bus

and delivery pod services are economic, environmental and social.

a) Economic impacts centre around convenient and available services that improve connectivity and

mobility in and between neighbourhoods. Such impacts include:
— encouraging visitors and inward investment;
— increasing transport efficiency;
— integrating traffic management;
— lowering transport costs;
— promoting tourism;
— resolving labour shortages;
— stimulating enterprise, innovation and new services.

NOTE eCAVs can also be utilised to provide mesh network to support the 5G-backbone network. This

would enhance the telecommunication services in the city, while at the same time rental creating revenues

for the eCAV operators.

b) Environmental impacts of eCAV services promote a cleaner less polluted local environment. Such

impacts include:
— improving air quality;

NOTE 1 eCAVs are driven with motors that are powered. If green energy is supplied as the power, eCAVs

realize perfect zero emission. ISO 37158:2019, Annex A describes the positive effectiveness of motor-driven

vehicles to the atmospherics environment.

NOTE 2 If the eCAV production chain is organized, it can mitigate negative impacts to the environment and

contributes thereto from another aspect.
— promoting green growth;
— reducing congestion;

NOTE 3 When almost all vehicles on public roads are replaced with eCAVs, no traffic congestion is expected,

theoretically.
— reducing noise.

c) Social benefits focus on inclusion and a more equitable spread of opportunities across diverse

populations, with better access to sites and places for learning, leisure, well-being and work. Such

benefits include:
— offering easier journeys;
— creating inclusive mobility for all;
— realizing healthier quality of life;
— providing quicker journeys;
— leading to quieter streets;
— securing safer roads;
— leading to cyber infrastructures.
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ISO 37168:2022(E)
4.6 Service issues and challenges

There is a range of service issues and challenges for city planners to consider, from public engagement

and education to collecting autonomous fares and managing and policing passenger behaviours in

eCAVs.

Another key area is designing streets to make them fit for autonomous buses including pods and

autonomous taxis. Road and kerbside space need to be managed flexibly to support multi-modal

transport options. The space needs to best facilitate the co-existence of eCAVs with other road users.

An important aspect of standardised approach
...

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