Passenger car and light truck vehicle wheels -- Clip and adhesive balance weight and rim flange nomenclature, test procedures and performance requirements

This document specifies procedures and minimum performance requirements for testing without tyres the retention of balance weights for use on wheels for passenger vehicles. It also specifies general features for configurations of clip balance weights, rim flanges for light alloy and steel wheels intended for use on passenger cars and adhesive balance weights. Alternative materials and geometries can be considered in the future.

Roues pour véhicules particuliers et camionnettes -- Nomenclature des masselottes d'équilibrage clippées et adhésives ainsi que des rebords de jantes, méthodes d'essai et exigences de performance

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Status
Published
Publication Date
26-Aug-2021
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
20-Jul-2021
Completion Date
19-Jul-2021
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 13988
Second edition
2021-08
Passenger car and light truck vehicle
wheels — Clip and adhesive balance
weight and rim flange nomenclature,
test procedures and performance
requirements
Roues pour véhicules particuliers et camionnettes — Nomenclature
des masselottes d'équilibrage clippées et adhésives ainsi que des
rebords de jantes, méthodes d'essai et exigences de performance
Reference number
ISO 13988:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 13988:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 13988:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Rim flange types .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5 Test procedure for clip on balance weight ................................................................................................................................. 6

5.1 Preparation of clip on balance weight for test ............................................................................................................. 6

5.1.1 Selection of balance weights .................................................................................................................................. 6

5.1.2 Measurement of key dimensions of balance weights ....................................................................... 6

5.1.3 Marking of balance weights .................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2 Preparation of the wheel for clip on balance weight testing ........................................................................... 7

5.2.1 Cleaning ................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.2.2 Marking .................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.2.3 Measurement of rim flange dimensions ...................................................................................................... 7

5.3 Installation of clip on balance weight.................................................................................................................................. 7

5.4 Tangential test for clip on balance weight ....................................................................................................................... 8

5.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.4.2 Test equipment .................................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.4.3 Test sequence .................. .................................................... ................................................................................................ 9

5.4.4 Performance requirements tangential force............................................................................................ 9

5.5 Axial removal test for clip on balance weight ............................................................................................................... 9

5.5.1 Test equipment .................................................................................................................................................................. 9

5.5.2 Test sequence .................. .................................................... ................................................................................................ 9

5.5.3 Performance requirement axial force .........................................................................................................11

6 Test procedure for adhesive balance weights for all size weights and wheels .................................11

6.1 Test equipment ....................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.2 Wheel preparation ............................................................................................................................................................................12

6.3 Balance weight selection and installation ....................................................................................................................12

7 Shear adhesion test.........................................................................................................................................................................................13

7.1 Test procedure ......................................................................................................................................................................................13

7.2 Performance ...........................................................................................................................................................................................13

8 Pull-off adhesion test ....................................................................................................................................................................................13

8.1 Test procedure ......................................................................................................................................................................................13

8.2 Performance ...........................................................................................................................................................................................14

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 13988:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 33,

Vehicle dynamics and chassis components.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 13988:2008), which has been technically

revised. The main changes compared with the previous edition are as follows:
— adhesive balance weights have been added, which covers clip on weights only;

— nomenclature for the balance weight and test procedures and performance requirements for the

adhesive weights have been included.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 13988:2021(E)
Introduction

This document addresses clip and adhesive balance weights used on passenger car wheels. It provides

general features and configurations of the clip balance weights, general features of the adhesive balance

weights, and general features and configurations for rim dimensions relevant to clip on weights and

defines terms used to describe these features.

This document provides test procedures to evaluate weight retention on the wheel.

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 13988:2021(E)
Passenger car and light truck vehicle wheels — Clip and
adhesive balance weight and rim flange nomenclature, test
procedures and performance requirements
1 Scope

This document specifies procedures and minimum performance requirements for testing without

tyres the retention of balance weights for use on wheels for passenger vehicles. It also specifies general

features for configurations of clip balance weights, rim flanges for light alloy and steel wheels intended

for use on passenger cars and adhesive balance weights. Alternative materials and geometries can be

considered in the future.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 3911, Wheels and rims for pneumatic tyres — Vocabulary, designation and marking

ISO 4000-1, Passenger car tyres and rims — Part 1: Tyres (metric series)
ISO 4000-2, Passenger car tyres and rims — Part 2: Rims

ISO 4223-1, Definitions of some terms used in the tyre industry — Part 1: Pneumatic tyres

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 3911, ISO 4000-1, ISO 4000-2,

ISO 4223-1 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
clip balance weight assembly

assembly of the weight (3.1.1) and the clip (3.1.3), which is intended for mounting on the rim flange (3.3)

to balance the tyre/wheel assembly about its axis of rotation and thus minimize vibrations due to the

rotation of the tyre/wheel assembly

Note 1 to entry: Figure 1 gives the terminology and nomenclature of balance weight assembly.

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 13988:2021(E)
Key
1 clip 7 outer surface of clip 13 weight gap
2 spur 8 balance weight 14 clip insertion point
3 clip depth 9 contact radius 15 back leg of clip
4 spur location 10 front surface 16 clip gap
5 spur depth 11 bottom surface 17 weight depth
6 clip height 12 top surface 18 compound radius
19 compound radius
Figure 1 — Clip balance weight assembly terminology
3.1.1
weight

material of a specified mass with contours to conform to the surface of the rim flange (3.3)

Note 1 to entry: The material is recommended to be free of lead.
3.1.2
clip

specially formed metal affixed to the weight (3.1.1) to mount the balance weight on the rim flange (3.3)

3.1.3
spur

optional part of a clip (3.1.3) that protrudes from its surface interfacing with the rim flange (3.3)

3.1.4
balance weight coating
non-corrosive material coating to avoid corrosion
EXAMPLE Polyester, nylon.
3.1.5
balance weight key dimensions

dimensions that are essential for fitting the balance weight (3.1.1) on the rim flange (3.3)

2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 13988:2021(E)
3.1.6
balance weight size
size determined by the magnitude of the balance weight (3.1.1) mass
Note 1 to entry: Balance weight size is expressed in grams.
3.1.7
balance weight retention force

static force required to remove the balance weight (3.1.1) from the rim flange (3.3)

Note 1 to entry: Balance weight retention force is expressed in newtons.
3.1.8
balance weight retention

ability of the balance weight (3.1.1) to maintain its secure position on the rim flange (3.3) in various

service conditions
3.1.9
interference

measure of balance weight (3.1.1) press fit computed as the difference between the flange thickness and

the weight gap
3.2
adhesive balance weight assembly

assembly of the weight portion (3.2.1) and the adhesive portion, which is intended for mounting on the

rim to balance the tyre/wheel assembly about its axis of rotation and thus minimize vibrations due to

the rotation of the tyre/wheel assembly
Note 1 to entry: Figure 2 gives the terminology and nomenclature of
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 13988
ISO/TC 22/SC 33
Passenger car and light truck vehicle
Secretariat: DIN
wheels — Clip and adhesive balance
Voting begins on:
2021­05­24 weight and rim flange nomenclature,
test procedures and performance
Voting terminates on:
2021­07­19
requirements
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO­
ISO/FDIS 13988:2021(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN­
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 13988:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH­1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 13988:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Rim flange types .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5 Test procedure for clip on balance weight ................................................................................................................................. 6

5.1 Preparation of clip on balance weight for test ............................................................................................................. 6

5.1.1 Selection of balance weights .................................................................................................................................. 6

5.1.2 Measurement of key dimensions of balance weights ....................................................................... 6

5.1.3 Marking of balance weights .................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2 Preparation of the wheel for clip on balance weight testing ........................................................................... 7

5.2.1 Cleaning ................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.2.2 Marking .................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.2.3 Measurement of rim flange dimensions ...................................................................................................... 7

5.3 Installation of clip on balance weight.................................................................................................................................. 7

5.4 Tangential test for clip on balance weight ....................................................................................................................... 8

5.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.4.2 Test equipment .................................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.4.3 Test sequence .................. .................................................... ................................................................................................ 8

5.4.4 Performance requirements tangential force............................................................................................ 9

5.5 Axial removal test for clip on balance weight ............................................................................................................... 9

5.5.1 Test equipment .................................................................................................................................................................. 9

5.5.2 Test sequence .................. .................................................... ................................................................................................ 9

5.5.3 Performance requirement axial force .........................................................................................................10

6 Test procedure for adhesive balance weights for all size weights and wheels .................................11

6.1 Test equipment ....................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.2 Wheel preparation ............................................................................................................................................................................12

6.3 Balance weight selection and installation ....................................................................................................................12

7 Shear adhesion test.........................................................................................................................................................................................13

7.1 Test procedure ......................................................................................................................................................................................13

7.2 Performance ...........................................................................................................................................................................................13

8 Pull-off adhesion test ....................................................................................................................................................................................13

8.1 Test procedure ......................................................................................................................................................................................13

8.2 Performance ...........................................................................................................................................................................................14

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 13988:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non­governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 33,

Vehicle dynamics and chassis components.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 13988:2008), which has been technically

revised. The main changes compared with the previous edition are as follows:
— adhesive balance weights have been added, which covers clip on weights only;

— nomenclature for the balance weight and test procedures and performance requirements for the

adhesive weights have been included.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 13988:2021(E)
Introduction

This document addresses clip and adhesive balance weights used on passenger car wheels. It provides

general features and configurations of the clip balance weights, general features of the adhesive balance

weights, and general features and configurations for rim dimensions relevant to clip on weights and

defines terms used to describe these features.

This document provides test procedures to evaluate weight retention on the wheel.

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 13988:2021(E)
Passenger car and light truck vehicle wheels — Clip and
adhesive balance weight and rim flange nomenclature, test
procedures and performance requirements
1 Scope

This document specifies procedures and minimum performance requirements for testing without

tyres the retention of balance weights for use on wheels for passenger vehicles. It also specifies general

features for configurations of clip balance weights, rim flanges for light alloy and steel wheels intended

for use on passenger cars and adhesive balance weights. Alternative materials and geometries can be

considered in the future.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 3911, Wheels and rims for pneumatic tyres — Vocabulary, designation and marking

ISO 4000­1, Passenger car tyres and rims — Part 1: Tyres (metric series)
ISO 4000­2, Passenger car tyres and rims — Part 2: Rims

ISO 4223­1, Definitions of some terms used in the tyre industry — Part 1: Pneumatic tyres

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 3911, ISO 4000-1, ISO 4000-2,

ISO 4223-1 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
clip balance weight assembly

assembly of the weight (3.1.1) and the clip (3.1.3), which is intended for mounting on the rim flange (3.3)

to balance the tyre/wheel assembly about its axis of rotation and thus minimize vibrations due to the

rotation of the tyre/wheel assembly

Note 1 to entry: Figure 1 gives the terminology and nomenclature of balance weight assembly.

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 13988:2021(E)
Key
1 clip 7 outer surface of clip 13 weight gap
2 spur 8 balance weight 14 clip insertion point
3 clip depth 9 contact radius 15 back leg of clip
4 spur location 10 front surface 16 clip gap
5 spur depth 11 bottom surface 17 weight depth
6 clip height 12 top surface 18 compound radius
19 compound radius
Figure 1 — Clip balance weight assembly terminology
3.1.1
weight

material of a specified mass with contours to conform to the surface of the rim flange (3.3)

Note 1 to entry: The material is recommended to be free of lead.
3.1.2
clip

specially formed metal affixed to the weight (3.1.1) to mount the balance weight on the rim flange (3.3)

3.1.3
spur

optional part of a clip (3.1.3) that protrudes from its surface interfacing with the rim flange (3.3)

3.1.4
balance weight coating
non­corrosive material coating to avoid corrosion
EXAMPLE Polyester, nylon.
3.1.5
balance weight key dimensions

dimensions that are essential for fitting the balance weight (3.1.1) on the rim flange (3.3)

2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 13988:2021(E)
3.1.6
balance weight size
size determined by the magnitude of the balance weight (3.1.1) mass
Note 1 to entry: Balance weight size is expressed in grams.
3.1.7
balance weight retention force

static force required to remove the balance weight (3.1.1) from the rim flange (3.3)

Note 1 to entry: Balance weight retention force is expressed in newtons.
3.1.8
balance weight retention

ability of the balance weight (3.1.1) to maintain its secure position on the rim flange (3.3) in various

service conditions
3.1.9
interference

measure of balance weight (3.1.1) press fit computed as the difference between the flange thickness and

the weight gap
3.2
adhesive balance weight assembly

assembly of the weight portion (3.2.1) and the adhesive portion, which is intended for mounting on the

rim to balance the tyre/wheel as
...

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