Intelligent transport systems -- Vehicle-to-vehicle intersection collision warning systems (VVICW) -- Performance requirements and test procedures

This document specifies performance requirements and test procedures for systems capable of warning the subject vehicle driver of a potential crossing-path collision with other vehicles at intersecting road segments. Vehicle-to-vehicle intersection collision warning systems (VVICW) rely on vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications and relative positioning between the subject vehicle and crossing-path vehicles (remote vehicles). V2V data, such as position, speed and heading are used to evaluate if an intersection collision is imminent between the subject and remote vehicles. The performance requirements laid out in this document specify the warning criteria for these systems. In addition, VVICW operate in specified subject and remote vehicle speed ranges, road intersection geometries and target vehicle types. Moreover, the requirements for the V2V data will be specified. The scope of this document includes operations on intersecting road segments (physically intersecting roads), and motor vehicles including cars, trucks, buses and motorcycles. Responsibility for the safe operation of the vehicle remains with the driver.

Systèmes de transport intelligents -- Systèmes d'alerte de collision aux intersections de véhicule-à-véhicule (VVICW) -- Exigences de performance et procédures d'essai

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Status
Published
Publication Date
06-Dec-2021
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
01-Nov-2021
Completion Date
01-Nov-2021
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ISO 23376:2021 - Intelligent transport systems -- Vehicle-to-vehicle intersection collision warning systems (VVICW) -- Performance requirements and test procedures
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 23376
First edition
2021-12
Intelligent transport systems —
Vehicle-to-vehicle intersection
collision warning systems (VVICW) —
Performance requirements and test
procedures
Systèmes de transport intelligents — Systèmes d'alerte de collision
aux intersections de véhicule-à-véhicule (VVICW) — Exigences de
performance et procédures d'essai
Reference number
ISO 23376:2021(E)
© ISO 2021
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ISO 23376:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

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© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 23376:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms..........................................................................................................................................................3

5 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1 Minimum enable conditions ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2 Minimum required VVICW scenarios ................................................................................................................................ 4

5.3 Necessary functions .......................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.4 State transition diagram ........................................................................................................................................... ..................... 6

5.4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

5.4.2 State functional description ..................................................................................................................................... 6

6 Warning provisions .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.1 VVICW output .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2 Warning modality ................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

6.3 Warning criteria for crossing scenarios .......................................................................................................................... 8

6.3.1 Warning requirements ................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.3.2 No warning provisions............................................................................................................................................... 10

6.4 Warning criteria for oncoming scenarios .................................................................................................................... 11

6.4.1 Warning requirements .............................................................................................................................................. 11

6.4.2 No warning requirements ....................................................................................................................................... 11

7 V2V data provisions: permissions..................................................................................................................................................12

8 Testing procedures ........................................................................................................................................................................................12

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................12

8.2 Crossing scenarios ......... .................................................................................................................................. .................................12

8.2.1 Warning tests ..................................................................................................................................................................... 12

8.2.2 No warning tests ............................................................................................................................................................. 14

8.3 Oncoming scenarios ........................................................................................................................................................................15

8.3.1 Warning tests ..................................................................................................................................................................... 15

8.3.2 No warning tests ............................................................................................................................................................. 16

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................18

iii
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 23376:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

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electrotechnical standardization.

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described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

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www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 204, Intelligent transport systems.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 23376:2021(E)
Introduction

Vehicle-to-vehicle intersection collision warning systems (VVICW) warn the driver to avoid potential

collisions at intersections. The VVICW warns the driver of imminent crashes with other vehicles

crossing at a road junction. The system relies on relative positioning, speed and heading between

vehicles determined using vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication, such as dedicated short-range

communication (DSRC). It is intended to be used to avoid intersection crossing crashes, the most severe

crashes based on fatality counts. Due to limited field of view sensing, on-board sensor systems such as

camera, lidar and radar systems cannot be used efficiently for such systems. Figure 1 illustrates the

functional elements of VVICW.

The VVICW is a road level system that deals with conflict scenarios between vehicles driving on two

connected road segments sharing a common intersection. VVICW positioning requirements are not

demanding compared to those of red light violation warning systems, for example. A comprehensive set

of intersection collision scenarios can be found in Reference [1].

Figure 1 — Vehicle-to-vehicle intersection collision warning systems functional elements

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 23376:2021(E)
Intelligent transport systems — Vehicle-to-vehicle
intersection collision warning systems (VVICW) —
Performance requirements and test procedures
1 Scope

This document specifies performance requirements and test procedures for systems capable of warning

the subject vehicle driver of a potential crossing-path collision with other vehicles at intersecting road

segments.

Vehicle-to-vehicle intersection collision warning systems (VVICW) rely on vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V)

communications and relative positioning between the subject vehicle and crossing-path vehicles

(remote vehicles). V2V data, such as position, speed and heading are used to evaluate if an intersection

collision is imminent between the subject and remote vehicles. The performance requirements laid out

in this document specify the warning criteria for these systems.

In addition, VVICW operate in specified subject and remote vehicle speed ranges, road intersection

geometries and target vehicle types. Moreover, the requirements for the V2V data will be specified.

The scope of this document includes operations on intersecting road segments (physically intersecting

roads), and motor vehicles including cars, trucks, buses and motorcycles. Responsibility for the safe

operation of the vehicle remains with the driver.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
subject vehicle
motor vehicle equipped with a VVICW

Note 1 to entry: A subject vehicle can be also a remote vehicle for another subject vehicle.

3.2
subject vehicle speed
subject vehicle velocity in the heading direction
3.3
remote vehicle

motor vehicle equipped at minimum with a V2V transmission device and localization system and that

has the ability to possibly intersect the path of the subject vehicle
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ISO 23376:2021(E)
3.4
remote vehicle speed
longitudinal component of the remote vehicle velocity in the heading direction
3.5
intersecting road segment

physically intersecting roads that are described based on the number of road segments

Note 1 to entry: A road junction is where two or more road segments intersect.

Note 2 to entry: Roundabout, ramp/highway, street 4-way intersection and street 3-way intersection are

examples of intersection road geometry.

EXAMPLE 1 A four-way intersection, or crossroads, usually involves a crossing of two streets or roads. In

areas where there are rectilinear blocks and in some other cases, the crossing streets or roads are perpendicular

to each other. However, two roads may cross at a different angle. In a few cases, the junction of two road segments

can be offset from each other when reaching an intersection, even though both ends may be considered the same

street.

EXAMPLE 2 A three-way intersection is a junction between three road segments, a T junction where two arms

form one road, or a Y junction. The latter also known as a fork if approached from the stem of the Y.

3.6
time to collision
TTC

time that it takes a subject vehicle to collide with a remote vehicle assuming the relative velocity

remains constant

Note 1 to entry: For the VVICW, TTC is the time needed for the subject vehicle to reach the collision point. TTC is

therefore calculated using Formula (1):
t =− (1)
where
t is the time to collision;
d is the distance of the subject vehicle from the collision point;
v is the speed of the subject vehicle.
3.7
enhanced time to collision
ETTC

time that it takes a subject vehicle to collide with a remote vehicle assuming the relative acceleration

between the subject vehicle and the remote vehicle remains constant

Note 1 to entry: For the VVICW, ETTC is the time needed for the subject vehicle to reach the collision point and

not a remote vehicle. An enhanced arrival time therefore takes into consideration the acceleration of the subject

vehicle. Since the collision point is fixed at any point in time, the value of zero is substituted for v and a . ETTC

RV RV
is calculated using Formula (2):
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ISO 23376:2021(E)
 
−−()νν −−()νν −∗2 ()aa− ∗d
RV SV RV SV RV SV c
 
 
t = (2)
c,e
aa−
RV SV
where
t is the enhanced time to collision;
c,e
v is the speed of the remote vehicle;
v is the speed of the subject vehicle;
d is the distance of the subject vehicle from the collision point;
a is the acceleration of the remote vehicle;
a is the acceleration of the subject vehicle.
3.8
required deceleration
req

minimum deceleration that, if constant, enables the subject vehicle to stop at a defined calculated

distance from the current subject vehicle position
Note 1 to entry: A is calculated using Formula (3):
req
A = (3)
req
2 dd−
sp r
where
A is the required deceleration;
req
v is the speed of the subject vehicle;
d is the current distance from stopping point;
d is the reaction travel distance.
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
A required deceleration
req
a acceleration of the remote vehicle
a acceleration of the subject vehicle
d distance of the subject vehicle from the collision point
d reaction travel distance
d minimum required distance measured from the stop line
sl,min
d current distance from stopping point
DSRC dedicated short-range communication
GNSS global navigation satellite system
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ISO 23376:2021(E)
l length of the remote vehicle
l length of the subject vehicle
T tolerance
(1,2, etc.)
t braking system response time
t time to collision
t enhanced time to collision
c,e
t driver brake reaction time
resp
v speed of the subject vehicle
v speed of the remote vehicle
v projected speed of the remote vehicle at the arrival time
RV,p
v maximum subject vehicle speed for VVICW operation
SVmax
v minimum subject vehicle speed for VVICW operation
SVmin
v projected speed of the subject vehicle at the arrival time
SV,p
V2V vehicle-to-vehicle
VVICW vehicle-to-vehicle intersection collision warning system
5 Requirements
5.1 Minimum enable conditions
Vehicles equipped with VVICW shall be capable of the following:

— determining if the V2V communication between the SV and RVs is available at the road junction;

— receiving valid V2V communication that provides the GNSS position, speed and heading of RVs

approaching the road junction;

— determining GNSS position, speed and heading of the SV approaching the road junction.

5.2 Minimum required VVICW scenarios

The purpose of the VVICW is to provide the drivers of the SVs with alerts that assist them in avoiding or

reducing the severity of impending collisions associated with the following scenarios:

a) Crossing scenarios (illustrated in Figure 2):

1) cross straight through an intersection, across the path of a vehicle approaching from a lateral

direction;

2) cross straight through an intersection, after initially being stopped, across the path of a vehicle

approaching from a lateral direction.
b) Oncoming scenarios (illustrated in Figure 3):

1) turn left or right (depends on left or right driving rule) across the path of an oncoming vehicle

approaching from the opposite direction;
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ISO 23376:2021(E)

2) turn left or right (depends on left or right driving rule), after initially being stopped, across the

path of an oncoming vehicle approaching from the opposite direction.
Key
1 RV moving 3 RV moving
2 SV initially stopped, then accelerating 4 SV moving
Figure 2 — Crossing scenarios
Key
1 RV moving 3 RV moving
2 SV initially stopped, then turning left 4 SV moving
Figure 3 — Oncoming scenarios
5.3 Necessary functions

Vehicles equipped with VVICW shall be equipped to fulfil the following functions:

— receive V2V messages from RVs that provide data representing the position, speed and heading of

the RV;

— monitor SV and RV dynamics, including heading, heading change, speed and acceleration;

— determine the threat potential of collision with approaching RVs and evaluate the warning criteria;

— if needed, provide alerts to the driver of an impending collision with an RV in the intersection.

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ISO 23376:2021(E)
5.4 State transition diagram
5.4.1 General

The VVICW shall function according to the state transition diagram in Figure 4. Specific implementation

of the state transitions beyond that which is illustrated in Figure 4 is left to the manufacturer.

Figure 4 — VVICW state transition diagram
5.4.2 State functional description
5.4.2.1 Introduction

The VVICW state descriptions address the transition requirements of VVICW and identify which

functions shall be performed in each state.
5.4.2.2 VVICW Off
VVICW do not perform VVICW functionality in the Off state.
The conditions under which VVICW transiti
...

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