Stationary source emissions - Determination of the mass concentration of PCDDs/PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs - Part 2: Extraction and clean-up of PCDDs/PCDFs

This European Standard specifies the extraction and clean-up procedures of the sampled PCDDs/PCDFs. It is an integral part of the complete measurement procedure. The use of the other two parts EN 1948-1:2006 and EN 1948-3:2006 describing sampling or identification and quantification, respectively, is necessary for the determination of the PCDDs/PCDFs. This European Standard has been designed to measure PCDD/PCDF concentrations at about 0,1 ng I-TEQ/m3 in stationary source emissions. This European Standard specifies both method validation and a framework of quality control requirements which shall be fulfilled by any PCDD/PCDF extraction and clean-up methods to be applied. Some methods are described in detail in Annex A as examples of proven procedures. Each of the three sampling methods (Part 1) can be combined with the extraction and clean-up (Part 2) and the identification and quantification (Part 3) to complete the measurement procedure. During comparison measurements of the three sampling methods on municipal waste incinerators at the level of about 0,1 ng I-TEQ/m3 these methods have been deemed comparable within the expected range of uncertainty. Validation trials were performed on the flue gas of municipal waste incinerators at the level of about 0,1 ng I-TEQ/m3 and a dust loading of from 1 mg/m3 to 15 mg/m3. Although this European Standard is primarily developed and validated for gaseous streams emitted by waste incinerators, the practical experience shows that it can be applied for wide concentration ranges and various emission sources. The procedure described in the three parts of EN 1948:2006 specifies requirements which shall be met in order to measure the 17 congeners necessary to calculate the total I-TEQ (see Table A.1 of EN 1948-1:2006). Besides the determination of PCDDs/PCDFs the described measurement methods are suitable for determination of other low-volatile substances, e.g. of dioxin-like PCBs (details for sampling and analyses see CEN/TS 1948-4), although no validated performance characteristics are available yet.

Emissionen aus stationären Quellen - Bestimmung der Massenkonzentration von PCDD/PCDF und dioxin-ähnlichen PCB - Teil 2: Extraktion und Reinigung von PCDD/PCDF

Emissions de sources fixes - Détermination de la concentration massique en PCDD/PCDF et PCB de type dioxine - Partie 2: Extraction et purification des PCDD/PCDF

Cette partie de la norme spécifie les modes opératoires d'extraction et de purification des échantillons de PCDD/PCDF. Elle fait partie intégrante du mode opératoire complet de mesurage. L'utilisation des deux autres parties de la présente Norme (EN 1948-1:2003 et EN 1948-3:2003), décrivant d'une part le prélevement et d'autre part l'identification et la quantification, est nécessaire pour déterminer les PCDD et les PCDF.
Cette norme a été élaborée pour mesurer des concentrations en PCDD/PCDF d'un niveau approximatif de 0,1 ng I-TEQ/m3 dans les émissions de sources fixes.
Cette norme spécifie a la fois les exigences de validation de la méthode et un ensemble d'exigences de contrôle qualité qui doivent etre respectées dans toute méthode d'extraction et de purification des PCDD/PCDF utilisée. L'Annexe A présente quelques méthodes détaillées a titre d'exemples de modes opératoires validés.
Chacune des trois méthodes de prélevement (Partie 1) peut etre combinée avec les méthodes d'extraction et de purification (Partie 2) et d'identification et de quantification (Partie 3) afin de compléter le mode opératoire de mesurage.
A la suite de mesurages comparatifs effectués sur les fumées d'un incinérateur d'ordures ménageres a un niveau d'émission d'environ 0,1 ng l-TEQ/m3, ces trois méthodes ont été jugées comparables dans la plage d'incertitude attendue. Des essais de validation ont été effectués sur les fumées d'incinérateurs d'ordures ménageres a un niveau d'émission d'environ 0,1 ng I-TEQ/m3 et a une concentration en poussieres allant de 1 mg/m3 a 15 mg/m3.

Emisije nepremičnih virov – Določevanje masne koncentracije PCDD/PCDF in dioksinu podobnih PCB – 2. del: Ekstrakcija in čiščenje PCDD/PCDF

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
30-Apr-2006
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
01-May-2006
Due Date
01-May-2006
Completion Date
01-May-2006

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 1948-2:2006
01-maj-2006
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 1948-2:1999
(PLVLMHQHSUHPLþQLKYLURY±'RORþHYDQMHPDVQHNRQFHQWUDFLMH3&''3&')LQ
GLRNVLQXSRGREQLK3&%±GHO(NVWUDNFLMDLQþLãþHQMH3&''3&')
Stationary source emissions - Determination of the mass concentration of

PCDDs/PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs - Part 2: Extraction and clean-up of PCDDs/PCDFs

Emissionen aus stationären Quellen - Bestimmung der Massenkonzentration von
PCDD/PCDF und dioxin-ähnlichen PCB - Teil 2: Extraktion und Reinigung von
PCDD/PCDF
Emissions de sources fixes - Détermination de la concentration massique en
PCDD/PCDF et PCB de type dioxine - Partie 2: Extraction et purification des
PCDD/PCDF
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 1948-2:2006
ICS:
13.040.40 (PLVLMHQHSUHPLþQLKYLURY Stationary source emissions
SIST EN 1948-2:2006 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 1948-2:2006
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 1948-2:2006
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 1948-2
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
March 2006
ICS 13.040.40 Supersedes EN 1948-2:1996
English Version
Stationary source emissions - Determination of the mass
concentration of PCDDs/PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs - Part 2:
Extraction and clean-up of PCDDs/PCDFs

Emissions de sources fixes - Détermination de la Emissionen aus stationären Quellen - Bestimmung der

concentration massique en PCDD/PCDF et PCB de type Massenkonzentration von PCDD/PCDF und dioxin-

dioxine - Partie 2: Extraction et purification de PCDD/PCDF ähnlichen PCB - Teil 2: Extraktion und Reinigung von

PCDD/PCDF
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 23 January 2006.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the Central Secretariat or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official

versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,

Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels

© 2006 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 1948-2:2006: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 1948-2:2006
EN 1948-2:2006 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................3

Introduction......................................................................................................................................................6

1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................7

2 Normative references .........................................................................................................................7

3 Terms and definitions.........................................................................................................................7

4 Symbols and abbreviations..............................................................................................................10

5 Principle of the extraction and clean-up procedure.......................................................................11

6 Device, materials and C -labelled standards ..............................................................................12

7 Method validation and quality control requirements .....................................................................13

8 Sample pre-treatment and extraction..............................................................................................14

9 Report ................................................................................................................................................16

Annex A (informative) Examples of operation of extraction and clean-up methods..............................17

Annex B (informative) Relations to EU Directives.....................................................................................35

Bibliography...................................................................................................................................................36

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SIST EN 1948-2:2006
EN 1948-2:2006 (E)
Foreword

This European Standard (EN 1948-2:2006) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 264 “Air

quality”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical

text or by endorsement, at the latest by September 2006, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by September 2006.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This European Standard supersedes EN 1948-2:1996.

This European Standard has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission

and the European Free Trade Association to support Essential Requirements of EU Directive 94/67/EC of

16 December 1994 [i] on the incineration of hazardous waste. This directive is now replaced by EU Directive

2000/76/EC of 4 December 2000 on the incineration of waste [ii] and this European Standard also supports

the Essential Requirements of the new EU Directive 2000/76/EC (see also Annex B).

The precision and the performance characteristics were determined between 1992 and 1995 in four

comparative and validation trials at waste incinerators sponsored by the European Commission, the European

Free Trade Association and the German Federal Environment Agency.

The revision of this EN between 2001 and 2004 only refers to the normative part. The information given in the

informative annexes as examples of operation are kept unchanged, as they represent the state of the art at

time of the validation measurements of EN 1948:1996 between 1992 and 1995.

This European Standard EN 1948:2006 consists of three parts dealing with the determination of the mass

concentration of PCDDs and PCDFs in stationary source emissions:
Part 1: Sampling of PCDDs/PCDFs;
Part 2: Extraction and clean-up of PCDDs/PCDFs;
Part 3: Identification and quantification of PCDDs/PCDFs.
All three parts are necessary for the performance of the dioxin measurements.

In addition for the sampling, extraction and analyses of dioxin-like PCBs the Technical Specification

CEN/TS 1948-4 is developed and will be transferred to a European Standard after corresponding validation

measurements or after an approval time of three years respectively.
Important changes made in the revision of EN 1948-2:

1. Title: Broadening of the title with regard to the future EN 1948-4 for the determination of dioxin-like

PCBs
2. Foreword:
) To be published.
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SIST EN 1948-2:2006
EN 1948-2:2006 (E)

• Deletion of all precursor documents which were basis for elaboration of EN 1948 as well as the

names of the standardisation bodies involved in the elaboration of EN 1948

• Update of the hint regarding mandate of the standardisation project and regarding fulfilment of

the Essential Requirements of EU Directives 94/67/EC and 2000/76/EC

• Addition of a hint, that the revision only refers to the normative parts of the standard. The

Informative Annex A “Examples of operation” is kept unchanged and represents the state of the

art at time of the validation measurements of EN 1948:1996 between 1992 and 1995

• Addition of hint with regard to the future document EN 1948-4 dealing with the analyses of dioxin-

like PCBs
3. Scope:

• Addition of a hint, that EN 1948 can be applied for wide concentration ranges and various

emission sources

• Addition of a hint, that the described measurement methods are suitable for determination of

other low-volatile substances, e.g. of dioxin-like PCBs
4. Normative references:
• Update of the references to EN 1948-1:2006, EN 1948-3:2006
5. Clause 3 Terms and definitions:

• Distinction between Clause 3 "Terms and definitions" and Clause 4 "Symbols and abbreviations"

resulting in a different numbering of the following chapters
• Corrected definition of "field blank" for clarification
• Corrected definition of "analytical blank" for clarification
• Corrected definition of "sampling standard": only furans
• "Syringe standard" renamed to read "recovery standard"
• Corrected definition of "recovery standard": only dioxins
• Additional definition of "dioxin-like PCBs"
• "Sampling volume" renamed to read "volume of the sampling extract"

• Corrected definition and requirement of isokinetic sampling according to EN 13284-1:2001

• Additional definition and calculation of limit of detection
• Additional definition and calculation of limit of quantification
• Additional definition of WHO-TEF/WHO-TEQ

6. Clause 5 Principle of the extraction and clean-up procedure: Additional subclause 5.2 "Minimum

information prior to analyses"

7. Clause 7.2 Sample pre-treatment: Correction of the requirements regarding sample pre-treatment

for better comprehensibility
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN 1948-2:2006
EN 1948-2:2006 (E)

8. Clause 8.1 Addition of extraction standards: Correction for better comprehensibility

9. Clause 8.2 Sample storage: Requirement to store the samples < 4 °C was deleted and replaced by

"in the dark not higher than room temperature (approximately 25 °C)."

10. Clause 8.3 Extraction: Requirement to carry out principally a sample pre-treatment with HCL was

placed at first position.
11. Correction of title "Check of adsorbent activity"
Annex A.2.1.4.4:

12. Annex A.4.3: Correction: the dioxin-like (not the planar) PCB are separated from PCDD/F

13. Figure A.4 Caption: Correction: dioxin-like PCB (not planar PCB) are adsorbed

14. Annex B: Update of the hint regarding mandate of the standardisation project and regarding fulfilment

of basic requirements of EU Directives 94/67/EC and 2000/76/EC
15. Bibliography: Update

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following

countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden,

Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
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SIST EN 1948-2:2006
EN 1948-2:2006 (E)
Introduction

Two groups of related chlorinated aromatic ethers are known as polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and

polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs); they consist of a total of 210 individual substances (congeners):

75 PCDDs and 135 PCDFs.

PCDDs and PCDFs can form in the combustion of organic materials; they also may occur as undesirable by-

products in the manufacture or further processing of chlorinated organic chemicals. PCDDs/PCDFs enter the

environment via these emission paths and through the use of contaminated materials. In fact, they are

universally present in very small concentrations. The 2,3,7,8-chlorine substituted congeners are toxicologically

significant. Toxicologically much less significant than the tetrachlorinated to octachlorinated

dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans are the 74 monochlorinated to trichlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans (for

toxicity equivalent factors, see Annex A of EN 1948-1:2006).

Only skilled operators who are trained in handling highly toxic compounds should apply the method described

in this European Standard.
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SIST EN 1948-2:2006
EN 1948-2:2006 (E)
1 Scope

This European Standard specifies the extraction and clean-up procedures of the sampled PCDDs/PCDFs. It is

an integral part of the complete measurement procedure. The use of the other two parts EN 1948-1:2006 and

EN 1948-3:2006 describing sampling or identification and quantification, respectively, is necessary for the

determination of the PCDDs/PCDFs.

This European Standard has been designed to measure PCDD/PCDF concentrations at about

0,1 ng I-TEQ/m in stationary source emissions.

This European Standard specifies both method validation and a framework of quality control requirements

which shall be fulfilled by any PCDD/PCDF extraction and clean-up methods to be applied. Some methods

are described in detail in Annex A as examples of proven procedures.

Each of the three sampling methods (Part 1) can be combined with the extraction and clean-up (Part 2) and

the identification and quantification (Part 3) to complete the measurement procedure.

During comparison measurements of the three sampling methods on municipal waste incinerators at the level

of about 0,1 ng I-TEQ/m these methods have been deemed comparable within the expected range of

uncertainty. Validation trials were performed on the flue gas of municipal waste incinerators at the level of

3 3 3

about 0,1 ng I-TEQ/m and a dust loading of from 1 mg/m to 15 mg/m . Although this European Standard is

primarily developed and validated for gaseous streams emitted by waste incinerators, the practical experience

shows that it can be applied for wide concentration ranges and various emission sources.

The procedure described in the three parts of EN 1948:2006 specifies requirements which shall be met in

order to measure the 17 congeners necessary to calculate the total I-TEQ (see Table A.1 of

EN 1948-1:2006).

Besides the determination of PCDDs/PCDFs the described measurement methods are suitable for

determination of other low-volatile substances, e.g. of dioxin-like PCBs (details for sampling and analyses see

CEN/TS 1948-4), although no validated performance characteristics are available yet.

2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this European Standard. For

dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 1948-1:2006, Stationary source emissions — Determination of the mass concentration of PCDDs/PCDFs

and dioxin-like PCBs — Part 1: Sampling of PCDDs/PCDFs

EN 1948-3:2006, Stationary source emissions — Determination of the mass concentration of PCDDs/PCDFs

and dioxin-like PCBs — Part 3: Identification and quantification of PCDDs/PCDFs
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this European Standard, the terms and definitions given in EN 1948-1:2006,

EN 1948-3:2006 and the following apply.
3.1
analytical blank value

value determined by a blank sample covering the complete analytical procedure including extraction, clean-up,

identification and quantification including all the relevant reagents and materials

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SIST EN 1948-2:2006
EN 1948-2:2006 (E)
3.2
congener
any one of the 210 individual PCDDs/PCDFs
3.3
dioxin-like PCBs

any PCB showing similar toxicity as the 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs/PCDFs according to WHO [iii]

3.4
extraction standard

C -labelled 2,3,7,8-chlorine substituted PCDD/PCDF, added before extraction and used for calculation of

results
3.5
field blank value

value determined by a blank sample covering a specific procedure used to ensure that no significant

contamination has occurred during all steps of the measurement and to check that the operator can achieve a

quantification level adapted to the task
3.6
isokinetic sampling

sampling at a flow rate such that the velocity and direction of the gas entering the sampling nozzle are the

same as the velocity and direction of the gas in the duct at the sampling point
[EN 13284-1:2001, definition 3.5 [iv]]
3.7
keeper
high boiling point solvent added to the sampling standard solution
3.8
limit of detection (LOD)

minimum value of the measurand for which the measuring system is not in the basic state, with a stated

probability

NOTE 1 The limit of detection, also referred to as capability of detection, is defined by reference to the applicable basic

state. But it may be different from "zero", for instance for oxygen measurement as well as when gas chromatographs are

used.
[prEN ISO 9169:2004, definition 3.2.6 [v]]

NOTE 2 The measurement value can be distinguished from the analytical blank value with a confidence of 99 %. The

limit of detection is expressed as the mean analytical blank value (b ) plus three times the standard deviation of the

ave
analytical blank (s ).
LOD =b + 3s (1)
ave b
where
LOD is the detection limit;
b is the mean analytical blank value;
ave
s is standard deviation of the analytical blank.

NOTE 3 In this European Standard the limit of detection should preferably be calculated from the analytical blank b .

ave

If this is not possible, the limit of detection can be calculated from the signal to noise ratio according to EN 1948-3:2006,

8.1.
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SIST EN 1948-2:2006
EN 1948-2:2006 (E)
3.9
limit of quantification (LOQ)

limit above which a quantification of the measurand is possible, expressed as the mean analytical blank value

plus, either, five to ten times the standard deviation of the analytical blank. The factor F depends to the

accepted measurement uncertainty.
LOQ =b + F s (2)
ave b
where
LOQ is the quantification limit;
b is the mean analytical blank value;
ave
s is standard deviation of the analytical blank.

NOTE In this European Standard the limit of quantification should preferably be calculated from the analytical blank

b . If this is not possible, the limit of quantification can be calculated from the signal to noise ratio according to

ave
EN 1948-3:2006, 8.1 using the requirement of EN 1948-3:2006, 8.3e.
3.10
pattern
defined as a chromatographic print of any series of PCDD/PCDF isomers
3.11
PCDD/PCDF isomers
PCDDs or PCDFs with identical chemical composition but different structure
3.12
profile

graphic representation of the sums of the isomer concentrations of the PCDDs and the PCDFs

3.13
recovery standard

C -labelled 2,3,7,8-chlorine substituted PCDD, added before injection into the GC

3.14
sampling standard
C -labelled 2,3,7,8-chlorine substituted PCDF, added before sampling
3.15
spiking
addition of C -labelled PCDD/PCDF standards
3.16
WHO-TEF

toxic equivalent factor proposed by WHO [iii] (for detailed description see EN 1948-1:2006, Annex A)

3.17
WHO-TEQ

toxic equivalent obtained by multiplying the mass determined with the corresponding WHO-TEF including

PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs (for detailed description see EN 1948-1 Annex A)
NOTE WHO-TEQ , WHO-TEQ should be used to distinguish different compound classes.
PCB PCDD/PCDF
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SIST EN 1948-2:2006
EN 1948-2:2006 (E)
4 Symbols and abbreviations
4.1 General
HRGC
high resolution gas chromatography
HRMS
high resolution mass spectrometry
I-TEF

international toxic equivalent factor (for detailed description, see Annex A of EN 1948-1:2006)

I-TEQ

international toxic equivalent obtained by weighting the mass determined with the corresponding I-TEF (for

detailed description, see Annex A of EN 1948-1:2006)
LOD
limit of detection
LOQ
limit of quantification
PCB
polychlorinated biphenyl
PCDD/PCDF
polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran
PTFE
polytetrafluoroethylene
PU foam
polyurethane foam
WHO-TEF
toxic equivalent factor of the World Health Organisation
WHO-TEQ
toxic equivalent of the World Health Organisation
4.2 Congeners of PCDD/PCDF
TCDD
Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
PeCDD
Pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
HxCDD
Hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
HpCDD
Heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
OCDD
Octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST EN 1948-2:2006
EN 1948-2:2006 (E)
TCDF
Tetrachlorodibenzofuran
PeCDF
Pentachlorodibenzofuran
HxCDF
Hexachlorodibenzofuran
HpCDF
Heptachlorodibenzofuran
OCDF
Octachlorodibenzofuran
5 Principle of the extraction and clean-up procedure
5.1 Principles

The determination of PCDDs/PCDFs is based on quantification by the isotope-dilution technique using

HRGC/HRMS. C -labelled 2,3,7,8-chlorine substituted PCDD/PCDF congeners are added at different

stages of the whole method. Losses during extraction and clean-up can be detected and compensated by

using these added congeners as internal standards for quantification together with recovery standards which

are added just before the HRGC/HRMS analysis. However, due to possible differences in the binding and

adsorption characteristics between the native PCDDs/PCDFs and the C -labelled congeners, which are

added during analysis, complete substantiation of the extraction efficiency and compensation of losses during

clean-up is not guaranteed. Therefore, in addition the applied methods shall be validated thoroughly.

Examples of well-proven extraction and clean-up methods are described in detail in Annex A.

The main purpose of the clean-up procedure of the raw sample extract is the removal of sample matrix

components, which may overload the separation method, disturb the quantification or otherwise severely

impact the performance of the identification and quantification method. Furthermore, an enrichment of the

analytes in the final sample extract is achieved. Extraction procedures are normally based on soxhlet

extraction of filters and adsorbents, and liquid extraction of the condensate. Sample clean-up is usually carried

out by multi-column liquid chromatographic techniques using different adsorbents.

In principle any clean-up method can be used which recovers the analytes in sufficient quantities. Furthermore,

the final sample extract shall not affect adversely the performance of the analytical system or the

quantification step. However, all applied methods shall be tested thoroughly and shall pass a set of method

validation requirements before they can be employed for emission surveillance. In addition, the verification of

the method performance for each single sample shall be part of the applied quality assurance protocol. This

European Standard describes a framework of method validation and quality control requirements which shall

be fulfilled by any applied method.

In the present European Standard the minimum requirements for extraction and clean-up to be met are

described as well as examples of operation.
5.2 Minimum information prior to analyses
a) Sampling volume;
b) type of plant;
c) abatement technologies;
d) expected concentration and/or emission limit value.
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST EN 1948-2:2006
EN 1948-2:2006 (E)
6 Device, materials and C -labelled standards
6.1 Device and materials
See examples of operation in Annex A.
6.2 C -labelled standards

The extraction standards (see Table 1) shall be added to the different sampling media before extraction.

These C -labelled congeners behave equally to the extracted native PCDDs/PCDFs during clean-up due to

their similar chemical and physical properties. Consequently, they are used for quantification.

The quantities of the C -labelled congeners to be added per sample for sampling at the concentration level

3 3
of 0,1 ng I-TEQ/m and 10 m sampling volume (dry gas) are given in Table 1.

If a considerably higher or lower mass of native PCDDs/PCDFs is expected in the sample, the masses of the

C -labelled standards to be added shall be adapted accordingly.

Table 1 — C -labelled 2,3,7,8-chlorine substituted PCDDs/PCDFs congeners to be added to the

3 3

sample at different stages of the procedure for measurement of 0,1 ng I-TEQ/m assuming 10 m of

sampling volume
Total amount in pg added before:
Sampling Extraction GC Injection
Solution: (sampling standard) (extraction standard) (recovery standard)
Total volume in µl: 100 100 25
(e.g. toluene, n-nonane)
Congeners added
C -2,3,7,8-TCDF 400
C -1,2,3,4-TCDD 400
C -2,3,7,8-TCDD 400
C -1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF 400
C -2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF 400
C -1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD 400
C-1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF 400
C -1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDF 400
C -1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDF 400
C -2,3,4,6,7,8-HxCDF 400
C -1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDD 400
C -1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD 400
C -1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDD 400
C -1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF 800
C12-1,2,3,4,7,8,9-HpCDF 800
C -1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD 800
C -OCDF 800
C -OCDD 800
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
SIST EN 1948-2:2006
EN 1948-2:2006 (E)
7 Method validation and quality control requirements
7.1 Use of C -labelled standards

C -labelled 2,3,7,8-chlorine substituted PCDDs/PCDFs are added before sampling (sampling standards),

before extraction (extraction standards) and just before the GC injection (recovery standards). The recovery

standards are assumed to be transferred to the analytical system without any loss and allow to determine the

recoveries (or losses) of the congeners added at earlier stages.

Sampling standards are added to the sampling device before starting sampling. C -labelled congeners

introduced at this stage might not be exposed to completely the same mechanisms of losses as the native

PCDDs/PCDFs collected during the sampling period. First, the labelled congeners are exposed to the gas flow

during the entire sampling time while the native PCDDs/PCDFs are present only half the time on average.

Second, a significant fraction of the sampled native PCDDs/PCDFs is bound to particles and, therefore, they

may have different susceptibilities to reactions and mechanisms which might lead to losses. Consequently, as

different studies have shown, C -labelled congeners added prior to sampling might be subject to loss

mechanisms. Their use as internal standards for quantification may lead to an overestimation of the found

concentrations. Therefore, the only purpose of the isotope labelled standards added before sampling (see

Table 1) is to identify anomalies during sampling. They are not used for quantification.

7.2 Sample pre-treatment

The efficiency of all applied extraction methods shall be documented as part of the method description. It shall

be measured regularly and corrective action shall be taken if the extraction efficiency falls below the

acceptable requirements given below. The following validation criterion shall be fulfilled for all parts of the

sampling device that may contain a part of the sample such as (where applicable) filters,

absorbents/adsorbents, condensate, vessels and surfaces of the sampling device:

The extract of a repeated extraction procedure shall not contain more than 5 % of the amount of any individual

native congener compared with the first extraction. For the second extraction the addition of C -labelled

extraction standards is repeated.
7.3 Clean-up
7.3.1 Method validation

Sample clean-up is dependent on the type of sample matrix which shall be removed. Therefore, a single well-

defined clean-up procedure shall not be applied to all sample matrices without preliminary check.

Therefore, the following method validation requirements have been set up which allow to verify the overall

performance of the clean-up method in a sample-independent manner. The following requirements shall be

fulfilled by any clean-up procedure which is employed:

a) The isomer pattern and congener profile of a well characterised sample extract containing all

PCDD/PCDF congeners (e.g. a fly ash extract) shall not be altered by the applied clean-up procedure.

Area response changes relative to the most abundant signal of each homologue series should not exceed

20 %. Furthermore, differences between the sum responses of the PCDDs/PCDFs congener group

should not exceed 20 %.

b) The recovery rate for each of the individual congeners of the 2,3,7,8-chlorine substituted PCDDs/PCDFs

congeners added before extraction shall be at least 50 % and should not exceed 115 %.

These performance tests shall be repeated after any changes of the clean-up procedure.

In addition, the performance of the clean-up method shall be measured for each individual sample by

calculating the recovery rates of the C -labelled 2,3,7,8-chlorine substituted congeners added to the sample

prior to extraction.
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SIST EN 1948-2:2006
EN 1948-2:2006 (E)
7.3.2 Minimum
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