Solid biofuels - Safety of solid biofuel pellets - Safe handling and storage of wood pellets in residential and other small-scale applications (ISO 20023:2018)

This International Standard provides principles and requirements for safe handling and storage of wood pellets in residential and other small-scale applications. It covers the supply chain from the final loading point of the bulk transport to the end-user storage and specific requirements for the bulk transport. It also covers the design and construction of pellet storage systems. This standard addresses risks of fires, dust explosions, off-gassing and other health risks. It is applicable to wood pellets in accordance with ISO 17225-2.

Biogene Festbrennstoffe - Sicherheit von biogenen Festbrennstoffen - Sicherer Umgang und Lagerung von Holzpellets in häuslichen- und anderen kleinen Feuerstätten (ISO 20023:2018)

Dieses Dokument enthält die grundlegenden Prinzipien und Anforderungen für die sichere Handhabung und Lagerung von Holzpellets in häuslichen und anderen kleinen Feuerstätten. Es erfasst die Lieferkette vom Beladen der Lieferfahrzeuge einschließlich der Anforderungen an Lieferfahrzeuge bis zu den Anschlüssen an die Lagerstätte der Endverbraucher sowie den Lieferprozess. Zudem erfasst es die Auslegung und Konstruk¬tion von Pelletlagerungssystemen. Dieses Dokument behandelt die Gefahr durch Feuer und Staubexplosionen, das Risiko der Ausgasung, der Sauerstoffarmut, von Schäden an Anlagen und Gebäuden durch das Aufquellen von Pellets, sowie weitere Gesundheitsrisiken. Es gilt für Holzpellets nach ISO 17225 2.

Biocombustibles solides - Sécurité des granulés de biocombustible solide - Manutention et stockage en toute sécurité des granulés de bois dans des applications résidentielles et autres applications à petite échelle (ISO 20023:2018)

Le présent document fournit des principes et des exigences pour la manutention et le stockage en toute sécurité des granulés de bois dans les applications résidentielles et autres applications à petite échelle. Il couvre la chaîne d'approvisionnement à partir du chargement du camion de livraison, les exigences applicables aux camions de livraison, les jonctions avec le silo de l'utilisateur final et le processus de livraison. Il couvre également la conception et la construction des installations de stockage des granulés. Le présent document traite des risques d'incendie, d'explosion de poussières, de dégagement gazeux, de diminution de la teneur en oxygène, de dommages sur les appareils et bâtiments dus au gonflement des granulés, et des autres risques pour la santé. Il s'applique aux granulés de bois conformément à l'ISO 17225-2.

Trdna biogoriva - Varnost peletov trdnega biogoriva - Varno ravnanje in shranjevanje lesnih peletov za uporabo v stanovanjskih in drugih manjših napravah (ISO 20023:2018)

Ta mednarodni standard podaja načela in zahteve za varno ravnanje ter shranjevanje lesnih peletov za uporabo v stanovanjskih in drugih manjših napravah. Obravnava dobavno verigo od končnega mesta natovarjanja razsutega tovora do skladiščenja pri končnem uporabniku in določa posebne zahteve za prevoz razsutega tovora. Obravnava tudi zasnovo in konstrukcijo sistemov za shranjevanje peletov. Ta standard obravnava nevarnosti nastanka požarov, eksplozije prahu in hlapov organskih spojin ter druga tveganja za zdravje. Uporablja se za lesne pelete v skladu s standardom ISO 17225-2.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
02-May-2017
Publication Date
07-Jan-2019
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
19-Dec-2018
Due Date
23-Feb-2019
Completion Date
08-Jan-2019

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 20023:2019
01-februar-2019
Trdna biogoriva - Varnost peletov trdnega biogoriva - Varno ravnanje in
shranjevanje lesnih peletov za uporabo v stanovanjskih in drugih manjših
napravah (ISO 20023:2018)

Solid biofuels - Safety of solid biofuel pellets - Safe handling and storage of wood pellets

in residential and other small-scale applications (ISO 20023:2018)

Biogene Festbrennstoffe - Sicherheit von biogenen Festbrennstoffen - Sicherer Umgang

und Lagerung von Holzpellets in häuslichen- und anderen kleinen Feuerstätten (ISO

20023:2018)

Biocombustibles solides - Sécurité des granulés de biocombustible solide - Manutention

et stockage en toute sécurité des granulés de bois dans des applications résidentielles et

autres applications à petite échelle (ISO 20023:2018)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 20023:2018
ICS:
75.160.40 Biogoriva Biofuels
SIST EN ISO 20023:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 20023:2019
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SIST EN ISO 20023:2019
EN ISO 20023
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
December 2018
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 27.190; 75.160.40
English Version
Solid biofuels - Safety of solid biofuel pellets - Safe
handling and storage of wood pellets in residential and
other small-scale applications (ISO 20023:2018)

Biocombustibles solides - Sécurité des granulés de Biogene Festbrennstoffe - Sicherheit von biogenen

biocombustible solide - Manutention et stockage en Festbrennstoffen - Sicherer Umgang und Lagerung von

toute sécurité des granulés de bois dans des Holzpellets in häuslichen- und anderen kleinen

applications résidentielles et autres applications à Feuerstätten (ISO 20023:2018)

petite échelle (ISO 20023:2018)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 5 October 2018.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2018 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 20023:2018 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 20023:2019
EN ISO 20023:2018 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 20023:2019
EN ISO 20023:2018 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 20023:2018) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 238 "Solid

biofuels" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 335 “Solid biofuels” the secretariat of

which is held by SIS.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by June 2019, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by June 2019.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 20023:2018 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 20023:2018 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 20023:2019
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SIST EN ISO 20023:2019
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 20023
First edition
2018-10
Solid biofuels — Safety of solid biofuel
pellets — Safe handling and storage of
wood pellets in residential and other
small-scale applications
Biocombustibles solides — Sécurité des granulés de biocombustible
solide — Manutention et stockage en toute sécurité des granulés
de bois dans des applications résidentielles et autres applications à
petite échelle
Reference number
ISO 20023:2018(E)
ISO 2018
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SIST EN ISO 20023:2019
ISO 20023:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 20023:2019
ISO 20023:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 General terms ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Terms related to transportation and delivery .............................................................................................................. 2

3.3 Terms related to storage ................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4 General ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

4.1 Product requirements ....................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Hazards associated with amounts of pellets ≤100 t ............................................................................................... 3

4.3 General requirements for storage and handling of pellets ............................................................................... 4

5 Requirements for safe transport and delivery of pellets ........................................................................................... 4

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2 Requirements for bulk delivery by blower trucks .................................................................................................... 5

5.2.1 Transport vehicles and their operation ....................................................................................................... 5

5.2.2 Filling end-user storage systems ....................................................................................................................... 6

5.3 Pellets delivered in bulk tipped into troughs or bunkers ................................................................................... 8

5.4 Pellets delivered in big bags ........................................................................................................................................................ 8

5.5 Pellets delivered in small bags on pallets ........................................................................................................................ 8

6 Requirements for bulk storage systems ...................................................................................................................................... 8

6.1 General requirements ....................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.1.1 Location of pellet store ............................................................................................................................................... 8

6.1.2 Quality control of installation ............................................................................................................................... 9

6.1.3 Construction requirements .................................................................................................................................... 9

6.1.4 Measures to reduce the accumulation of fines ....................................................................................... 9

6.1.5 Protection against moisture and water ........................................................................................................ 9

6.1.6 Prevention of dust movement .............................................................................................................................. 9

6.1.7 Noise protection ............................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.1.8 Installation .........................................................................................................................................................................10

6.1.9 Fire protection ................................................................................................................................................................10

6.1.10 Explosion prevention ................................................................................................................................................10

6.1.11 Protection and measures against burn-back and back gassing .................. ..........................10

6.1.12 Extraction systems ......................................................................................................................................................11

6.1.13 Fill connectors and piping ....................................................................................................................................11

6.1.14 Electrical outlet for suction fan ........................................................................................................................12

6.1.15 Ventilation ..........................................................................................................................................................................12

6.1.16 Safety instructions .......................................................................................................................................................15

6.1.17 Access to storage ...........................................................................................................................................................15

6.2 Individual custom-made pellet stores .............................................................................................................................15

6.2.1 Construction requirements .................................................................................................................................15

6.2.2 Fill connectors .................................................................................................................................................................17

6.2.3 Impact protection mat .............................................................................................................................................18

6.2.4 Sloping floor ......................................................................................................................................................................18

6.2.5 Access hatch/door to pellet store ..................................................................................................................18

6.3 Pre-fabricated storage systems .............................................................................................................................................19

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................19

6.3.2 Requirements regarding the site, indoor systems ...........................................................................20

6.3.3 Requirements regarding the siting of outdoor installations ...................................................20

6.3.4 Ground connection (earth) ..................................................................................................................................20

6.3.5 Filling instructions ......................................................................................................................................................20

6.3.6 Fabric store ........................................................................................................................................................................20

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 20023:2019
ISO 20023:2018(E)

6.3.7 Underground store ......................................................................................................................................................21

7 Health protection aspects ........................................................................................................................................................................21

7.1 Entering a pellet store ...................................................................................................................................................................21

7.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................21

7.1.2 Requirements for small pellet stores up to 15 t .................................................................................22

7.1.3 Requirements for pellet stores >15 t and/or underground stores ...................................22

7.2 Stationary CO monitors ................................................................................................................................................................22

7.3 Equipment used in stores ...........................................................................................................................................................23

Annex A (informative) Hazards associated with pellets ...............................................................................................................24

Annex B (informative) Model calculation for different cases of store ventilation .............................................30

Annex C (informative) Examples for store designs .............................................................................................................................34

Annex D (normative) Minimum requirements of a hand-over document ..................................................................42

Annex E (informative) Example of a checklist for filling of store .........................................................................................46

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................48

iv © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 20023:2019
ISO 20023:2018(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.
This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 238, Solid biofuels.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 20023:2019
ISO 20023:2018(E)
Introduction

There is a continuous global growth in production, storage, handling, bulk transport and use of solid

biofuels especially in the form of pelletized biofuels.

The specific physical and chemical characteristics of solid biofuels, their handling and storage can lead

to a risk of fire and/or explosion, as well as health risks such as intoxication due to exposure to carbon-

monoxide, asphyxiation due to oxygen depletion or allergic reactions.

There is a risk of injury or death associated with pellet storage, so safety measures shall be implemented.

The possibility of fire and explosion incidents is a clear indicator that safety needs to be prioritized,

first of all for human safety but also because interruptions in energy supply can have significant

consequences. The market confidence in solid biofuels as a secure energy source may be jeopardized

and financial losses due to business interruptions could occur. Difficulty to obtain insurance coverage

will also increase.

As part of the determination and the assessment of risks for solid biofuels, defined test methods

and standards are established or need to be developed. However, the ageing and degradation due to

handling and storage of solid biofuels in particular environments will affect the characteristics. The

consequence of this change of characteristics is that safety margins need to be established in relation to

the actual analysis results.

For small scale applications and handling of small quantities of pellets up to 100 t, requirements of this

standard support end-users not educated in safety aspects or requirements of solid biofuel handling.

Health risks are associated with the quality of the fuel and therefore controlling the fuel quality reduces

the risks, particularly of dust emissions. Logistics and the handling of the pellets play a major part in

maintaining quality and are therefore also addressed in this standard.

Generally, facilities at end users with a storage capacity <100 t are covered by this document and larger

stores will be covered by ISO 20024 . However, storage capacity alone is not a good enough parameter

on which to decide which standard to apply. A trader or larger end user might have a number of small

storage facilities but may have a greater throughput of pellets during the entire year but with frequent

filling and reclaiming or packaging. Depending on the characteristics of a specific facility, all of the

principles covered in this document should be considered but all or only some parts of the systems/

equipment described in ISO 20024 will be relevant.

A competent assessor should have knowledge and experience commensurate with the complexity of the

facility (knowledge of solid biofuels is required) before selecting which standard and which clauses are

applicable to the facility being considered.
1) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication ISO/CD 20024:2018.
vi © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 20023:2019
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 20023:2018(E)
Solid biofuels — Safety of solid biofuel pellets — Safe
handling and storage of wood pellets in residential and
other small-scale applications
1 Scope

This document provides principles and requirements for the safe handling and storage of wood pellets

in residential and other small-scale applications. It covers the supply chain from loading of the delivery

truck, requirements of delivery trucks, connections to the end-user's store and the delivery process.

It also covers the design and construction of pellet storage systems. This document addresses risks

of fires, dust explosions, off-gassing, oxygen depletion, damage to appliances and buildings through

swelling of pellets and other health risks. It is applicable to wood pellets according to ISO 17225-2.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 16559, Solid biofuels — Terminology, definitions and descriptions

ISO 17225-2, Solid biofuels — Fuel specifications and classes — Part 2: Graded wood pellets

IEC 60529, Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code)

EN 13237, Potentially explosive atmospheres — Terms and definitions for equipment and protective systems

intended for use in potentially explosive atmospheres
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, terms and definitions given in ISO 16559 and EN 13237, and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
3.1 General terms
3.1.1
combustible dust

finely divided solid particles, with a particle size of 500 μm or less in nominal size, which may form

explosive mixtures with air at standard atmospheric pressure and temperatures
Note 1 to entry: This includes dust and grit as defined in ISO 4225.

Note 2 to entry: The term 'solid particles' is intended to address particles in the solid phase but does not preclude

a hollow particle.
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 80079-20-2:2016, 3.1]
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 20023:2019
ISO 20023:2018(E)
3.1.2
fines

small sized particles in fuel below a certain pre-defined size, here less than 3,15 mm

Note 1 to entry: The amount of fines can be different after completion of production, bagging, transportation,

unloading, distribution etc.

[SOURCE: ISO 16559:2014, 4.90, modified — “usually” replaced by “here” to indicate exact limit.]

3.2 Terms related to transportation and delivery
3.2.1
bulk transport

pellets transported loose, typically in tippers, walking floor trucks, other trucks with closed cargo area

or blower trucks (3.2.2)
3.2.2
blower truck
vehicle with a pneumatic discharge system using compressed air

Note 1 to entry: Examples of blower trucks include silo-trucks and rotary feeder trucks.

3.2.3
silo truck

fully pneumatic blower truck (3.2.2) where pellets are loaded into special pressurised compartments

emptied by applying compressed air and using compressed air for pellet conveying
3.2.4
rotary feeder truck

truck where pellets are discharged by gravity via a rotary valve (or star valve) into the stream of

compressed air for pellet conveying
3.2.5
day hopper
hopper directly linked to the automatically stoked heating boiler

Note 1 to entry: Typically a day hopper holds a few days of pellet fuel up to 1 t. The filling of the hopper is a batch

operation.
3.2.6
closing cap
cap made of metal or plastic, which seals the connectors (3.2.7)
3.2.7
connector

permanently installed coupling made of aluminium-alloys or steel, with a gasket ring for pressure and

suction operation, which functions in the filling of the pellet store (3.3.2)

Note 1 to entry: There are different uses for connectors, such as filling and suction.

3.2.8
delivery hose

temporary connection between the pellet blower truck (3.2.2) and the fill connector of the pellet store

during the pneumatic delivery process
2 © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 20023:2019
ISO 20023:2018(E)
3.3 Terms related to storage
3.3.1
sloping floor

construction in the store that allows the fuel to be fed by gravity to the conveying system

Note 1 to entry: The aim is to achieve storage that completely drains without any intervention.

3.3.2
pellet store

room, container or other place where pellets are stored by the end-user before combustion

Note 1 to entry: Pellet stores can be self-built or pre-fabricated.
3.3.3
small pellet store
pellet store with a capacity of less than 15 t
3.3.4
individual customized store

pellet store that is individual custom-made into a building often including existing structures like walls

Note 1 to entry: Individual customized stores may be self-built by end-users.
3.3.5
pre-fabricated store
storage system built by specialist companies, erected at the end-user's premises
3.3.6
fill pipe
connecting pipe, which connects the fill connector (3.2.7) with the pellet store
3.3.7
small bag
bag for pellets with a typical filling weight between 8 kg and 25 kg
3.3.8
big bag

flexible intermediate bulk container (FIBC) made of flexible fabric that is designed for storing and

transporting bulk materials with a capacity of 500 l and above
4 General
4.1 Product requirements

This document was developed to promote the safe handling, storage and combustion of pellets

conforming to the fuel properties of ISO 17225-2, Classes A1, A2 and B. If other fuel types are used the

principles contained herein might not apply.

A data sheet for wood pellets issued by the manufacturer/supplier may provide more specific

information with regards to the produc
...

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