Railway applications - Braking - Brake performance

This European Standard defines an harmonized way to assess the braking performance by test of locomotives, passenger coaches, freight wagons and self-propelled passenger trains (EMU/DMU).
The European Standard sets out the standardized method for undertaking brake performance tests and the correction factors to be applied to the data obtained for all types of rolling stock.
This European Standard also defines the methods to assess the brake performance in terms of stopping distance, and from this the process to determine vehicle(s) deceleration and brake weight.
It then deals with conversion of the brake weight to the brake weight percentage of a vehicle or train for operating purposes. It also sets out additional factors when determining the brake weight percentage of a train calculated from specified brake weight, depending on the formation of the train.
In Annex D there is a method for determining brake performance of freight wagons fitted with P10 cast iron using limited testing (force measurement).

Bahnanwendung - Bremse - Bremsleistung

Dieses Dokument legt eine harmonisierte Verfahrensweise zur Bewertung des Bremsvermögens durch Prüfung von Lokomotiven, Reisezugwagen, Güterwagen und Elektro- und Dieseltriebwagen und  triebzügen fest.
Dieses Dokument legt das Normverfahren für die Durchführung von Prüfungen des Bremsvermögens und die Korrektur¬faktoren dar, die auf die für alle Arten von Schienenfahrzeugen gewonnenen Daten anzuwenden sind.
Dieses Dokument legt auch die Verfahren zur Bewertung des Bremsvermögens in Bezug auf den Anhalteweg und, davon ausgehend, den Prozess zur Bestimmung der Fahrzeugverzögerung und des Bremsgewichts fest.
Es befasst sich mit der Umwandlung des Bremsgewichts eines Fahrzeugs oder Zuges in Bremsgewichtshundertstel für betriebliche Zwecke. Es legt auch die zusätzlichen Faktoren bei der Bestimmung des Bremsgewichtshundertstel eines Zuges fest, das in Abhängigkeit von der Zugbildung aus dem festgelegten Bremsgewicht berechnet wird.
Anhang D enthält ein Verfahren (Kraftmessung) zur Bestimmung des Bremsvermögens von Güterwagen, die mit Bremsklötzen aus Grauguss P10 oder LL-Bremsklötzen ausgestattet sind.

Applications ferroviaires - Freins - Performance de freinage

Le présent document définit une méthode harmonisée pour évaluer la performance de freinage par essai des locomotives, des voitures voyageurs, des wagons et des rames automotrices (électriques et diesel).
Le présent document décrit la méthode normalisée pour réaliser les essais de performance de freinage, ainsi que les facteurs de correction à appliquer aux données obtenues pour tous les types de matériels roulants.
Le présent document définit également les méthodes d'évaluation de la performance de freinage en termes de distance d'arrêt et, à partir de celle-ci, le processus pour déterminer la décélération et la masse freinée du ou des véhicules.
Il traite ensuite de la conversion de la masse freinée en pourcentage de masse freinée d'un véhicule ou d'un train pour l'utilisation en service. Il présente également des facteurs supplémentaires pour la détermination du pourcentage de masse freinée d'un train calculé à partir d'une masse freinée spécifiée, selon la composition du train.
L'Annexe D spécifie une méthode pour déterminer la performance de freinage des wagons équipés de semelles en fonte P10 ou de semelles LL en utilisant des essais limités (mesurage de l'effort).

Železniške naprave - Zavore - Značilnosti zavore

Ta evropski standard določa usklajen način ocenjevanja značilnosti zavor s preskusom lokomotiv, potniških vagonov, tovornih vagonov in potniških vlakov na lastni pogon (EMU/DMU).
Evropski standard določa standardizirano metodo za preskušanje značilnosti zavor in korekcijske faktorje, ki se uporabljajo za podatke, pridobljene za vse tipe tirnih vozil.
Ta evropski standard prav tako opredeljuje metode za ocenjevanje značilnosti zavor v smislu zavorne razdalje in pri tem postopek za določanje pojemanja vozila in zavorne teže.
Vsebuje tudi pretvorbo zavorne mase v odstotek zavorne mase vozila ali vlaka za namene obratovanja. Prav tako določa dodatne faktorje za določanje odstotka zavorne mase vlaka, izračunanega iz specifične zavorne mase v odvisnosti od formacije vlaka.
V dodatku D je na voljo metoda za določanje značilnosti zavor tovornih vagonov, opremljenih z železovo litino P10, z uporabo omejenega preskušanja (merjenje sile).

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
09-Jun-2015
Publication Date
09-May-2019
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
25-Apr-2019
Due Date
30-Jun-2019
Completion Date
10-May-2019

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 16834:2019
01-julij-2019
Železniške naprave - Zavore - Značilnosti zavore
Railway applications - Braking - Brake performance
Bahnanwendung - Bremse - Bremsleistung
Applications ferroviaires - Freins - Performance de freinage
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 16834:2019
ICS:
45.040 Materiali in deli za železniško Materials and components
tehniko for railway engineering
SIST EN 16834:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 16834:2019
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SIST EN 16834:2019
EN 16834
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
April 2019
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 45.040
English Version
Railway applications - Braking - Brake performance

Applications ferroviaires - Freins - Performance de Bahnanwendungen - Bremse - Bremsvermögen

freinage
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 12 November 2018.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 16834:2019 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN 16834:2019
EN 16834:2019 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 7

4 Symbols and abbreviations ......................................................................................................................... 8

5 Principles of determining the brake performance ............................................................................. 9

5.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 9

5.2 Brake assessment with braked weights .............................................................................................. 10

5.3 Brake assessment with deceleration’s method ................................................................................. 11

6 Execution of tests ......................................................................................................................................... 11

6.1 Test methods ................................................................................................................................................. 11

6.1.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 11

6.1.2 Freight wagons and coaches..................................................................................................................... 11

6.1.3 Locomotives ................................................................................................................................................... 12

6.1.4 EMU/DMU and high speed trainsets...................................................................................................... 12

6.1.5 Testing of vehicles/trains with additional brake equipment ...................................................... 12

6.2 Load conditions for tests ........................................................................................................................... 12

6.2.1 Freight wagons .............................................................................................................................................. 12

6.2.2 Locomotives ................................................................................................................................................... 13

6.2.3 Passenger vehicles ....................................................................................................................................... 13

6.3 Speeds to be used for testing.................................................................................................................... 14

6.4 Method of execution of the test ............................................................................................................... 15

6.4.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 15

6.4.2 Atmospheric conditions ............................................................................................................................. 16

6.4.3 Condition of brake equipment ................................................................................................................ 16

6.4.4 Number and validity of individual tests ............................................................................................... 16

6.5 Test in degraded mode and degraded conditions ............................................................................ 17

6.6 Determination of brake performance for the ETCS system .......................................................... 17

6.7 Evaluating the test results for stopping distance ............................................................................. 18

6.7.1 Correcting the stopping distances for each test ................................................................................ 18

6.7.2 Determining the mean stopping distance ........................................................................................... 19

6.7.3 Correction of the mean stopping distance .......................................................................................... 22

6.8 Parking and holding brake testing ........................................................................................................ 25

7 Assessment for deceleration method ................................................................................................... 25

7.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 25

7.2 Physical principles ....................................................................................................................................... 25

7.3 Determining the parameters required for brake performance .................................................. 26

7.3.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 26

7.3.2 Method for determining decelerations ................................................................................................ 27

7.4 Assessment of performance under degraded conditions .............................................................. 30

7.4.1 Coefficient of friction reduced due to moisture ................................................................................ 30

7.4.2 Effect of reduced adhesion ........................................................................................................................ 30

7.4.3 Determining degraded deceleration ..................................................................................................... 31

8 Assessment of the braked weight ........................................................................................................... 31

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EN 16834:2019 (E)

8.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 31

8.1.1 Determining braked weight percentage .............................................................................................. 31

8.1.2 Determining braked weight ...................................................................................................................... 32

8.2 Coaches and EMU/DMU's ........................................................................................................................... 33

8.3 Additional assessment for Coaches operating with a speed above 160 km/h from

vehicles test .................................................................................................................................................... 33

8.4 Freight wagons in P ...................................................................................................................................... 34

8.5 Freight wagons in G ...................................................................................................................................... 34

8.6 Locomotives .................................................................................................................................................... 34

8.7 Magnetic track brake and eddy current brake .................................................................................. 35

8.7.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 35

8.7.2 Assessment using train test ...................................................................................................................... 35

8.7.3 Assessment using single vehicle test ..................................................................................................... 35

8.8 ep brake (ep-direct and ep-assist) ......................................................................................................... 35

8.9 Brake pipe accelerators valves ................................................................................................................ 35

9 Recommendations for the use of braked weight percentage in operation ............................. 36

9.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 36

9.2 Principles of use for trains operating in P mode ............................................................................... 36

9.3 Adjustment for trains comprising a locomotive and coaches ...................................................... 37

9.3.1 Variation in braked weight taking into account the length of the train ................................... 37

9.3.2 Braked weight of trains fitted with brake accelerators .................................................................. 37

9.3.3 Rules of use for train operation: Braked weight of trains fitted with ep assist ..................... 38

9.3.4 Variation in braked weight taking into account supplementary dynamic brake ................. 38

9.4 Adjustments for Freight trains braked in the P mode ..................................................................... 38

9.4.1 Variation in braked weight taking into account the length of the train ................................... 38

9.4.2 Reduction in the braked weight of a G-braked vehicle in a P-braked train ............................ 39

9.4.3 Variation in braked weight taking into account Brake accelerators and ep assist .............. 39

9.5 Principles of use for trains operating in G mode ............................................................................... 39

9.5.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 39

9.5.2 Freight trains .................................................................................................................................................. 39

10 Operation with the ETCS system ............................................................................................................. 40

11 Assessment of maximum utilization of adhesion.............................................................................. 40

12 Assessment of gradient capability of parking/holding brake ...................................................... 41

Annex A (normative) Brake assessment for trains ......................................................................................... 42

A.1 Assessment sheet for trains using brake positions P, R, R+Mg .................................................... 42

A.2 Overview of the mathematical formulae for the assessment curves for trains using

brake positions P, R, R+Mg ........................................................................................................................ 44

Annex B (normative) Brake assessment for single vehicles ........................................................................ 45

B.1 Assessment sheet for single vehicles ..................................................................................................... 45

B.2 Overview of the mathematical formulae for the assessment curves for single vehicles .... 47

Annex C (normative) Checking of the friction pairing of disc-braked single vehicles ........................ 48

C.1 Diagram for checking the friction pairing of disc-braked single vehicles ............................... 48

C.2 Overview of the mathematical formulae for the assessment curves for checking the

friction pairing of disc-braked single vehicles ................................................................................... 50

Annex D (normative) Determining the brake performance of freight wagons fitted with cast

iron brake blocks (P10) or fully certified and exchangeable LL-blocks ................................... 51

Annex E (normative) Determining the equivalent brake response time ................................................ 54

E.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 54

E.2 Determining the equivalent brake response time based on train deceleration ................... 54

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EN 16834:2019 (E)

E.3 Determining the equivalent brake response time based on brake cylinder filling

times ................................................................................................................................................................. 55

E.3.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 55

E.3.2 Assessment ..................................................................................................................................................... 55

Annex F (normative) Conversion model for ERTMS/ETCS ........................................................................... 57

F.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 57

F.2 Symbols for this Annex ............................................................................................................................... 57

F.3 Scope of validity of model ......................................................................................................................... 59

F.4 Brake model ................................................................................................................................................... 60

F.4.1 General principles ........................................................................................................................................ 60

F.4.2 Calculating the equivalent emergency brake development time ............................................... 62

F.4.3 Calculating the equivalent full brake development time .............................................................. 63

F.4.4 Calculating the basic decelerations ....................................................................................................... 64

F.4.5 Calculating the decelerations during emergency braking ............................................................ 66

F.5 Example of calculation of the stopping or slowing distance ......................................................... 67

Annex G (normative) Assessment sheet for individual vehicles running at speeds of less

than 100 km/h using brake positions P and R .................................................................................. 68

G.1 Assessment sheet for individual vehicles fitted with cast iron blocks (P10) at speeds

below 100 km/h ........................................................................................................................................... 68

G.2 Overview of the mathematical formulae used in assessment curves for individual

vehicles fitted with cast iron blocks (P10) at speeds below 100 km/h .................................... 70

G.3 Assessment sheet for individual vehicles fitted with EN-UIC brake system and disc

brakes or K blocks at speeds below 100 km/h.................................................................................. 71

G.4 Overview of the mathematical formulae used in assessment curves for individual

vehicles fitted with EN-UIC disc brakes or composite brake blocks at speeds below

100 km/h ......................................................................................................................................................... 73

Annex H (normative) Procedure for verifying the maximum utilization of adhesion between

wheel and rail ................................................................................................................................................ 74

H.1 Symbols and abbreviations for this Annex ......................................................................................... 74

H.2 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 74

H.3 Prerequisites ................................................................................................................................................. 74

H.4 Determination of the maximum equivalent mean deceleration based on distance

relevant for adhesion ā .................................................................................................................. 75

max,τ

H.5 Calculation of the mean friction coefficient for the friction brake µm of the test ................ 75

H.6 Calculation of the maximum utilization of adhesion between wheel and rail τ ........... 75

max

Annex I (informative) Example for verifying the maximum utilization of adhesion between

wheel and rail for non-homogenous friction brake equipment .................................................. 77

I.1 Non-homogenous friction brake equipment ...................................................................................... 77

I.2 Variation of brake cylinder pressure during brake application ................................................. 77

Annex J (informative) Example for correction and validation of test results exceeding

mandatory test conditions — Treatment of curve radii lower than 1 000 m ........................ 80

Annex ZA (informative) Relationship between this European Standard and the essential

requirements of EU Directive 2008/57/EC aimed to be covered ............................................... 82

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 84

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EN 16834:2019 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 16834:2019) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 256 “Railway

applications”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by October 2019, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by October 2019.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive 2008/57/EC.

For relationship with EU Directive 2008/57/EC, see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part of

this document.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia,

Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France,

Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands,

Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

the United Kingdom.
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SIST EN 16834:2019
EN 16834:2019 (E)
1 Scope

This document defines a harmonized way to assess the braking performance by test of locomotives,

passenger coaches, freight wagons and self-propelled passenger trains (EMU/DMU).

The document sets out the standardized method for undertaking brake performance tests and the

correction factors to be applied to the data obtained for all types of rolling stock.

This document also defines the methods to assess the brake performance in terms of stopping distance,

and from this the process to determine vehicle(s) deceleration and braked weight.

It then deals with conversion of the braked weight to the braked weight percentage of a vehicle or train

for operating purposes. It also sets out additional factors when determining the braked weight

percentage of a train calculated from specified braked weight, depending on the formation of the train.

In Annex D there is a method for determining brake performance of freight wagons fitted with P10 cast

iron or LL-blocks using limited testing (force measurement).
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 14198, Railway applications — Braking — Requirements for the brake system of trains hauled by

locomotives
EN 14478, Railway applications — Braking — Generic vocabulary

EN 14531-1, Railway applications — Methods for calculation of stopping and slowing distances and

immobilization braking — Part 1: General algorithms utilizing mean value calculation for train sets or

single vehicles

EN 14531-2:2015, Railway applications — Methods for calculation of stopping and slowing distances and

immobilization braking — Part 2: Step by step calculations for train sets or single vehicles

EN 15355, Railway applications — Braking — Distributor valves and distributor-isolating devices

EN 15595, Railway applications — Braking — Wheel slide protection
EN 15663, Railway applications — Vehicle reference masses

EN 15877-1, Railway applications — Marking on railway vehicles — Part 1: Freight wagons

EN 15877-2, Railway applications — Markings of railway vehicles — Part 2: External markings on coaches,

motive power units, locomotives and on track machines

EN 16207, Railway applications — Braking — Functional and performance criteria of Magnetic Track

Brake systems for use in railway rolling stock
EN 16452, Railway applications — Braking — Brake blocks
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EN 16834:2019 (E)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 14478, EN 14198 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
brake assessment speed
brake initiation speed which is decisive for determination of brake performance

Note 1 to entry: In general the initiation speed leading to the lowest braked weight.

3.2
braked weight

representative quantity for the mean braking capacity of the vehicle or train, expressed in tons, which is

always expressed as a whole number

Note 1 to entry: It is displayed on the vehicle (in accordance with EN 15877-1 and EN 15877-2). Braked weight

corresponds to the retardation effort and is currently expressed and designated as “B”.

3.3
braked weight percentage
quotient of braked weight and vehicle mass × 100
Note 1 to entry: Also known as λ (lambda).
3.4
maximum braking load

load condition lower or equal to “design mass under exceptional payload” as defined in EN 15663 in

accordance with the related vehicle standard (e.g. EN 16185-1, EN 14198)
3.5
minimum load
load condition “design mass in working order” (as defined in EN 15663)
3.6
normal load
load condition “design mass under normal payload” (as defined in EN 15663)
3.7
fully certified and exchangeable LL-block

LL-block, which fulfils all UIC requirements including exchangeability with P10 (as listed in

ERA document ERA/TD/2009-02/INT)
3.8
K-block
brake block with “K”-friction materials as defined in EN 16452
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SIST EN 16834:2019
EN 16834:2019 (E)
3.9
EN-UIC brake
brake system as defined in EN 14198
4 Symbols and abbreviations

For the purposes of this document, the following symbols and abbreviations in Table 1 apply.

Table 1 — Symbols and abbreviations
Symbol Description Unit
a deceleration m/s
B braked weight t
C constant for calculating the λ values —
D constant for calculating the λ values —
d diameter mm
F force kN
g acceleration due to gravity 9,81 m/s
i gradient ‰
k assessment factor for determining the braked weight —
m mass of the test train or test vehicle t
r radius mm
s total stopping distance (up to v = 0) m
t time s
v speed km/h
λ braked weight percentage %
ρ coefficient of inertia of rotating masses —
standard deviation of test result m
τ adhesion —
μ coefficient of friction —
η efficiency of brake rigging —
ATP Automatic Train Protection
Bg brake block type Bg (single block)
Bgu brake block type Bgu (double brake block)
DMU Diesel Multiple Unit
ep-brake electropneumatic brake
EMU Electric Multiple Unit
ETCS European Train Control System
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SIST EN 16834:2019
EN 16834:2019 (E)
Symbol Description Unit
G brake mode of the slow-acting brake (freight train)
K brake block material in accordance with EN 16452
L brake block material in accordance with EN 16452
LL brake block material in accordance with EN 16452
Mg magnetic track brake
P brake position of quick-acting brake (passenger train)
P+E brake position P + electrodynamic brake
P+H brake position P + hydrodynamic brake
P+Mg brake position P + magnetic track brake
P10 material designation of the cast-iron block with a 1 % phosphorus
content
brake position in accordance with EN 14198
R brake position in accordance with EN 14198
R+E brake position R + electrodynamic brake
R+H brake position R + hydrodynamic brake
R+Mg brake position R + magnetic track brake
S train related brake performance category in accordance with
EN 14198
SS train related brake performance category in accordance with
EN 14198
Sbb brake accelerator
Wb eddy current
...

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