Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) and Bulk Acoustic Wave (BAW) duplexers of assessed quality - Part 2: Guidelines for the use (IEC 62604-2:2017)

This part of IEC 62604 concerns duplexers which can separate receiving signals from
transmitting signals and are key components for two-way radio communications, and which
are generally used in mobile phone systems compliant with CDMA systems such as N-CDMA
in second generation mobile telecommunication systems (2G), W-CDMA / UMTS (3G) or
LTE (4G). While in 2G systems mainly dielectric duplexers have been used, the ongoing
miniaturization in 3G and 4G mobile communication systems promoted the development and
application of acoustic wave duplexers due to their small size, light weight and good electrical
performance. While standard surface acoustic wave (SAW) duplexers have been employed for
applications with moderate requirements regarding the steepness of individual filters,
applications with narrow duplex gap (e.g. Bands 2, 3, 8, 25), i.e. the frequency gap between
receiving and transmitting bands, require the application of temperature-compensated (TC)
SAW or bulk acoustic wave (BAW) technology, because of their better temperature
characteristics and resonator Q-factors.
It is neither the aim of these guidelines to explain theory, nor to attempt to cover all the
eventualities which may arise in practical circumstances. These guidelines draw attention to
some of the more fundamental questions, which should be considered by the user before he
places an order for SAW and BAW duplexers for a new application. Such a procedure will be
the user’s insurance against unsatisfactory performance. Because SAW and BAW duplexers
have very similar performance for the usage, it is useful and convenient for users that both
duplexers are described in one standard.
Standard specifications, such as those of IEC, of which these guidelines form a part, and
national specifications or detail specifications issued by manufacturers will define the
available combinations of centre frequency, pass bandwidth and insertion attenuation for each
sort of transmitting and receiving filters and the isolation level between transmitter and
receiver ports, etc. These specifications are compiled to include a wide range of SAW and
BAW duplexers with standardized performances. It cannot be over-emphasized that the user
should, wherever possible, select his duplexers from these specifications, when available,
even if it may lead to making small modifications to his circuit to enable the use of standard
duplexers. This applies particularly to the selection of the nominal frequency band.

Oberflächenwellen-(OFW-) und Volumenwellen-(BAW-)Duplexer mit bewerteter Qualität – Teil 2: Leitfaden für die Anwendung (IEC 62604-2:2017)

Duplexeurs à ondes acoustiques de surface (OAS) et à ondes acoustiques de volume (OAV) sous assurance de la qualité - Partie 2: Lignes directrices d'utilisation (IEC 62604-2:2017)

L’IEC 62604-2:2017 concerne les duplexeurs qui peuvent séparer les signaux en réception des signaux en émission et constituent des composants essentiels pour les radiocommunications bilatérales. Ils sont généralement utilisés dans les systèmes de téléphonie mobile conformes aux systèmes CDMA comme les systèmes N-CDMA des systèmes de télécommunication mobile de seconde génération (2G), W-CDMA / UMTS (3G) ou LTE (4G). Cette édition comprend les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l’édition précédente: - description des diplexeurs; - prise en compte des duplexeurs avec un accès RX symétrique dans le paragraphe relatif à la méthode de mesure (7.3). NOTE Dans la présente Norme, les duplexeurs à OAS et à OAV sont traités simultanément car ils sont utilisés de la même façon, en particulier dans les systèmes de téléphonie mobile, et présentent les mêmes exigences quant à leurs caractéristiques, leur méthode d’essai, etc.

Radiofrekvenčni (SAW) in visokofrekvenčni (BAW) duplekserji ocenjene kakovosti - 2. del: Smernice za uporabo (IEC 62604-2:2017)

Ta del standarda IEC 62604 zadeva dupleksorje, ki lahko ločijo sprejete signale od oddanih signalov in so ključni sestavni deli za dvosmerno radijsko komunikacijo ter se običajno uporabljajo v sistemih mobilnih telefonov, ki so skladni s sistemi CDMA, kot je N-CDMA v telekomunikacijskih mobilnih sistemih druge generacije (2G), W-CDMA / UMTS (3G) ali LTE (4G). Medtem ko se v sistemih 2G uporabljajo predvsem dielektrični dupleksorji, je tekoča miniaturizacija v mobilnih komunikacijskih sistemih 3G in 4G spodbudila razvoj in uporabo zvočnovalovnih dupleksorjev zaradi njihove majhnosti, lahkotnosti in dobre električne zmogljivosti. Standardni površinski zvočnovalovni (SAW) dupleksorji pa so se uporabljali za aplikacije z zmernimi zahtevami glede strmine posameznih filtrov, uporabe z ozko dupleksno vrzeljo (na primer, pasovi 2, 3, 8, 25), tj. frekvenčna vrzel med oddajnimi in sprejemnimi pasovi zahteva uporabo temperaturno kompenzirane tehnologije zvočnih valov (SAW) ali visokofrekvenčnih valov (BAW), zaradi boljših temperaturnih značilnosti in faktorjev Q resonatorja.
Cilj teh smernic ni pojasniti teorijo, niti poskusiti zajeti vse morebitne primere, do katerih lahko pride v praktičnih okoliščinah. Te smernice pozornost usmerjajo v nekatera bolj temeljna vprašanja, o katerih bi moral razmisliti uporabnik, preden se odloči za radiofrekvenčne ali visokofrekvenčne dupleksorje za novo aplikacijo. S tem se bo zavaroval pred nezadovoljivimi zmogljivostmi. Ker imajo radiofrekvenčni in visokofrekvenčni dupleksorji zelo podobne zmogljivosti za uporabo, je koristno in priročno za uporabnike, da sta oba dupleksorja opisana v enem standardu.
Standardne specifikacije, kot so specifikacije IEC, katerih del so tudi te smernice, in nacionalne specifikacije ali podrobne specifikacije, ki so jih izdali proizvajalci, opredeljujejo razpoložljive kombinacije srednje frekvence, pasovne širine za prepuščanje in vklopne izgube za vsak oddajni in sprejemni filter ter raven izolacije med oddajnimi in sprejemnimi vrati itd. Te specifikacije so sestavljene tako, da vključujejo širok obseg radiofrekvenčnih in visokofrekvenčnih dupleksorjev s standardiziranimi zmogljivostmi. Zelo pomembno je, da uporabnik, kadar je le mogoče, svoje dupleksorje izbere med temi specifikacijami, če so na voljo, čeprav bo zato moral nekoliko spremeniti tokokrog, da bo omogočil uporabo standardnih dupleksorjev. To velja zlasti za izbiro nazivne frekvence.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
31-Aug-2017
Publication Date
26-Mar-2018
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
14-Mar-2018
Due Date
19-May-2018
Completion Date
27-Mar-2018

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN IEC 62604-2:2018
01-maj-2018
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 62604-2:2012
5DGLRIUHNYHQþQL 6$: LQYLVRNRIUHNYHQþQL %$: GXSOHNVHUMLRFHQMHQHNDNRYRVWL
GHO6PHUQLFH]DXSRUDER ,(&
Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) and Bulk Acoustic Wave (BAW) duplexers of assessed
quality - Part 2: Guidelines for the use (IEC 62604-2:2017)

Oberflächenwellen-(OFW-) und Volumenwellen-(BAW-)Duplexer mit bewerteter Qualität

– Teil 2: Leitfaden für die Anwendung (IEC 62604-2:2017)
Duplexeurs à ondes acoustiques de surface (OAS) et à ondes acoustiques de volume

(OAV) sous assurance de la qualité - Partie 2: Lignes directrices d'utilisation (IEC 62604-

2:2017)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN IEC 62604-2:2018
ICS:
31.140 3LH]RHOHNWULþQHQDSUDYH Piezoelectric devices
SIST EN IEC 62604-2:2018 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 62604-2:2018
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 62604-2:2018
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 62604-2:2018
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN IEC 62604-2
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
March 2018
ICS 31.140 Supersedes EN 62604-2:2012
English Version
Surface acoustic wave (SAW) and bulk acoustic wave (BAW)
duplexers of assessed quality - Part 2: Guidelines for the use
(IEC 62604-2:2017)

Duplexeurs à ondes acoustiques de surface (OAS) et à Oberflächenwellen-(OFW-) und Volumenwellen-(BAW-)

ondes acoustiques de volume (OAV) sous assurance de la Duplexer mit bewerteter Qualität - Teil 2: Leitfaden für die

qualité - Partie 2: Lignes directrices d'utilisation Anwendung
(IEC 62604-2:2017) (IEC 62604-2:2017)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2018-01-03. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC

Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the

same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden,

Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2018 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN IEC 62604-2:2018 E
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 62604-2:2018
EN IEC 62604-2:2018 (E)
European foreword

The text of document 49/1217/CDV, future edition 2 of IEC 62604-2, prepared by IEC/TC 49

"Piezoelectric, dielectric and electrostatic devices and associated materials for frequency control,

selection and detection" was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and approved by

CENELEC as EN IEC 62604-2:2018.
The following dates are fixed:
• latest date by which the document has to be (dop) 2018-10-03
implemented at national level by
publication of an identical national
standard or by endorsement
(dow) 2021-01-03
• latest date by which the national
standards conflicting with the
document have to be withdrawn
This document supersedes EN 62604-2:2012.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 62604-2:2017 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards indicated:

IEC 60862-2:2012 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60862-2:2012 (not modified).
IEC 61019-1:2004 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61019-1:2005 (not modified).
IEC 61019-2:2005 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61019-2:2005 (not modified).
IEC 62047-7:2011 NOTE Harmonized as EN 62047-7:2011 (not modified).
IEC 62575-2:2012 NOTE Harmonized as EN 62575-2:2012 (not modified).
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 62604-2:2018
EN IEC 62604-2:2018 (E)
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments)

applies.

NOTE 1 Where an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant

EN/HD applies.

NOTE 2 Up-to-date information on the latest versions of the European Standards listed in this annex is available here:

www.cenelec.eu.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 60862-1 2015 Surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters of EN 60862-1 2015
assessed quality - Part 1: Generic
specification
IEC 62575-1 2015 Radio frequncy (RF) bulk acoustic wave EN 62575-1 2016
(BAW) filters of assessed quality - Part 1:
Generic specification
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 62604-2:2018
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 62604-2:2018
IEC 62604-2
Edition 2.0 2017-11
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Surface acoustic wave (SAW) and bulk acoustic wave (BAW) duplexers of
assessed quality –
Part 2: Guidelines for the use
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 31.140 ISBN 978-2-8322-5081-5

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 62604-2:2018
– 2 – IEC 62604-2:2017 © IEC 2017
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 7

4 Technical considerations ................................................................................................. 7

5 Fundamentals of SAW and BAW duplexers...................................................................... 7

5.1 Basic function ......................................................................................................... 7

5.1.1 General ........................................................................................................... 7

5.1.2 TX filter response (filter response from TX port to antenna port) ...................... 8

5.1.3 RX filter response (filter response from antenna port to RX port) ..................... 9

5.1.4 Isolation (isolation from TX port to RX port) ..................................................... 9

5.2 Basic structure ...................................................................................................... 10

5.3 Principle of operation ............................................................................................ 10

5.4 Diplexer ................................................................................................................ 14

6 SAW and BAW duplexer characteristics ......................................................................... 14

6.1 General conditions for SAW and BAW duplexers .................................................. 14

6.2 Typical characteristics of SAW and BAW duplexers .............................................. 16

6.2.1 UMTS duplexer .............................................................................................. 16

6.2.2 US CDMA duplexer ........................................................................................ 17

6.2.3 PCS CDMA duplexer ..................................................................................... 17

7 Application guidelines .................................................................................................... 21

7.1 Power durability .................................................................................................... 21

7.2 Harmonics and inter-modulation distortion ............................................................ 21

7.3 Measurement method for the duplexer .................................................................. 21

7.4 Electrostatic voltage protection ............................................................................. 23

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 24

Figure 1 – Basic duplexer configuration .................................................................................. 8

Figure 2 – Basic TX filter response example of SAW and BAW duplexers ............................... 9

Figure 3 – Basic RX filter response example of SAW and BAW duplexers ............................... 9

Figure 4 – Basic isolation characteristics example of SAW and BAW duplexers .................... 10

Figure 5 – The block diagram of a duplexer .......................................................................... 11

Figure 6 – Demanded condition of TX part for duplexers ....................................................... 12

Figure 7 – Phase rotation in TX part ..................................................................................... 13

Figure 8 – Demanded condition of RX part for duplexers ...................................................... 13

Figure 9 – Basic diplexer configuration ................................................................................. 14

Figure 10 – Typical wide range frequency response of TX filter ............................................ 15

Figure 11 – Typical wide range frequency response of RX filter for upper local system ......... 15

Figure 12 – Phase shifter by microstrip line on the surface of a ceramic package ................. 16

Figure 13 – Lumped element phase shifter ........................................................................... 16

Figure 14 – Duplexer configuration ....................................................................................... 16

Figure 15 – Frequency characteristics of SAW duplexer for UMTS Band 1 system ................ 18

Figure 16 – Frequency characteristics of a SAW duplexer for US CDMA system ................... 19

Figure 17 – Frequency characteristics of BAW duplexer for PCS CDMA system .................. 20

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SIST EN IEC 62604-2:2018
IEC 62604-2:2017 © IEC 2017 – 3 –

Figure 18 – Four-port-type network analyzer for duplexer measurement ............................... 22

Figure 19 – Four-port-type network analyzer for measurement of a balanced RX port

duplexer................................................................................................................................ 23

Table 1 – Frequency allocation for typical LTE frequency division duplex (FDD) bands ........... 8

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SIST EN IEC 62604-2:2018
– 4 – IEC 62604-2:2017 © IEC 2017
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVE (SAW) AND BULK
ACOUSTIC WAVE (BAW) DUPLEXERS
OF ASSESSED QUALITY –
Part 2: Guidelines for the use
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 62604-2 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 49:

Piezoelectric, dielectric and electrostatic devices and associated materials for frequency

control, selection and detection.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2011. This edition

constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:
• diplexers are described;

• duplexers with a balanced RX port are considered in the measurement method subclause

(7.3).
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 62604-2:2018
IEC 62604-2:2017 © IEC 2017 – 5 –

NOTE In this standard, SAW and BAW duplexers are treated simultaneously because both duplexers are used in

the same manner especially in mobile phone systems and have same requirements of characteristics, test method

and so on.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
CDV Report on voting
49/1217/CDV 49/1251/RVC

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts in the IEC 62604 series, published under the general title Surface acoustic

wave (SAW) and bulk acoustic wave (BAW) duplexers of assessed quality, can be found on

the IEC website.
A bilingual version of this publication may be issued at a later date.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct

understanding of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a

colour printer.
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 62604-2:2018
– 6 – IEC 62604-2:2017 © IEC 2017
SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVE (SAW) AND BULK
ACOUSTIC WAVE (BAW) DUPLEXERS
OF ASSESSED QUALITY –
Part 2: Guidelines for the use
1 Scope

This part of IEC 62604 concerns duplexers which can separate receiving signals from

transmitting signals and are key components for two-way radio communications, and which

are generally used in mobile phone systems compliant with CDMA systems such as N-CDMA

in second generation mobile telecommunication systems (2G), W-CDMA / UMTS (3G) or

LTE (4G). While in 2G systems mainly dielectric duplexers have been used, the ongoing

miniaturization in 3G and 4G mobile communication systems promoted the development and

application of acoustic wave duplexers due to their small size, light weight and good electrical

performance. While standard surface acoustic wave (SAW) duplexers have been employed for

applications with moderate requirements regarding the steepness of individual filters,

applications with narrow duplex gap (e.g. Bands 2, 3, 8, 25), i.e. the frequency gap between

receiving and transmitting bands, require the application of temperature-compensated (TC)

SAW or bulk acoustic wave (BAW) technology, because of their better temperature
characteristics and resonator Q-factors.

It is neither the aim of these guidelines to explain theory, nor to attempt to cover all the

eventualities which may arise in practical circumstances. These guidelines draw attention to

some of the more fundamental questions, which should be considered by the user before he

places an order for SAW and BAW duplexers for a new application. Such a procedure will be

the user’s insurance against unsatisfactory performance. Because SAW and BAW duplexers

have very similar performance for the usage, it is useful and convenient for users that both

duplexers are described in one standard.

Standard specifications, such as those of IEC, of which these guidelines form a part, and

national specifications or detail specifications issued by manufacturers will define the

available combinations of centre frequency, pass bandwidth and insertion attenuation for each

sort of transmitting and receiving filters and the isolation level between transmitter and

receiver ports, etc. These specifications are compiled to include a wide range of SAW and

BAW duplexers with standardized performances. It cannot be over-emphasized that the user

should, wherever possible, select his duplexers from these specifications, when available,

even if it may lead to making small modifications to his circuit to enable the use of standard

duplexers. This applies particularly to the selection of the nominal frequency band.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.

IEC 60862-1:2015, Surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters of assessed quality – Part 1: Generic

specification

IEC 62575-1:2015, Radio frequency (RF) bulk acoustic wave (BAW) filters of assessed quality

– Part 1: Generic specification
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 62604-2:2018
IEC 62604-2:2017 © IEC 2017 – 7 –
3 Terms and definitions
No terms and definitions are listed in this document.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
4 Technical considerations

It is of prime interest to a user that the duplexer characteristics should satisfy particular

specifications. The selection of the front-end circuits in user equipments and SAW and BAW

duplexers to meet such specifications should be a matter of agreement between the user and

the manufacturer.

Duplexer characteristics are usually expressed in terms of centre frequency, pass bandwidth

and insertion attenuation for each of transmitting and receiving filter parts in the duplexer and

isolation level between the transmitter and receiver ports. Since the SAW and BAW duplexer

is used in RF front-end of the user equipments, lower insertion attenuation, higher

isolation/rejection level, stronger power durability and smaller/thinner package dimensions are

strictly required.
5 Fundamentals of SAW and BAW duplexers
5.1 Basic function
5.1.1 General

Duplexers are necessary for frequency division duplex (FDD) equipments to receive and

transmit signals simultaneously. Duplexers are 3-port devices which consist of an antenna

port, a transmitter port (TX port) and a receiver port (RX port), as shown in Figure 1. The

duplexer has three basic functions;
– to transfer the transmitting signal from the TX port to the antenna port;
– to transfer the receiving signal from the antenna port to the RX port;

– to prevent transfer of the transmitting signal and noise from the TX port to the RX port.

The transmitting and the receiving frequencies are determined corresponding to each mobile

communication system. For example, Table 1 shows typical allocated frequency bands for

UMTS.
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SIST EN IEC 62604-2:2018
– 8 – IEC 62604-2:2017 © IEC 2017
RX signal
Antenna
RX port
Duplexer
TX signal
Leakage
TX port
IEC
Figure 1 – Basic duplexer configuration

Table 1 – Frequency allocation for typical LTE frequency division duplex (FDD) bands

Downlink Downlink
Uplink frequency Band Uplink frequency
frequency frequency
Band
(MHz) (MHz) (MHz) (MHz)
1 1 920 – 1 980 2 110 – 2 170 16 2 010 – 2 025 2 585 – 2 600
2 1 850 – 1 910 1 930 – 1 990 17 704 – 716 734 – 746
3 1 710 – 1 785 1 805 – 1 880 18 815 – 830 860 – 875
4 1 710 – 1 755 2 110 – 2 155 19 830 – 845 875 – 890
5 824 – 849 869 – 894 20 832 – 862 791 – 821
6 830 – 840 875 – 885 21 1 447,9 – 1 462,9 1 495,5 – 1 510,9
7 2 500 – 2 570 2 620 – 2 690 22 3 410 – 3 490 3 510 – 3 590
8 880 – 915 925 – 960 23 2 000 – 2 020 2 180 – 2 200
9 1 749,9 – 1 784,9 1 844,9 – 1 879,9 24 1 626,5 – 1 660,5 1 525 – 1 559
10 1 710 – 1 770 2 110 – 2 170 25 1 850 – 1 915 1 930 – 1 995
11 1 427,9 – 1 447,9 1 475,9 – 1 495,9 26 814 – 849 859 – 894
12 699 – 716 729 – 746 27 807 – 824 852 – 869
13 777 – 787 746 – 756 28 703 – 748 758 – 803
14 788 – 798 758 – 768 30 2 305 – 2 315 2 350 – 2 360
15 1 900 – 1 920 2 600 – 2 620 31 452,5 – 457,5 462,5 – 467,5

NOTE For a user equipment, uplink frequency means transmitting frequency and downlink frequency means

receiving frequency respectively.
5.1.2 TX filter response (filter response from TX port to antenna port)

Figure 2 shows an example of frequency characteristics of the TX filter. The required

frequency characteristics are low insertion attenuation in the transmitting frequency band (f ),

high insertion attenuation in the receiving frequency band (f ) and good impedance matching.

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SIST EN IEC 62604-2:2018
IEC 62604-2:2017 © IEC 2017 – 9 –
5.1.3 RX filter response (filter response from antenna port to RX port)

Figure 3 shows an example of frequency characteristics of the RX filter. The required

frequency characteristics are low insertion attenuation in the receiving band (f ) and high

insertion attenuation in the transmitting frequency band (f ).
5.1.4 Isolation (isolation from TX port to RX port)

Figure 4 shows an example of isolation characteristics. One of the important functions for the

duplexers is isolation characteristics, which show the frequency dependence of the leakage

power from the TX port to the RX port.
Frequency
IEC
Figure 2 – Basic TX filter response example of SAW and BAW duplexers
Frequency
IEC
Figure 3 – Basic RX filter response example of SAW and BAW duplexers
Attenuation (dB) Attenuation (dB)
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SIST EN IEC 62604-2:2018
– 10 – IEC 62604-2:2017 © IEC 2017
Frequency
IEC
Figure 4 – Basic isolation characteristics example of SAW and BAW duplexers
5.2 Basic structure

Duplexers are 3-port devices/modules, which enable to transmit and receive signals

simultaneously through a common antenna. A basic structure of duplexers is shown in

Figure 5. SAW and BAW duplexers consist of a transmitter (TX) part and a receiver (RX) part.

These two parts, which may add a phase shifter, are connected to an antenna port. The

phase shifter is utilized to prevent the interaction between the filters. In Figure 5, Z and Z

t r

correspond to the impedance of the TX and RX part at the antenna port side, whereas Z is

the impedance of the antenna port. The following conditions shall be fulfilled to achieve the

duplexer functions.
Z ≅ Z and |Z | << |Z | in the TX pass band
o t o r
Z ≅ Z and |Z | << |Z | in the RX pass band
o r o t

DMS (double mode SAW) type filters which are also known as LCRF (longitudinally coupled

) )
1 2

resonator filters) , ladder type SAW and BAW filters and other type of SAW filters such as

can be adopted as TX and RX
interdigitated interdigital transducer (lIDT) resonator filters
filters. High power durability is required in the TX filters.
5.3 Principle of operation

In the TX pass band, the impedance of the TX part in the antenna port side (Z ) is almost the

same as that of antenna(Z ), while that of the RX part (Z ) is much higher, which means that

o r
at the antenna port, the RX part has large reflection coefficient in this band.
Z ≅ Z and |Z | << |Z | in the TX pass band
o t o r

On the other hand, in the RX pass band, the impedance of the RX part at the antenna port

side (Z ) is almost the same as that of antenna (Z ), while that of the TX part (Z ) is much

r o t

higher. This also means the TX part has large reflection coefficient in this band.

Z ≅ Z and |Z | << |Z | in the RX pass band
o r o t
___________
See IEC 60862-2:2012, 5.3.
See IEC 60862-2:2012, 5.2.
See IEC 60862-2:2012, 5.4.
Attenuation (dB)
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SIST EN IEC 62604-2:2018
IEC 62604-2:2017 © IEC 2017 – 11 –
TX part
TX filter
Phase shifter
TX port
Antenna port
RX port
RX filter
Phase shifter
RX part
IEC
Figure 5 – The block diagram of a duplexer

The transmitting signal applied to the TX port passes through the TX filter and then flows to

the antenna port, not the RX filter. The received signal from the antenna port does not flow to

the TX filter, but to the RX filter. As a result, the TX part and the RX part can share the

common antenna port. In the following explanation, the impedance of the antenna (Z ) is

assumed to be 50 Ω. The S curve of the TX part at the antenna port side shall satisfy the

demanded condition indicated in Figure 6. The impedance of its pass band shall be around

50 Ω. In the rejection band, the impedance shall be sufficiently larger than 50 Ω. In the actual

duplexer, the S trace in the Smith chart of the TX filter is rotated to its optimum state by a

phase shifter, as shown in Figure 7. On the other hand, the frequency characteristics of the

amplitude of S remains the same as that without phase shifter. Figure 8 shows the S

21 21
frequency characteristics and S demanded condition of the RX part.
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SIST EN IEC 62604-2:2018
– 12 – IEC 62604-2:2017 © IEC 2017
–10
Mk1: 824 MHz
1,83 dB
Mk2: 849 MHz
1 2
1,85 dB
Mk3: 869 MHz
57,96 dB
Mk4: 894 MHz
46,91 dB
Pass band Rejection band
760 780 800 820 840 860 880 900 920 940 960
Frequency (MHz)
Pass ban
...

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